Summary: Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase
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Porphobilinogen synthase Edit Wikipedia article
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Gene Ontology||AmiGO / EGO|
|Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase|
|Locus||Chr. 9 q32|
high resolution crystal structure of a mg2-dependent 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase
Porphobilinogen synthase (or ALA dehydratase, or aminolevulinate dehydratase) synthesizes porphobilinogen through the asymmetric condensation of two molecules of aminolevulinic acid. All natural tetrapyrroles, including hemes, chlorophylls and vitamin B12, share porphobilinogen as a common precursor.
It catalyzes the second step of the biosynthesis of porphyrin. The porphobilinogen synthase catalyzed reaction is the first common step in the biosynthesis of all biological tetrapyrroles.
The structural basis for allosteric regulation of PBGS is modulation of a quaternary structure equilibrium between octamer and hexamer (via dimers), which is represented schematically as 6mer* ↔ 2mer* ↔ 2mer ↔ 8mer. The * represents a reorientation between two domains of each subunit that occurs in the dissociated state because it is sterically forbidden in the larger multimers.
PBGS is encoded by a single gene and each PBGS multimer is composed of multiple copies of the same protein. Each PBGS subunit consists of a ~300 residue αβ-barrel domain, which houses the enzyme's active site in its center, and a >25 residue N-terminal arm domain. Allosteric regulation of PBGS can be described in terms of the orientation of the αβ-barrel domain with respect to the N-terminal arm domain.
Each N-terminal arm has up to two interactions with other subunits in a PBGS multimer. One of these interactions helps to stabilize a "closed" conformation of the active site lid. The other interaction restricts solvent access from the other end of the αβ-barrel.
In the inactive multimeric state, the N-terminal arm domain is not involved in the lid-stabilizing interaction, and in the crystal structure of the inactive assembly, the active site lid is disordered.
Allosteric Regulators of PBGS
As a nearly universal enzyme with a highly conserved active site, PBGS would not be a prime target for the development of antimicrobials and/or herbicides. To the contrary, allosteric sites can be much more phylogenetically variable than active sites, thus presenting more drug development opportunities.
Phylogenetic variation in PBGS allostery leads to the framing of discussion of PBGS allosteric regulation in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic factors.
Intrinsic allosteric regulators
The allosteric magnesium ion lies at the highly hydrated interface of two pro-octamer dimers. It appears to be easily dissociable, and it has been shown that hexamers accumulate when magnesium is removed in vitro.
Though it is not common to consider hydronium ions as allosteric regulators, in the case of PBGS, side chain protonation at locations other than the active site has been shown to affect the quaternary structure equilibrium, and thus to affect the rate of its catalyzed reaction as well.
Extrinsic allosteric regulators
Small molecule hexamer stabilization
Inspection of the PBGS 6mer* reveals a surface cavity that is not present in the 8mer. Small molecule binding to this phylogenetically variable cavity has been proposed to stabilize 6mer* of the targeted PBGS and consequently inhibit activity.
Such allosteric regulators are known as morphlocks because they lock PBGS in a specific morpheein form (6mer*).
A deficiency of porphobilinogen synthase is usually acquired (rather than hereditary) and can be caused by heavy metal poisoning, especially lead poisoning, as the enzyme is very susceptible to inhibition by heavy metals.
Hereditary insufficiency of porphobilinogen synthase is called porphobilinogen synthase (or ALA dehydratase) deficiency poprhyria. It is an extremely rare cause of porphyria, with less than 10 cases ever reported. All disease associated protein variants favor hexamer formation relative to the wild type human enzyme.
PBGS as the prototype morpheein
The morpheein model of allostery exemplified by PBGS adds an additional layer of understanding to potential mechanisms for regulation of protein function and complements the increased focus that the protein science community is placing on protein structure dynamics.
This model illustrates how the dynamics of phenomena such as alternate protein conformations, alternate oligomeric states, and transient protein-protein interactions can be harnessed for allosteric regulation of catalytic activity.
- Jaffe EK, Lawrence SH (March 2012). "Allostery and the dynamic oligomerization of porphobilinogen synthase". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 519 (2): 144–53. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2011.10.010. PMC 3291741. PMID 22037356.
- Breinig S, Kervinen J, Stith L, Wasson AS, Fairman R, Wlodawer A, Zdanov A, Jaffe EK (September 2003). "Control of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis by alternate quaternary forms of porphobilinogen synthase". Nat. Struct. Biol. 10 (9): 757–63. doi:10.1038/nsb963. PMID 12897770.
- Lawrence SH, Jaffe EK (2008). "Expanding the Concepts in Protein Structure-Function Relationships and Enzyme Kinetics: Teaching using Morpheeins". Biochem Mol Biol Educ 36 (4): 274–283. doi:10.1002/bmb.20211. PMC 2575429. PMID 19578473.
