In the N-terminal nucleophile aminohydrolases (Ntn hydrolases) the N-terminal residue provides two catalytic groups, nucleophile and proton donor. These enzymes use the side chain of the amino-terminal residue, incorporated in a beta-sheet, as the nucleophile in the catalytic attack at the carbonyl carbon. The nucleophile is cysteine in GAT, serine in penicillin acylase, and threonine in the proteasome. All the enzymes share an unusual fold in which the nucleophile and other catalytic groups occupy equivalent sites. This fold provides both the capacity for nucleophilic attack and the possibility of autocatalytic processing .
This clan contains 14 families and the total number of domains in the clan is 170097. The clan was built by A Bateman.
- Brannigan JA, Dodson G, Duggleby HJ, Moody PC, Smith JL, Tomchick DR, Murzin AG; , Nature 1995;378:416-419.: A protein catalytic framework with an N-terminal nucleophile is capable of self-activation. PUBMED:7477383 EPMC:7477383
- Ginalski K, von Grotthuss M, Grishin NV, Rychlewski L; , Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:576-581.: Detecting distant homology with Meta-BASIC. PUBMED:15215454 EPMC:15215454
- Pei J, Grishin NV; , Protein Sci 2003;12:1131-1135.: Peptidase family U34 belongs to the superfamily of N-terminal nucleophile hydrolases. PUBMED:12717035 EPMC:12717035
This clan contains the following 14 member families:AAT Asparaginase_2 CBAH DUF1933 DUF3700 G_glu_transpept GATase_2 GATase_4 GATase_6 GATase_7 Penicil_amidase Peptidase_C69 Phospholip_B Proteasome
External database links
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures from this clan. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by
clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which
have a given architecture by clicking on the
in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
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The table below shows the number of occurrences of each domain throughout the sequence database. More...
In brackets beside each number is the percentage of the total number of sequence hits for the clan that are represented by this domain. The rightmost column provides a link to the alignments tab for each domain. Finally, the last row in the table provides a link to the HTML representation of the alignment for the seed alignments for all members of this clan.
Please note: the clan alignment can be extremely large and the resulting HTML file is often too large to be rendered by web-browsers. Please consider downloading the alignment (by right-clicking the link) rather than viewing it in your browser.
|Pfam family||Num. domains||Alignment|
|Proteasome (PF00227)||31546 (18.5%)||View|
|GATase_6 (PF13522)||31439 (18.5%)||View|
|GATase_7 (PF13537)||25251 (14.8%)||View|
|G_glu_transpept (PF01019)||21767 (12.8%)||View|
|GATase_2 (PF00310)||16140 (9.5%)||View|
|CBAH (PF02275)||9834 (5.8%)||View|
|GATase_4 (PF13230)||8911 (5.2%)||View|
|Asparaginase_2 (PF01112)||7833 (4.6%)||View|
|AAT (PF03417)||6115 (3.6%)||View|
|Peptidase_C69 (PF03577)||5262 (3.1%)||View|
|Penicil_amidase (PF01804)||4943 (2.9%)||View|
|Phospholip_B (PF04916)||648 (0.4%)||View|
|DUF3700 (PF12481)||396 (0.2%)||View|
|DUF1933 (PF09147)||12 (0.0%)||View|
|Total: 14||Total: 170097||Clan alignment|
Please note: Clan alignments can be very large and can cause problems for some browsers. Read the note above before viewing.
This diagram shows the relationships between members of this clan. More...
Relationships between families in a clan are determined using HHsearch. Families are deemed to be closely related if their E-value is less than 10-3 and these relationships are shown with a solid line. Less closely related family pairs, with an E-value of between 10-3 and 10-1, are shown with a dashed line.
The E-value for each pair of closely or partially related families is shown next to the line linking the families. Clicking on the E-value will take you to the pairwise HMM-logo for that relationship. You can see the information regarding a Pfam family by clicking on the family box.
This tree shows the occurrence of the domains in this clan across different species. More...
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment we count the number of domains that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
There are 37 interactions for this clan. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the MSD group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt three-dimensional structures. The table below shows the mapping between the Pfam families in this clan, the corresponding UniProt entries, and the region of the three-dimensional structures that are available for that sequence.
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