Summary: Cation transporting ATPase, C-terminus
Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "P-type ATPase". More...
The Wikipedia text that you see displayed here is a download from Wikipedia. This means that the information we display is a copy of the information from the Wikipedia database. The button next to the article title ("Edit Wikipedia article") takes you to the edit page for the article directly within Wikipedia. You should be aware you are not editing our local copy of this information. Any changes that you make to the Wikipedia article will not be displayed here until we next download the article from Wikipedia. We currently download new content on a nightly basis.
Does Pfam agree with the content of the Wikipedia entry ?
Pfam has chosen to link families to Wikipedia articles. In some case we have created or edited these articles but in many other cases we have not made any direct contribution to the content of the article. The Wikipedia community does monitor edits to try to ensure that (a) the quality of article annotation increases, and (b) vandalism is very quickly dealt with. However, we would like to emphasise that Pfam does not curate the Wikipedia entries and we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information on the Wikipedia page.
Editing Wikipedia articles
Before you edit for the first time
Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopedia. Although anyone can edit or contribute to an article, Wikipedia has some strong editing guidelines and policies, which promote the Wikipedia standard of style and etiquette. Your edits and contributions are more likely to be accepted (and remain) if they are in accordance with this policy.
You should take a few minutes to view the following pages:
How your contribution will be recorded
Anyone can edit a Wikipedia entry. You can do this either as a new user or you can register with Wikipedia and log on. When you click on the "Edit Wikipedia article" button, your browser will direct you to the edit page for this entry in Wikipedia. If you are a registered user and currently logged in, your changes will be recorded under your Wikipedia user name. However, if you are not a registered user or are not logged on, your changes will be logged under your computer's IP address. This has two main implications. Firstly, as a registered Wikipedia user your edits are more likely seen as valuable contribution (although all edits are open to community scrutiny regardless). Secondly, if you edit under an IP address you may be sharing this IP address with other users. If your IP address has previously been blocked (due to being flagged as a source of 'vandalism') your edits will also be blocked. You can find more information on this and creating a user account at Wikipedia.
If you have problems editing a particular page, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org and we will try to help.
The community annotation is a new facility of the Pfam web site. If you have problems editing or experience problems with these pages please contact us.
P-type ATPase Edit Wikipedia article
Calcium ATPase, E2-Pi state
The P-type ATPases, also known as E1-E2 ATPases, are a large group of evolutionarily related ion and lipid pumps that are found in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. P-type ATPases fall under the P-type ATPase (P-ATPase) Superfamily (TC# 3.A.3) which, as of early 2016, includes 20 different protein families. P-type ATPases are α-helical bundle primary transporters named based upon their ability to catalyze auto- (or self-) phosphorylation of a key conserved aspartate residue within the pump and their energy source, adensosine triphosphate (ATP). In addition, they all appear to interconvert between at least two different conformations, denoted by E1 and E2.
Most members of this transporter superfamily catalyze cation uptake and/or efflux, however one subfamily (TC# 3.A.3.8) is involved in flipping phospholipids to maintain the asymmetric nature of the biomembrane.
Prominent examples of P-type ATPases are the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase), the plasma membrane proton pump (H+-ATPase), the proton-potassium pump (H+/K+-ATPase), and the calcium pump (Ca2+-ATPase).
- 1 Discovery
- 2 Phylogenetic classification
- 3 Structure
- 4 Mechanism
- 5 Human genes
- 6 See also
- 7 References
The first P-type ATPase discovered was the Na+/K+-ATPase, which Nobel laureate Jens Christian Skou isolated in 1957. The Na+/K+-ATPase was only the first member of a large and still-growing protein family (see Swiss-Prot Prosite motif PS00154).
The Transporter Classification Database provides a representative list of members of the P-ATPase superfamily, which as of early 2016 consisting of 20 families. Members of the P-ATPase superfamily are found in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Clustering on the phylogenetic tree is usually in accordance with specificity for the transported ion(s).
In eukaryotes, they are present in the plasma membranes or endoplasmic reticular membranes. In prokaryotes, they are localized to the cytoplasmic membranes.
