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Cyanobacterial clock proteins Edit Wikipedia article
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crystal structure of circadian clock protein kaia from synechococcus elongatus
solution structure of the n-terminal domain of synechococcus elongatus sasa (average minimized structure)
crystal structure of full length circadian clock protein kaic with phosphorylation sites
In molecular biology, the cyanobacterial clock proteins are the main circadian regulator in cyanobacteria. The cyanobacterial clock proteins comprise three proteins: KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. The kaiABC complex may act as a promoter-nonspecific transcription regulator that represses transcription, possibly by acting on the state of chromosome compaction.
In the complex, KaiA enhances the phosphorylation status of kaiC. In contrast, the presence of kaiB in the complex decreases the phosphorylation status of kaiC, suggesting that kaiB acts by antagonising the interaction between kaiA and kaiC. The activity of KaiA activates kaiBC expression, while KaiC represses it. The overall fold of the KaiA monomer is that of a four-helix bundle, which forms a dimer in the known structure. KaiA functions as a homodimer. Each monomer is composed of three functional domains: the N-terminal amplitude-amplifier domain, the central period-adjuster domain and the C-terminal clock-oscillator domain. The N-terminal domain of KaiA, from cyanobacteria, acts as a pseudo-receiver domain, but lacks the conserved aspartyl residue required for phosphotransfer in response regulators. The C-terminal domain is responsible for dimer formation, binding to KaiC, enhancing KaiC phosphorylation and generating the circadian oscillations. The KaiA protein from Anabaena sp. (strain PCC 7120) lacks the N-terminal CheY-like domain.
Also in the KiaC family is RadA/Sms, a highly conserved eubacterial protein that shares sequence similarity with both RecA strand transferase and lon protease. The RadA/Sms family are probable ATP-dependent proteases involved in both DNA repair and degradation of proteins, peptides, glycopeptides. They are classified in as non-peptidase homologues and unassigned peptidases in MEROPS peptidase family S16 (lon protease family, clan SJ). RadA/Sms is involved in recombination and recombinational repair, most likely involving the stabilisation or processing of branched DNA molecules or blocked replication forks because of its genetic redundancy with RecG and RuvABC.
- Garces RG, Wu N, Gillon W, Pai EF (April 2004). "Anabaena circadian clock proteins KaiA and KaiB reveal a potential common binding site to their partner KaiC". EMBO J. 23 (8): 1688–98. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7600190. PMC 394244. PMID 15071498.
- Williams SB, Vakonakis I, Golden SS, LiWang AC (November 2002). "Structure and function from the circadian clock protein KaiA of Synechococcus elongatus: a potential clock input mechanism". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (24): 15357–62. doi:10.1073/pnas.232517099. PMC 137721. PMID 12438647.
- Uzumaki T, Fujita M, Nakatsu T, Hayashi F, Shibata H, Itoh N, Kato H, Ishiura M (July 2004). "Crystal structure of the C-terminal clock-oscillator domain of the cyanobacterial KaiA protein". Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 11 (7): 623–31. doi:10.1038/nsmb781. PMID 15170179.
- Hitomi K, Oyama T, Han S, Arvai AS, Getzoff ED (2005). "Tetrameric architecture of the circadian clock protein KaiB. A novel interface for intermolecular interactions and its impact on the circadian rhythm.". J Biol Chem 280 (19): 19127–35. doi:10.1074/jbc.M411284200. PMID 15716274.
- Pattanayek R, Wang J, Mori T, Xu Y, Johnson CH, Egli M (2004). "Visualizing a circadian clock protein: crystal structure of KaiC and functional insights.". Mol Cell 15 (3): 375–88. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.07.013. PMID 15304218.
- Beam CE, Saveson CJ, Lovett ST (December 2002). "Role for radA/sms in recombination intermediate processing in Escherichia coli". J. Bacteriol. 184 (24): 6836–44. doi:10.1128/jb.184.24.6836-6844.2002. PMC 135464. PMID 12446634.
KaiC Provide feedback
This family represents a conserved region within bacterial and archaeal proteins, most of which are hypothetical. More than one copy is sometimes found in each protein. This family includes KaiC, which is one of the Kai proteins among which direct protein-protein association may be a critical process in the generation of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria .
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This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR014774
This entry represents a domain within bacterial and archaeal proteins, most of which are hypothetical. More than one copy is sometimes found in each protein in this entry. These include KaiC, which is one of the Kai proteins among which direct protein-protein association may be a critical process in the generation of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria [PUBMED:10064581].
