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24  structures 584  species 3  interactions 1700  sequences 5  architectures

Family: Hormone_1 (PF00103)

Summary: Somatotropin hormone family

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Somatotropin family". More...

Somatotropin family Edit Wikipedia article

Somatotropin hormone family
Symbol Hormone_1
Pfam PF00103
InterPro IPR001400
SCOP 1huw

The Somatotropin family is a protein family whose titular representative is somatotropin, also known as growth hormone, a hormone that plays an important role in growth control.[1] Other members include choriomammotropin (lactogen), its placental analogue;[2] prolactin, which promotes lactation in the mammary gland, and placental prolactin-related proteins;[3] proliferin and proliferin related protein;[4] and somatolactin from various fishes.[5][6] The 3D structure of bovine somatotropin has been predicted using a combination of heuristics and energy minimisation.[7]

Human peptides from this family

CSH1; CSH2; CSHL1; GH1; GH2; PRL; hGH-V;


  1. ^ Wallis M (1981). "The molecular evolution of pituitary growth-hormone prolactin and placental-lactogen - a protein family showing variable rates of evolution". J. Mol. Evol. 17: 10–18. doi:10.1007/bf01792419. 
  2. ^ Kessler MA, Milosavljevic M, Zieler CG, Schuler LA (1989). "A subfamily of bovine prolactin-related transcripts distinct from placental lactogen in the fetal placenta". Biochemistry 28 (12): 5154–5161. doi:10.1021/bi00438a036. PMID 2765528. 
  3. ^ Rand-Weaver M, Noso T, Muramoto K, Kawauchi H (1991). "Isolation and characterization of somatolactin, a new protein related to growth hormone and prolactin from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) pituitary glands". Biochemistry 30 (6): 1509–1515. doi:10.1021/bi00220a010. PMID 1993170. 
  4. ^ Connor AM, Waterhouse P, Khokha R, Denhardt DT (1989). "Characterization of a mouse mitogen-regulated protein/proliferin gene and its promoter: a member of the growth hormone/prolactin gene superfamily". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1009 (1): 75–82. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(89)90081-X. PMID 2790033. 
  5. ^ Benedet S, Björnsson BT, Taranger GL, Andersson E (2008). "Cloning of somatolactin alpha, beta forms and the somatolactin receptor in Atlantic salmon: seasonal expression profile in pituitary and ovary of maturing female broodstock". Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 6: 42. doi:10.1186/1477-7827-6-42. PMC 2553077. PMID 18793397. 
  6. ^ Benedet Perea, Susana (2008). Growth hormone and somatolactin function during sexual maturation of female Atlantic salmon. (Ph.D.) Department of Zoology/Zoophysiology, Göteborg University, Box 463, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden
  7. ^ Carlacci L, Chou KC, Maggiora GM (1991). "A heuristic approach to predicting the tertiary structure of bovine somatotropin". Biochemistry 30 (18): 4389–4398. doi:10.1021/bi00232a004. PMID 2021631. 

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR001400

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This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR001400

Somatotropin is a hormone that plays an important role in growth control. It belongs to a family that includes choriomammotropin (lactogen), its placental analogue; prolactin, which promotes lactation in the mammary gland, and placental prolactin-related proteins; proliferin and proliferin related protein; and somatolactin from various fish [PUBMED:, PUBMED:2765528, PUBMED:1993170, PUBMED:2790033]. The 3D structure of bovine somatotropin has been predicted using a combination of heuristics and energy minimisation [PUBMED:2021631].

Gene Ontology

The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan 4H_Cytokine (CL0053), which has the following description:

Cytokines are regulatory peptides that can be produced by various cells for communicating and orchestrating the large multicellular system. Cytokines are key mediators of hematopoiesis, immunity, allergy, inflammation, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, and embryonic development [2]. This superfamily includes both the long and short chain helical cytokines.

The clan contains the following 25 members:

CNTF CSF-1 EPO_TPO Flt3_lig GCSF GM_CSF Hormone_1 IFN-gamma IL10 IL11 IL12 IL13 IL15 IL2 IL22 IL3 IL34 IL4 IL5 IL6 Interferon Leptin LIF_OSM PRF SCF


We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...

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You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

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MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.

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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

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Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

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Seed source: Prosite
Previous IDs: hormone;
Type: Domain
Author: Sonnhammer ELL
Number in seed: 13
Number in full: 1700
Average length of the domain: 160.50 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 33 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 93.44 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 80369284 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 22.7 22.7
Trusted cut-off 22.7 22.7
Noise cut-off 22.6 22.6
Model length: 215
Family (HMM) version: 16
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the adjacent tab. More...

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There are 3 interactions for this family. More...

fn3 EpoR_lig-bind fn3


For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Hormone_1 domain has been found. There are 24 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.

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