Thever & Saier (2009) analyzed the fully sequenced genomes of 26 eukaryotes including animals, plants, fungi and unicellular eukaryotes for P-type ATPases. They reported the organismal distributions, phylogenetic relationships, probable topologies and conserved motifs of nine functionally characterized families and a few uncharacterized families of these enzyme transporters.
Chan et al., (2010) conducted an equivalent but more extensive analysis of the P-type ATPase Superfamily in Prokaryotes and compared them with those from Eukaryotes. While some families are represented in both types of organisms, others are found only in one of the other type. The primary functions of prokaryotic P-type ATPases appear to be protection from environmental stress conditions. Only about half of the P-type ATPase families are functionally characterized.
A phylogenetic analysis of 159 sequences made in 1998 by Axelsen and Palmgren suggested that P-type ATPases can be divided into five subfamilies (types), based strictly on a conserved sequence kernel excluding the highly variable N and C terminal regions. Chan et al. (2010) also analyzed P-type ATPases in all major prokaryotic phyla for which complete genome sequence data were available and compared the results with those for eukaryotic P-type ATPases. The phylogenetic analysis grouped the proteins independent of the organism from which they are isolated and showed that the diversification of the P-type ATPase family occurred prior to the separation of eubacteria, archaea, and eucaryota. This underlines the significance of this protein family for cell survival under stress conditions.
- Type I consists of the transition/heavy metal ATPases. Topological type I (heavy metal) P-type ATPases predominate in prokaryotes (approx. tenfold).
- Type IA ATPases are involved in K+ import (TC# 3.A.3.7). They are atypical P-type ATPases because, unlike other P-type ATPases, they function as part of a heterotetrameric complex (called KdpFABC), where the actual K+ transport is mediated by another subcomponent of the complex.
- Type IB ATPases are involved in transport of the soft Lewis acids: Cu+, Ag+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+ and Co2+ (TC#s 3.A.3.5 and 3.A.3.6). They are key elements for metal resistance and metal homeostasis in a wide range of organisms.
- Type II ATPases are split into four groups. Topological type II ATPases (specific for Na+,K+, H+ Ca2+, Mg2+ and phospholipids) predominate in eukaryotes (approx. twofold).
- Type IIA transports Ca2+. SERCA1a is a type IIA pump. (TC# 3.A.3.2)
- Type IIB transports Ca2+. (TC# 3.A.3.2)
- Type IIC consists of the closely related Na+/K+ and H+/K+ ATPases from animal cells. (TC# 3.A.3.1)
- Type IID contains a small number of fungal ATPases of unknown function. (Fungal K+ transporters; TC# 3.A.3.9)
- Type III ATPases contains the plasma membrane H+-ATPases from plants and fungi (IIIA) and a small subdivision with Mg2+-ATPases from three bacterial species (IIIB). Fungal H+ transporters (TC# 3.A.3.3) and Mg2+ (TC# 3.A.3.4)
- Type IV ATPases have been shown to be involved in the transport of phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
- Type V ATPases have unknown specificity. This large group is found only in eukaryotes and is believed to be involved in cation transport in the endoplasmic reticulum.
In addition, several prokaryotic families of unknown function have been identified.
Horizontal Gene Transfer
Many P-type ATPase families are found exclusively in prokaryotes (e.g. Kdp-type K+ uptake ATPases (type III) and all prokaryotic functionally uncharacterized P-type ATPase (FUPA) families), while others are restricted to eukaryotes (e.g. phospholipid flippases and all 13 eukaryotic FUPA families). Horizontal gene transfer has occurred frequently among bacteria and archaea, which have similar distributions of these enzymes, but rarely between most eukaryotic kingdoms, and even more rarely between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In some bacterial phyla (e.g. Bacteroidetes, Flavobacteria and Fusobacteria), ATPase gene gain and loss as well as horizontal transfer occurred seldom in contrast to most other bacterial phyla. Some families (i.e., Kdp-type ATPases) underwent far less horizontal gene transfer than other prokaryotic families, possibly due to their multisubunit characteristics. Functional motifs are better conserved across family lines than across organismal lines, and these motifs can be family specific, facilitating functional predictions. In some cases, gene fusion events created P-type ATPases covalently linked to regulatory catalytic enzymes. In one family (FUPA Family 24), a type I ATPase gene (N-terminal) is fused to a type II ATPase gene (C-terminal) with retention of function only for the latter. Genome minimalization led to preferential loss of P-type ATPase genes. Chan et al. (2010) suggested that in prokaryotes and some unicellular eukaryotes, the primary function of P-type ATPases is protection from extreme environmental stress conditions. The classification of P-type ATPases of unknown function into phylogenetic families provides guides for future molecular biological studies.