The circadian clock protein KaiC, is encoded in the kaiABC operon that controls circadian rhythms and may be universal in Cyanobacteria. Each member contains two copies of this domain, which is also found in other proteins. KaiC performs autophosphorylation and acts as its own transcriptional repressor.
RadA/Sms is a highly conserved eubacterial protein that shares sequence similarity with both RecA strand transferase and lon protease. The RadA/Sms family are probable ATP-dependent proteases involved in both DNA repair and degradation of proteins, peptides, glycopeptides. They are classified in as non-peptidase homologues and unassigned peptidases in MEROPS peptidase family S16 (lon protease family, clan SJ).
RadA/Sms is involved in recombination and recombinational repair, most likely involving the stabilisation or processing of branched DNA molecules or blocked replication forks because of its genetic redundancy with RecG and RuvABC [PUBMED:12446634].
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AAA family proteins often perform chaperone-like functions that assist in the assembly, operation, or disassembly of protein complexes .
The clan contains the following 198 members:6PF2K AAA AAA-ATPase_like AAA_10 AAA_11 AAA_12 AAA_13 AAA_14 AAA_15 AAA_16 AAA_17 AAA_18 AAA_19 AAA_2 AAA_21 AAA_22 AAA_23 AAA_24 AAA_25 AAA_26 AAA_27 AAA_28 AAA_29 AAA_3 AAA_30 AAA_31 AAA_32 AAA_33 AAA_34 AAA_35 AAA_4 AAA_5 AAA_6 AAA_7 AAA_8 AAA_9 AAA_PrkA ABC_ATPase ABC_tran ABC_tran_2 Adeno_IVa2 Adenylsucc_synt ADK AFG1_ATPase AIG1 APS_kinase Arch_ATPase Arf ArgK ArsA_ATPase ATP-synt_ab ATP_bind_1 ATP_bind_2 Bac_DnaA CbiA CMS1 CoaE CobA_CobO_BtuR CobU cobW CPT CTP_synth_N Cytidylate_kin Cytidylate_kin2 DAP3 DEAD DEAD_2 DLIC DNA_pack_C DNA_pack_N DNA_pol3_delta DNA_pol3_delta2 DnaB_C dNK DUF1253 DUF1611 DUF2075 DUF2478 DUF258 DUF2791 DUF2813 DUF3584 DUF463 DUF815 DUF853 DUF87 DUF927 Dynamin_N Exonuc_V_gamma FeoB_N Fer4_NifH Flavi_DEAD FTHFS FtsK_SpoIIIE G-alpha Gal-3-0_sulfotr GBP GTP_EFTU GTP_EFTU_D2 GTP_EFTU_D4 Gtr1_RagA Guanylate_kin GvpD HDA2-3 Helicase_C Helicase_C_2 Helicase_C_4 Helicase_RecD Herpes_Helicase Herpes_ori_bp Herpes_TK IIGP IPPT IPT IstB_IS21 KaiC KAP_NTPase Kinesin Kinesin-relat_1 Kinesin-related KTI12 LpxK MCM MEDS Mg_chelatase Mg_chelatase_2 MipZ Miro MMR_HSR1 MobB MukB MutS_V Myosin_head NACHT NB-ARC NOG1 NTPase_1 ParA Parvo_NS1 PAXNEB PduV-EutP PhoH PIF1 Podovirus_Gp16 Polyoma_lg_T_C Pox_A32 PPK2 PPV_E1_C PRK Rad17 Rad51 Ras RecA ResIII RHD3 RHSP RNA12 RNA_helicase RuvB_N SbcCD_C SecA_DEAD Septin Sigma54_activ_2 Sigma54_activat SKI SMC_N SNF2_N Spore_IV_A SRP54 SRPRB Sulfotransfer_1 Sulfotransfer_2 Sulfotransfer_3 Sulphotransf T2SE T4SS-DNA_transf Terminase_1 Terminase_3 Terminase_6 Terminase_GpA Thymidylate_kin TIP49 TK TniB Torsin TraG-D_C tRNA_lig_kinase TrwB_AAD_bind UPF0079 UvrD-helicase UvrD_C UvrD_C_2 Viral_helicase1 VirC1 VirE YhjQ Zeta_toxin Zot
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_2234 (release 10.0)|
|Author:||Vella Briffa B|
|Number in seed:||26|
|Number in full:||1953|
|Average length of the domain:||206.50 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||22 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||73.85 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||8|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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There is 1 interaction for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the KaiC domain has been found. There are 154 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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