- ALA dehydratase reaction, from NetBiochem at the University of Utah. Last modified 1/5/95
- Jaffe EK, Stith L (February 2007). "ALAD porphyria is a conformational disease". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 80 (2): 329–37. doi:10.1086/511444. PMC 1785348. PMID 17236137.
- Overview of the Porphyrias at The Porphyrias Consortium (a part of NIH Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network (RDCRN)) Retrieved June 2011
- delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
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This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001731
Tetrapyrroles are large macrocyclic compounds derived from a common biosynthetic pathway [PUBMED:16564539]. The end-product, uroporphyrinogen III, is used to synthesise a number of important molecules, including vitamin B12, haem, sirohaem, chlorophyll, coenzyme F430 and phytochromobilin [PUBMED:17227226].
- The first stage in tetrapyrrole synthesis is the synthesis of 5-aminoaevulinic acid ALA via two possible routes: (1) condensation of succinyl CoA and glycine (C4 pathway) using ALA synthase (EC), or (2) decarboxylation of glutamate (C5 pathway) via three different enzymes, glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (EC) to charge a tRNA with glutamate, glutamyl-tRNA reductase (EC) to reduce glutamyl-tRNA to glutamate-1-semialdehyde (GSA), and GSA aminotransferase (EC) to catalyse a transamination reaction to produce ALA.
- The second stage is to convert ALA to uroporphyrinogen III, the first macrocyclic tetrapyrrolic structure in the pathway. This is achieved by the action of three enzymes in one common pathway: porphobilinogen (PBG) synthase (or ALA dehydratase, EC) to condense two ALA molecules to generate porphobilinogen; hydroxymethylbilane synthase (or PBG deaminase, EC) to polymerise four PBG molecules into preuroporphyrinogen (tetrapyrrole structure); and uroporphyrinogen III synthase (EC) to link two pyrrole units together (rings A and D) to yield uroporphyrinogen III.
- Uroporphyrinogen III is the first branch point of the pathway. To synthesise cobalamin (vitamin B12), sirohaem, and coenzyme F430, uroporphyrinogen III needs to be converted into precorrin-2 by the action of uroporphyrinogen III methyltransferase (EC). To synthesise haem and chlorophyll, uroporphyrinogen III needs to be decarboxylated into coproporphyrinogen III by the action of uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase (EC) [PUBMED:11215515].
This entry represents delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), also known as porphobilinogen (PBG) synthase (PBGS, or 5-aminoaevulinic acid dehydratase EC), which functions during the second stage of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. This enzyme catalyses a Knorr-type condensation reaction between two molecules of ALA to generate porphobilinogen, the pyrrolic building block used in later steps [PUBMED:17311232]. The structure of the enzyme is based on a TIM barrel topology made up of eight identical subunits, where each subunit binds to a metal ion that is essential for activity, usually zinc (in yeast, mammals and certain bacteria) or magnesium (in plants and other bacteria). A lysine has been implicated in the catalytic mechanism [PUBMED:3092810]. The lack of PBGS enzyme causes a rare porphyric disorder known as ALAD porphyria, which appears to involve conformational changes in the enzyme [PUBMED:17236137].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||metal ion binding (GO:0046872)|
|porphobilinogen synthase activity (GO:0004655)|
|Biological process||tetrapyrrole biosynthetic process (GO:0033014)|
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This large superfamily of TIM barrel enzymes all contain a common phosphate binding site. The phosphate is found in a variety of cofactors and ligands such as FMN [1,2].
The clan contains the following 57 members:Ala_racemase_N ALAD Aldolase AP_endonuc_2 BtpA CdhD CutC DAHP_synth_1 DAHP_synth_2 DeoC DHDPS DHO_dh DHquinase_I DUF1341 DUF2090 DUF556 DUF561 DUF692 DUF993 Dus F_bP_aldolase FMN_dh G3P_antiterm Glu_syn_central Glu_synthase His_biosynth HMGL-like IGPS IMPDH Lys-AminoMut_A MtrH NanE NAPRTase NeuB NMO OAM_alpha OMPdecase Orn_Arg_deC_N Oxidored_FMN PcrB PdxJ PRAI Pterin_bind QRPTase_C Radical_SAM RhaA Ribul_P_3_epim SOR_SNZ Tagatose_6_P_K ThiC_Rad_SAM ThiG TIM TMP-TENI Transaldolase Trp_syntA UvdE UxuA
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|Author:||Finn RD, Griffiths-Jones SR|
|Number in seed:||698|
|Number in full:||1676|
|Average length of the domain:||311.60 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||47 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||92.40 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 11927849 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||18|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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There is 1 interaction for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the ALAD domain has been found. There are 64 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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