Many of these protein complexes are multisubunit with a large subunit serving the primary ATPase and ion translocation functions. Many eukaryotic P-type ATPases are monomeric or homodimeric enzymes of the catalytic subunit that hydrolyzes ATP. They contain the aspartyl phosphorylation site and catalyzes ion transport. The Na+/K+-ATPases, the Ca2+-ATPases and the (fungal) H+-ATPases of higher organisms exhibit 10 transmembrane α helical spanners (TMSs), some of them highly tilted. Additional subunits that appear to lack catalytic activity may be present in the ATPase complex.
The X-ray crystal structure at 3.5 Å resolution of the pig renal Na+/K+-ATPase has been determined with two rubidium ions bound in an occluded state in the transmembrane part of the α-subunit. Several of the residues forming the cavity for rubidium/potassium occlusion in the Na+/K+-ATPase are homologous to those binding calcium in the Ca2+-ATPase of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum. The carboxy terminus of the α-subunit is contained within a pocket between transmembrane helices and seems to be a novel regulatory element controlling sodium affinity, possibly influenced by the membrane potential.
Crystal Structures are available in RCSB and include: , , , , among others.
Structures are available for both the E1 and E2 states of the Ca2+ ATPase showing that Ca2+ binding induces major changes in all three cytoplasmic domains relative to each other. Xu et al. proposed how Ca2+ binding induces conformational changes in TMS 4 and 5 in the membrane domain (M) that in turn induce rotation of the phosphorylation domain (P). The nucleotide binding (N) and β-sheet (β) domains are highly mobile, with N flexibly linked to P, and β flexibly linked to M. Modeling of the fungal H+ ATPase, based on the structures of the Ca2+ pump, suggested a comparable 70º rotation of N relative to P to deliver ATP to the phosphorylation site.
One report suggests that this sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ ATPase is homodimeric.
Crystal structures have shown that the conserved TGES loop of the Ca2+-ATPase is isolated in the Ca2E1 state but becomes inserted in the catalytic site in E2 states. Anthonisen et al. (2006) characterized the kinetics of the partial reaction steps of the transport cycle and the binding of the phosphoryl analogs BeF, AlF, MgF, and vanadate in mutants with alterations to conserved TGES loop residues. The data provide functional evidence supporting a role of Glu183 in activating the water molecule involved in the E2P → E2 dephosphorylation and suggest a direct participation of the side chains of the TGES loop in the control and facilitation of the insertion of the loop in the catalytic site. The interactions of the TGES loop furthermore seem to facilitate its disengagement from the catalytic site during the E2 → Ca2E1 transition.
Crystal Structures of Calcium ATPase are available in RCSB and include: , , , , among others.
Most of our knowledge about the structure and function of P-type ATPases originates from SERCA1a, a sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase of fast twitch muscle from adult rabbit. It is generally acknowledged that the structure of SERCA1a is representative for the superfamily of P-type ATPases.
SERCA1a is composed of a cytoplasmic section and a transmembrane section with two Ca2+-binding sites. The cytoplasmic section consists of three cytoplasmic domains, designated the P, N, and A domains, containing over half the mass of the protein. The transmembrane section has ten transmembrane helices (M1-M10), with the two Ca2+-binding sites located near the midpoint of the bilayer. The binding sites are formed by side-chains and backbone carbonyls from M4, M5, M6, and M8. M4 is unwound in this region due to a conserved proline (P308). This unwinding of M4 is recognised as a key structural feature of P-type ATPases.
