Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are key components of the protein translation machinery that catalyse two basic reactions. First, the activation of amino acids via the formation of aminoacyl adenylates and second, linking the activated amino acid to the cognate tRNAs. The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases generate AMP as the second end product of this reaction, which differentiates them from the majority of ATP-dependent enzymes that produce ADP. In addition, there is a specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases for each of the 20 amino acids and there are two structurally distinct classes of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, each encompassing 10 different specificities. The two classes have alternative modes of aminoacylation: class I aminoacylate the 2'OH of the cognate tRNA; class II aminoacylate 3'OH (with the exception of PheRS). Each class contain a conserved core domain that is involved in ATP binding and hydrolysis and combines with additional domains that determine the specificity of interactions with the cognate amino acid and tRNA. The class II core domain consist of a mixed-beta sheet, similar to that found in the biotin synthetases, hence why this family has also been included in this clan. The core domain contains three modestly conserved motifs that are responsible for ATP binding. The class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases can contain additional nested domains, found inserted in the loops of the core domain  (and reference therein).
This clan contains 10 families and the total number of domains in the clan is 32818. The clan was built by RD Finn.
- Wolf YI, Aravind L, Grishin NV, Koonin EV; , Genome Res 1999;9:689-710.: Evolution of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases--analysis of unique domain architectures and phylogenetic trees reveals a complex history of horizontal gene transfer events. PUBMED:10447505 EPMC:10447505
This clan contains the following 10 member families:AsnA BPL_LplA_LipB BPL_LplA_LipB_2 DUF366 tRNA-synt_2 tRNA-synt_2b tRNA-synt_2c tRNA-synt_2d tRNA-synt_2e tRNA-synt_His
External database links
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures from this clan. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by
clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which
have a given architecture by clicking on the
in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
Loading domain graphics...
The table below shows the number of occurrences of each domain throughout the sequence database. More...
In brackets beside each number is the percentage of the total number of sequence hits for the clan that are represented by this domain. The rightmost column provides a link to the alignments tab for each domain. Finally, the last row in the table provides a link to the HTML representation of the alignment for the seed alignments for all members of this clan.
Please note: the clan alignment can be extremely large and the resulting HTML file is often too large to be rendered by web-browsers. Please consider downloading the alignment (by right-clicking the link) rather than viewing it in your browser.
|Pfam family||Num. domains||Alignment|
|tRNA-synt_2b (PF00587)||9320 (28.4%)||View|
|tRNA-synt_2 (PF00152)||7812 (23.8%)||View|
|BPL_LplA_LipB (PF03099)||4268 (13.0%)||View|
|tRNA-synt_His (PF13393)||3655 (11.1%)||View|
|tRNA-synt_2c (PF01411)||3221 (9.8%)||View|
|tRNA-synt_2d (PF01409)||3134 (9.5%)||View|
|tRNA-synt_2e (PF02091)||898 (2.7%)||View|
|AsnA (PF03590)||425 (1.3%)||View|
|DUF366 (PF04017)||53 (0.2%)||View|
|BPL_LplA_LipB_2 (PF16917)||32 (0.1%)||View|
|Total: 10||Total: 32818||Clan alignment|
Please note: Clan alignments can be very large and can cause problems for some browsers. Read the note above before viewing.
This diagram shows the relationships between members of this clan. More...
Relationships between families in a clan are determined using HHsearch. Families are deemed to be closely related if their E-value is less than 10-3 and these relationships are shown with a solid line. Less closely related family pairs, with an E-value of between 10-3 and 10-1, are shown with a dashed line.
The E-value for each pair of closely or partially related families is shown next to the line linking the families. You can see the information regarding a Pfam family by clicking on the family box.
This tree shows the occurrence of the domains in this clan across different species. More...
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment we count the number of domains that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
There are 47 interactions for this clan. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the MSD group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt three-dimensional structures. The table below shows the mapping between the Pfam families in this clan, the corresponding UniProt entries, and the region of the three-dimensional structures that are available for that sequence.
Loading structure mapping...