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8  structures 116  species 2  interactions 1051  sequences 24  architectures

Family: IGFBP (PF00219)

Summary: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Insulin-like growth factor binding protein". More...

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein Edit Wikipedia article

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Insulin-like growth factor binding protein Provide feedback

No Pfam abstract.

External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR000867

The insulin family of proteins groups together several evolutionarily related active peptides [PUBMED:6107857]: these include insulin [PUBMED:6243748, PUBMED:503234], relaxin [PUBMED:10601981, PUBMED:8735594], insect prothoracicotropic hormone (bombyxin) [PUBMED:8683595], insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2) [PUBMED:2036417, PUBMED:1319992], mammalian Leydig cell-specific insulin-like peptide (gene INSL3), early placenta insulin-like peptide (ELIP) (gene INSL4), locust insulin-related peptide (LIRP), molluscan insulin-related peptides (MIP), and Caenorhabditis elegans insulin-like peptides. The 3D structures of a number of family members have been determined [PUBMED:2036417, PUBMED:1319992, PUBMED:9141131]. The fold comprises two polypeptide chains (A and B) linked by two disulphide bonds: all share a conserved arrangement of 4 cysteines in their A chain, the first of which is linked by a disulphide bond to the third, while the second and fourth are linked by interchain disulphide bonds to cysteines in the B chain.

Insulin is found in many animals, and is involved in the regulation of normal glucose homeostasis. It also has other specific physiological effects, such as increasing the permeability of cells to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids, and accelerating glycolysis and glycogen synthesis in the liver [PUBMED:6243748]. Insulin exerts its effects by interaction with a cell-surface receptor, which may also result in the promotion of cell growth [PUBMED:6243748].

Insulin is synthesised as a prepropeptide from which an endoplasmic reticulum-targeting sequence is cleaved to yield proinsulin. The sequence of prosinsulin contains 2 well-conserved regions (designated A and B), separated by an intervening connecting region (C), which is variable between species [PUBMED:503234]. The connecting region is cleaved, liberating the active protein, which contains the A and B chains, held together by 2 disulphide bonds [PUBMED:503234].

Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBP) are a group of vertebrate secreted proteins, which bind to IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity and modulate the biological actions of IGFs. The IGFBP family has six distinct subgroups, IGFBP-1 through 6, based on conservation of gene (intron-exon) organisation, structural similarity, and binding affinity for IGFs. Across species, IGFBP-5 exhibits the most sequence conservation, while IGFBP-6 exhibits the least sequence conservation. The IGFBPs contain inhibitor domain homologues, which are related to MEROPS protease inhibitor family I31 (equistatin, clan IX).

All IGFBPs share a common domain architecture (INTERPRO:INTERPRO). While the N-terminal (INTERPRO, IGF binding protein domain), and the C-terminal (INTERPRO, thyroglobulin type-1 repeat) domains are conserved across vertebrate species, the mid-region is highly variable with respect to protease cleavage sites and phosphorylation and glycosylation sites. IGFBPs contain 16-18 conserved cysteines located in the N-terminal and the C-terminal regions, which form 8-9 disulphide bonds [PUBMED:11874691].

As demonstrated for human IGFBP-5, the N terminus is the primary binding site for IGF. This region, comprised of Val49, Tyr50, Pro62 and Lys68-Leu75, forms a hydrophobic patch on the surface of the protein [PUBMED:9822601]. The C terminus is also required for high affinity IGF binding, as well as for binding to the extracellular matrix [PUBMED:9725901] and for nuclear translocation [PUBMED:7519375, PUBMED:9660801] of IGFBP-3 and -5.

IGFBPs are unusually pleiotropic molecules. Like other binding proteins, IGFBP can prolong the half-life of IGFs via high affinity binding of the ligands. In addition to functioning as simple carrier proteins, serum IGFBPs also serve to regulate the endocrine and paracrine/autocrine actions of IGF by modulating the IGF available to bind to signalling IGF-I receptors [PUBMED:12379487, PUBMED:12379489]. Furthermore, IGFBPs can function as growth modulators independent of IGFs. For example, IGFBP-5 stimulates markers of bone formation in osteoblasts lacking functional IGFs [PUBMED:11874691]. The binding of IGFBP to its putative receptor on the cell membrane may stimulate the signalling pathway independent of an IGF receptor, to mediate the effects of IGFBPs in certain target cell types. IGFBP-1 and -2, but not other IGFBPs, contain a C-terminal Arg-Gly-Asp integrin-binding motif. Thus, IGFBP-1 can also stimulate cell migration of CHO and human trophoblast cells through an action mediated by alpha 5 beta 1 integrin [PUBMED:7504269]. Finally, IGFBPs transported into the nucleus (via the nuclear localisation signal) may also exert IGF-independent effects by transcriptional activation of genes.

This entry represents insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), which bind to specific binding proteins in extracellular fluids with high affinity [PUBMED:7680510, PUBMED:1725860, PUBMED:2480830]. These IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) prolong the half-life of the IGFs and have been shown to either inhibit or stimulate the growth promoting effects of the IGFs on cells culture. They seem to alter the interaction of IGFs with their cell surface receptors. There are at least six different IGFBPs and they are structurally related. The following growth-factor inducible proteins are structurally related to IGFBPs and could function as growth-factor binding proteins [PUBMED:1654338, PUBMED:1309586], mouse protein cyr61 and its probable chicken homolog, protein CEF-10; human connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and its mouse homolog, protein FISP-12; and vertebrate protein NOV.

Gene Ontology

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Domain organisation

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Alignments

We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...

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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

  Seed
(54)
Full
(1051)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(832)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(48)
RP35
(94)
RP55
(234)
RP75
(458)
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Format an alignment

  Seed
(54)
Full
(1051)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(832)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(48)
RP35
(94)
RP55
(234)
RP75
(458)
Alignment:
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Sequence:
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We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

  Seed
(54)
Full
(1051)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(832)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(48)
RP35
(94)
RP55
(234)
RP75
(458)
Raw Stockholm Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download    
Gzipped Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download    

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

External links

MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...

Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

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Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Prosite
Previous IDs: none
Type: Domain
Author: Finn RD
Number in seed: 54
Number in full: 1051
Average length of the domain: 54.50 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 44 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 18.34 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 21.2 21.2
Trusted cut-off 21.2 21.2
Noise cut-off 21.1 21.1
Model length: 53
Family (HMM) version: 13
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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Interactions

There are 2 interactions for this family. More...

Insulin Thyroglobulin_1

Structures

For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the IGFBP domain has been found. There are 8 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.

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