The P domain contains the canonical aspartic acid phosphorylated during the reaction cycle. It is composed of two parts widely separated in sequence. These two parts assemble into a seven-strand parallel β-sheet with eight short associated a-helices, forming a Rossmann fold.
The N domain is inserted between the two segments of the P domain, and is formed of a seven-strand antiparallel β-sheet between two helix bundles. This domain contains the ATP-binding pocket, pointing out toward the solvent near the P-domain.
The A domain is the smallest of the three domains. It consists of a distorted jellyroll structure and two short helices. It is the actuator domain modulating the occlusion of Ca2+ in the transmembrane binding sites, and it is pivot in transposing the energy from the hydrolysis of ATP in the cytoplasmic domains to the vectorial transport of cations in the transmembrane domain. The A domain dephosphorylates the P domain as part of the reaction cycle using a highly conserved TGES motif located at one end of the jellyroll.
ATP hydrolysis occurs in the cytoplasmic headpiece at the interface between domain N and P. Two Mg-ion sites form part of the active site. ATP hydrolysis is tightly coupled to Ca2+ translocation through the membrane, more than 40 Å away, by the A domain.
It is interesting to note that the folding pattern and the locations of the critical amino acids for phosphorylation in P-type ATPases has the haloacid dehalogenase fold characteristic of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily, as predicted by sequence homology. The HAD superfamily functions on the common theme of an aspartate ester formation by an SN2 reaction mechanism. This SN2 reaction is clearly observed in the solved structure of SERCA with ADP plus AlF4−.
Crystal structures of Sarcoplasimc/endoplasmic reticulum ATP driven calcium pumps can be found in RCSB.
Differences from SERCA1a
Various subfamilies of P-type ATPases also need additional subunits for proper function. Both P-type IA and P- type IV pumps needs extra subunits to function. The functional unit of Na+/K+-ATPase consists of two additional subunits, beta and gamma, involved in trafficking, folding, and regulation of these pumps. SERCA1a and other P-IIA ATPases are also regulated by phospholamban and sarcolipin in vivo. It is presumed that other subfamilies need additional subunits for the proper function in vivo, also.
Some members of the family have additional domains fused to the pump. Heavy metal pumps can have several N- and C-terminal heavy metal-binding domains that have been found to be involved in regulation.
The proton pumps (IIIA) have a C-terminal regulatory domain (called the R domain), which, when unphosphorylated, inhibit pumping.
While most subfamilies have 10 transmembrane helices, there are some notable exceptions. The P-type IA ATPases are predicted to have 7, and the large subfamily of heavy metal pumps (type IB) is predicted to have 8 transmembrane helices. Type V appears to have a total of 12 transmembrane helices.
Proton pumps in the plasma membrane of plants and yeasts maintain the intracellular pH and membrane potential. Kühlbrandt et al. (2002) built an atomic homology model of the proton pump based on the 2.6 angstrom x-ray structure of the related Ca2+ pump from rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum in an attempt to learn about the molecular mechanisms of proton pumping. The model, when fitted to an 8 angstrom map of the Neurospora proton pump determined by electron microscopy, reveals the likely path of the proton through the membrane and shows that the nucleotide-binding domain rotates by ∼70° to deliver adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the phosphorylation site. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxyl-terminal regulatory domain stimulates ATPase activity, suggesting a mechanism for proton transport regulation. Ten transmembrane helices and three cytoplasmic domains define the functional unit of ATP-coupled proton transport across the plasma membrane, and the structure is locked in a functional state not previously observed in P-type ATPases. The transmembrane domain reveals a large cavity, which is likely to be filled with water, located near the middle of the membrane plane where it is lined by conserved hydrophilic and charged residues. Proton transport against a high membrane potential is readily explained by this structural arrangement.
P-type ATPases play essential roles in numerous processes, which in humans include nerve impulse propagation, relaxation of muscle fibers, secretion and absorption in the kidney, acidification of the stomach and nutrient absorption in the intestine.
