Summary: Cytochrome c3
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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Cytochrome c family". More...
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Cytochrome c family Edit Wikipedia article
Structure of cytochrome c2 from Rhodopseudomonas viridis.
atomic structure of a cytochrome c' with an unusual ligand-controlled dimer dissociation at 1.8 angstroms resolution
|Class III cytochrome C family|
sulfate respiration in desulfovibrio vulgaris hildenborough: structure of the 16-heme cytochrome c hmca at 2.5 a resolution and a view of its role in transmembrane electron transfer
Cytochromes c (cytC) are electron-transfer proteins having one or several heme c groups, bound to the protein by one or, more generally, two thioether bonds involving sulphydryl groups of cysteine residues. The fifth haem iron ligand is always provided by a histidine residue. Cytochromes c possess a wide range of properties and function in a large number of different redox processes. The founding member of this family is mitochondrial cytochrome c.
Ambler recognized four classes of cytC.
- Class I includes the low-spin soluble cytC of mitochondria and bacteria, with the haem-attachment site towards the N-terminus, and the sixth ligand provided by a methionine residue about 40 residues further on towards the C-terminus. On the basis of sequence similarity, class I cytC were further subdivided into five classes, IA to IE. Class IB includes the eukaryotic mitochondrial cytC and prokaryotic 'short' cyt c2 exemplified by Rhodopila globiformis cyt c2; class IA includes 'long' cyt c2, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum cyt c2 and Aquaspirillum itersonii cytc-550, which have several extra loops by comparison with class IB cytC.
- Class II includes the high-spin cytC' and a number of low-spin cytochromes, e.g. cyt c-556. The haem-attachment site is close to the C terminus. The cytC' are capable of binding such ligands as CO, NO or CN(-), albeit with rate and equilibrium constants 100 to 1,000,000-fold smaller than other high-spin haemoproteins. This, coupled with its relatively low redox potential, makes it unlikely that cytC' is a terminal oxidase. Thus cytC' probably functions as an electron transfer protein. The 3D structures of a number of cytC' have been determined. The molecule usually exists as a dimer, each monomer folding as a four-alpha-helix bundle incorporating a covalently-bound haem group at the core. The Chromatium vinosum cytC' exhibits dimer dissociation upon ligand binding.
- Class III comprises the low redox potential multiple haem cytochromes: cyt C7 (trihaem), C3 (tetrahaem), and high-molecular-weight cytC, HMC (hexadecahaem), with only 30-40 residues per haem group. The haem c groups, all bis-histidinyl coordinated, are structurally and functionally nonequivalent and present different redox potentials in the range 0 to -400 mV. The 3D structures of a number of cyt C3 proteins have been determined. The proteins consist of 4-5 alpha-helices and 2 beta-strands wrapped around a compact core of four non-parallel haems, which present a relatively high degree of exposure to the solvent. The overall protein architecture, haem plane orientations and iron-iron distances are highly conserved.
- Class IV includes complex proteins containing other prosthetic groups besides haem c, such as flavocytochromes c and cytochromes cd.
Human proteins containing this domain
- Miki K, Sogabe S, Uno A, et al. (May 1994). "Application of an automatic molecular-replacement procedure to crystal structure analysis of cytochrome c2 from Rhodopseudomonas viridis". Acta Crystallogr. D. 50 (Pt 3): 271–5. doi:10.1107/S0907444993013952. PMID 15299438.
- Moore GR, Pettigrew GW (1987). : –. Missing or empty
- Ambler RP (1991). "Sequence variability in bacterial cytochromes c". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1058 (1): 42–47. doi:10.1016/S0005-2728(05)80266-X. PMID 1646017.
- Kassner RJ (May 1991). "Ligand binding properties of cytochromes c'". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1058 (1): 8–12. doi:10.1016/s0005-2728(05)80257-9. PMID 1646027.
- Moore GR (May 1991). "Bacterial 4-alpha-helical bundle cytochromes". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1058 (1): 38–41. doi:10.1016/s0005-2728(05)80265-8. PMID 1646016.
- Ren Z, Meyer T, McRee DE (November 1993). "Atomic structure of a cytochrome c' with an unusual ligand-controlled dimer dissociation at 1.8 A resolution". J. Mol. Biol. 234 (2): 433–45. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1993.1597. PMID 8230224.
- Coutinho IB, Xavier AV (1994). "Tetraheme cytochromes". Meth. Enzymol. 243: 119–40. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(94)43011-X. PMID 7830606.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
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No Pfam abstract.
Gordon EH, Pike AD, Hill AE, Cuthbertson PM, Chapman SK, Reid GA;, Biochem J. 2000;349:153-158.: Identification and characterization of a novel cytochrome c(3) from Shewanella frigidimarina that is involved in Fe(III) respiration. PUBMED:10861223 EPMC:10861223
Leys D, Meyer TE, Tsapin AS, Nealson KH, Cusanovich MA, Van Beeumen JJ;, J Biol Chem. 2002;277:35703-35711.: Crystal structures at atomic resolution reveal the novel concept of "electron-harvesting" as a role for the small tetraheme cytochrome c. PUBMED:12080059 EPMC:12080059
Internal database links
|SCOOP:||Cytochrom_C552 Cytochrom_CIII Cytochrom_NNT Cytochrome_C554 Cytochrome_C7 Multi-haem_cyto Paired_CXXCH_1|
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||Cytochrom_CIII Cytochrome_C7|
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR012286
Flavocytochrome C3 (Fcc3) enzymes from a number of Shewanella species, including Shewanella frigidimarina (strain NCIMB 400), have respiratory fumarate reductase activity, which enables the bacteria to respire anaerobically with fumarate as a terminal electron acceptor. Flavocytochrome C3 in S. frigidimarina is a soluble, single chain tetrahaem enzyme found in the periplasm, making it distinct from other bacterial fumarate reductases (INTERPRO), which are membrane-bound, multi-subunit enzymes, even though their function is analogous.
Shewanella Fcc3 is composed of three domains: an N-terminal tetrahaem cytochrome domain, a flavin domain and a clamp domain. The cytochrome domain can also occur on its own in some tetrahaem cytochromes implicated in iron oxidation. This entry represents the cytochrome domain, which has a different arrangement of the polypeptide chain in comparison to classical tetra-haem cytochrome C3 [PUBMED:12080059, PUBMED:15581639].
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
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This family includes cytochromes that contain multiple CxxCH motifs.
The clan contains the following 15 members:C_GCAxxG_C_C CytoC_RC Cytochrom_c3_2 Cytochrom_C552 Cytochrom_CIII Cytochrom_NNT Cytochrome_C554 Cytochrome_C7 Cytochrome_cB GSu_C4xC__C2xCH Multi-haem_cyto NapB Paired_CXXCH_1 zf-3CxxC zf-3CxxC_2
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Number in seed:||49|
|Number in full:||910|
|Average length of the domain:||91.70 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||23 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||28.12 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||6|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
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There are 3 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Cytochrom_c3_2 domain has been found. There are 38 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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