All P-type ATPases use the energy derived from ATP to drive transport. They generally form a high-energy aspartyl-phosphoanhydride intermediate in the reaction cycle, and they interconvert between at least two different conformations, denoted by E1 and E2. The E1-E2 notation stems from the initial studies on this family of enzymes made on the Na+/K+-ATPase, where the sodium form and the potassium form are referred to as E1 and E2, respectively, in the "Post-Albers scheme". The E1-E2 schema has been proven to work, but there exist more than two major conformational states. The E1-E2 notation highlights the selectivity of the enzyme. In E1, the pump has high affinity for the exported substrate and low affinity for the imported substrate. In E2, it has low affinity of the exported substrate and high affinity for the imported substrate. Four major enzyme states form the cornerstones in the reaction cycle. Several additional reaction intermediates occur interposed. These are termed E1~P, E2P, E2-P*, and E1/E2.
In the case of SERCA1a, energy from ATP is used to transport 2 Ca2+-ions from the cytoplasmic side to the lumen of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum, and to countertransport 1-3 protons into the cytoplasm. Starting in the E1/E2 state, the reaction cycle begins as the enzyme releases 1-3 protons from the cation-ligating residues, in exchange for cytoplasmic Ca2+-ions. This leads to assembly of the phosphorylation site between the ATP-bound N domain and the P domain, while the A domain directs the occlusion of the bound Ca2+. In this occluded state, the Ca2+ ions are buried in a proteinaceous environment with no access to either side of the membrane.The Ca2E1~P state becomes formed through a kinase reaction, where the P domain becomes phosphorylated, producing ADP. The cleavage of the β-phosphodiester bond releases the gamma-phosphate from ADP and unleashes the N domain from the P domain.
This then allows the A domain to rotate toward the phosphorylation site, making a firm association with both the P and the N domains. This movement of the A domain exerts a downward push on M3-M4 and a drag on M1-M2, forcing the pump to open at the luminal side and forming the E2P state. During this transition, the transmembrane Ca2+-binding residues are forced apart, destroying the high-affinity binding site. This is in agreement with the general model form substrate translocation, showing that energy in primary transport is not used to bind the substrate but to release it again from the buried counter ions. At the same time the N domain becomes exposed to the cytosol, ready for ATP exchange at the nucleotide-binding site.
As the Ca2+ dissociate to the luminal side, the cation binding sites are neutralised by proton binding, which makes a closure of the transmembrane segments favourable. This closure is coupled to a downward rotation of the A domain and a movement of the P domain, which then leads to the E2-P* occluded state. Meanwhile, the N domain exchanges ADP for ATP.
The P domain is dephosphorylated by the A domain, and the cycle completes when the phosphate is released from the enzyme, stimulated by the newly bound ATP, while a cytoplasmic pathway opens to exchange the protons for two new Ca2+-ions.
Metal binding to transmembrane metal-binding sites (TM-MBS) in Cu+-ATPases is required for enzyme phosphorylation and subsequent transport. However, Cu+ does not access Cu+-ATPases in a free (hydrated) form but is bound to a chaperone protein. The delivery of Cu+ by Archaeoglobus fulgidus Cu+-chaperone, CopZ (see TC# 3.A.3.5.7), to the corresponding Cu+-ATPase, CopA (TC# 3.A.3.5.30), has been studied. CopZ interacted with and delivered the metal to the N-terminal metal binding domain(s) of CopA (MBDs). Cu+-loaded MBDs, acting as metal donors, were unable to activate CopA or a truncated CopA lacking MBDs. Conversely, Cu+-loaded CopZ activated the CopA ATPase and CopA constructs in which MBDs were rendered unable to bind Cu+. Furthermore, under nonturnover conditions, CopZ transferred Cu+ to the TM-MBS of a CopA lacking MBDs altogether. Thus, MBDs may serve a regulatory function without participating directly in metal transport, and the chaperone delivers Cu+ directly to transmembrane transport sites of Cu+-ATPases. Wu et al. (2008) have determined structures of two constructs of the Cu (CopA) pump from Archaeoglobus fulgidus by cryoelectron microscopy of tubular crystals, which revealed the overall architecture and domain organization of the molecule. They localized its N-terminal MBD within the cytoplasmic domains that use ATP hydrolysis to drive the transport cycle and built a pseudoatomic model by fitting existing crystallographic structures into the cryoelectron microscopy maps for CopA. The results also similarly suggested a Cu-dependent regulatory role for the MBD.
In the Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopA (TC# 3.A.3.5.7), invariant residues in helixes 6, 7 and 8 form two transmembrane metal binding sites (TM-MBSs). These bind Cu+ with high affinity in a trigonal planar geometry. The cytoplasmic Cu+ chaperone CopZ transfers the metal directly to the TM-MBSs; however, loading both of the TM-MBSs requires binding of nucleotides to the enzyme. In agreement with the classical transport mechanism of P-type ATPases, occupancy of both transmembrane sites by cytoplasmic Cu+ is a requirement for enzyme phosphorylation and subsequent transport into the periplasmic or extracellular milieu. Transport studies have shown that most Cu+-ATPases drive cytoplasmic Cu+ efflux, albeit with quite different transport rates in tune with their various physiological roles. Archetypical Cu+-efflux pumps responsible for Cu+ tolerance, like the Escherichia coli CopA, have turnover rates ten times higher than those involved in cuproprotein assembly (or alternative functions). This explains the incapability of the latter group to significantly contribute to the metal efflux required for survival in high copper environments. Structural and mechanistic details of copper-transporting P-type ATPase functionhave been described.
General transport reaction
The generalized reaction for P-type ATPases is:
nMe1 (out) + mMe2 (in) + ATP → nMe1 (in) + mMe2 (out) + ADP + Pi.
Human genes encoding P-type ATPases or P-type ATPase-like proteins include:
- Na+/K+ transporting: ATP1A1, ATP1A2, ATP1A3, ATP1A4, ATP1B1, ATP1B2, ATP1B3, ATP1B4
- Ca++ transporting: ATP2A1, ATP2A2, ATP2A3, ATP2B1, ATP2B2, ATP2B3, ATP2B4, ATP2C1
- Cu++ transporting: ATP7A, ATP7B
- Class I, type 8: ATP8A1, ATP8B1, ATP8B2, ATP8B3, ATP8B4
- Class II, type 9: ATP9A, ATP9B
- Class V, type 10: ATP10A, ATP10B, ATP10D
- Class IV, type 11: ATP11A, ATP11B, ATP11C
- H+/K+ transporting, gastric: ATP4A;
- H+/K+ transporting, nongastric: ATP12A
- type 13: ATP13A1, ATP13A2, ATP13A3, ATP13A4, ATP13A5
- SKOU JC (February 1957). "The influence of some cations on an adenosine triphosphatase from peripheral nerves". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 23 (2): 394–401. doi:10.1016/0006-3002(57)90343-8. PMID 13412736.
- Thever, Mark D.; Jr, Milton H. Saier (2009-06-23). "Bioinformatic Characterization of P-Type ATPases Encoded Within the Fully Sequenced Genomes of 26 Eukaryotes". Journal of Membrane Biology 229 (3): 115–130. doi:10.1007/s00232-009-9176-2. ISSN 0022-2631. PMC 2709905. PMID 19548020.
- Rodríguez-Navarro, Alonso; Benito, Begoña (2010-10-01). "Sodium or potassium efflux ATPase: A fungal, bryophyte, and protozoal ATPase". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes 1798 (10): 1841–1853. doi:10.1016/j.bbamem.2010.07.009.
- Chan, Henry; Babayan, Vartan; Blyumin, Elya; Gandhi, Charmy; Hak, Kunal; Harake, Danielle; Kumar, Kris; Lee, Perry; Li, Tze T. (2010-01-01). "The p-type ATPase superfamily". Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 19 (1-2): 5–104. doi:10.1159/000319588. ISSN 1660-2412. PMID 20962537.
- Axelsen KB, Palmgren MG (January 1998). "Evolution of substrate specificities in the P-type ATPase superfamily". J. Mol. Evol. 46 (1): 84–101. doi:10.1007/PL00006286. PMID 9419228.
- Chan, Henry; Babayan, Vartan; Blyumin, Elya; Gandhi, Charmy; Hak, Kunal; Harake, Danielle; Kumar, Kris; Lee, Perry; Li, Tze T. "The P-Type ATPase Superfamily". Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 19 (1-2): 5–104. doi:10.1159/000319588.
- Lenoir G, Williamson P, Holthuis JC (December 2007). "On the origin of lipid asymmetry: the flip side of ion transport". Curr Opin Chem Biol 11 (6): 654–61. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2007.09.008. PMID 17981493.
- Lopez-Marques RL, Poulsen LR, Hanisch S, Meffert K, Buch-Pedersen MJ, Jakobsen MK, Pomorski TG, Palmgren MG (2010). "Intracellular targeting signals and lipid specificity determinants of the ALA/ALIS P4-ATPase complex reside in the catalytic ALA alpha-subunit". Mol Biol Cell 21 (5): 791–801. doi:10.1091/mbc.E09-08-0656. PMID 20053675.
- Morth, J. Preben; Pedersen, Bjørn P.; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S.; Sørensen, Thomas L.-M.; Petersen, Janne; Andersen, Jens Peter; Vilsen, Bente; Nissen, Poul (2007-12-13). "Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump". Nature 450 (7172): 1043–1049. doi:10.1038/nature06419. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 18075585.
- Xu, Chen; Rice, William J.; He, Wanzhong; Stokes, David L. (2002-02-08). "A structural model for the catalytic cycle of Ca(2+)-ATPase". Journal of Molecular Biology 316 (1): 201–211. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2001.5330. ISSN 0022-2836. PMID 11829513.
- Kühlbrandt, Werner; Zeelen, Johan; Dietrich, Jens (2002-09-06). "Structure, mechanism, and regulation of the Neurospora plasma membrane H+-ATPase". Science (New York, N.Y.) 297 (5587): 1692–1696. doi:10.1126/science.1072574. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 12169656.
- Ushimaru, Makoto; Fukushima, Yoshihiro (2008-09-15). "The dimeric form of Ca2+-ATPase is involved in Ca2+ transport in the sarcoplasmic reticulum". The Biochemical Journal 414 (3): 357–361. doi:10.1042/BJ20071701. ISSN 1470-8728. PMID 18471093.
- Anthonisen, Anne Nyholm; Clausen, Johannes D.; Andersen, Jens Peter (2006-10-20). "Mutational analysis of the conserved TGES loop of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 281 (42): 31572–31582. doi:10.1074/jbc.M605194200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 16893884.
- Stokes DL, Green NM (2003). "Structure and function of the calcium pump". Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 32: 445–68. doi:10.1146/annurev.biophys.32.110601.142433. PMID 12598367.
- Toyoshima C, Nakasako M, Nomura H, Ogawa H (June 2000). "Crystal structure of the calcium pump of sarcoplasmic reticulum at 2.6 A resolution". Nature 405 (6787): 647–55. doi:10.1038/35015017. PMID 10864315.
- doi:10.1126/science.1099366. PMID 15192230.; Sørensen TL, Møller JV, Nissen P (June 2004). "Phosphoryl transfer and calcium ion occlusion in the calcium pump". Science 304 (5677): 1672–5.
- Kühlbrandt, Werner; Auer, Manfred; Scarborough, Gene A. (1998). "Three-dimensional map of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in the open conformation". Nature 392 (6678): 840–843. doi:10.1038/33967.
- Kühlbrandt, Werner; Zeelen, Johan; Dietrich, Jens (2002-09-06). "Structure, Mechanism, and Regulation of the Neurospora Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase". Science 297 (5587): 1692–1696. doi:10.1126/science.1072574. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 12169656.
- Pedersen, Bjørn P.; Buch-Pedersen, Morten J.; Preben Morth, J.; Palmgren, Michael G.; Nissen, Poul (2007-12-13). "Crystal structure of the plasma membrane proton pump". Nature 450 (7172): 1111–1114. doi:10.1038/nature06417. ISSN 0028-0836.
- Olesen C, Picard M, Winther AM, et al. (December 2007). "The structural basis of calcium transport by the calcium pump". Nature 450 (7172): 1036–42. doi:10.1038/nature06418. PMID 18075584.
- González-Guerrero, Manuel; Argüello, José M. (2008-04-22). "Mechanism of Cu+-transporting ATPases: soluble Cu+ chaperones directly transfer Cu+ to transmembrane transport sites". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (16): 5992–5997. doi:10.1073/pnas.0711446105. ISSN 1091-6490. PMC 2329688. PMID 18417453.
- Wu, Chen-Chou; Rice, William J.; Stokes, David L. (2008-06-01). "Structure of a copper pump suggests a regulatory role for its metal-binding domain". Structure (London, England: 1993) 16 (6): 976–985. doi:10.1016/j.str.2008.02.025. ISSN 0969-2126. PMC 2705936. PMID 18547529.
- Meng, Dan; Bruschweiler-Li, Lei; Zhang, Fengli; Brüschweiler, Rafael (2015-08-18). "Modulation and Functional Role of the Orientations of the N- and P-Domains of Cu+ -Transporting ATPase along the Ion Transport Cycle". Biochemistry 54 (32): 5095–5102. doi:10.1021/acs.biochem.5b00420. ISSN 1520-4995. PMID 26196187.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Cation transporting ATPase, C-terminus Provide feedback
Members of this families are involved in Na+/K+, H+/K+, Ca++ and Mg++ transport. This family represents 5 transmembrane helices.
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR006068
Transmembrane ATPases are membrane-bound enzyme complexes/ion transporters that use ATP hydrolysis to drive the transport of protons across a membrane. Some transmembrane ATPases also work in reverse, harnessing the energy from a proton gradient, using the flux of ions across the membrane via the ATPase proton channel to drive the synthesis of ATP.
There are several different types of transmembrane ATPases, which can differ in function (ATP hydrolysis and/or synthesis), structure (e.g., F-, V- and A-ATPases, which contain rotary motors) and in the type of ions they transport [PUBMED:15473999, PUBMED:15078220]. The different types include:
- F-ATPases (F1F0-ATPases), which are found in mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacterial plasma membranes where they are the prime producers of ATP, using the proton gradient generated by oxidative phosphorylation (mitochondria) or photosynthesis (chloroplasts).
- V-ATPases (V1V0-ATPases), which are primarily found in eukaryotic and they function as proton pumps that acidify intracellular compartments and, in some cases, transport protons across the plasma membrane [PUBMED:20450191]. They are also found in bacteria [PUBMED:9741106].
- A-ATPases (A1A0-ATPases), which are found in Archaea and function like F-ATPases, though with respect to their structure and some inhibitor responses, A-ATPases are more closely related to the V-ATPases [PUBMED:18937357, PUBMED:1385979].
- P-ATPases (E1E2-ATPases), which are found in bacteria and in eukaryotic plasma membranes and organelles, and function to transport a variety of different ions across membranes.
- E-ATPases, which are cell-surface enzymes that hydrolyse a range of NTPs, including extracellular ATP.
P-ATPases (also known as E1-E2 ATPases) (EC) are found in bacteria and in a number of eukaryotic plasma membranes and organelles [PUBMED:9419228]. P-ATPases function to transport a variety of different compounds, including ions and phospholipids, across a membrane using ATP hydrolysis for energy. There are many different classes of P-ATPases, which transport specific types of ion: H+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ag+ and Ag2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Cu+ and Cu2+. P-ATPases can be composed of one or two polypeptides, and can usually assume two main conformations called E1 and E2.
This entry represents the conserved C-terminal region found in several classes of cation-transporting P-type ATPases, including those that transport H+ (EC), Na+ (EC), Ca2+ (EC), Na+/K+ (EC), and H+/K+ (EC). In the H+/K+- and Na+/K+-exchange P-ATPases, this domain is found in the catalytic alpha chain.
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
Loading domain graphics...
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_137 (release 2.1)|
|Author:||Bateman A, Griffiths-Jones SR|
|Number in seed:||135|
|Number in full:||9305|
|Average length of the domain:||181.10 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||23 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||18.74 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 17690987 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||19|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 9 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Cation_ATPase_C domain has been found. There are 123 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
Loading structure mapping...