Summary: NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase N-terminus
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Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Edit Wikipedia article
|Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+)|
Crystallographic structure of human glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1.
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Gene Ontology||AmiGO / QuickGO|
|Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (quinone)|
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase N-terminus|
crystal structure of the n-(1-d-carboxylethyl)-l-norvaline dehydrogenase from arthrobacter sp. strain 1c
|SCOPe||1m66 / SUPFAM|
|NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase C-terminus|
structure of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from archaeoglobus fulgidus
|SCOPe||1m66 / SUPFAM|
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible redox conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (a.k.a. glycerone phosphate, outdated) to sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase serves as a major link between carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism. It is also a major contributor of electrons to the electron transport chain in the mitochondria.
Older terms for glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase include alpha glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (alphaGPDH) and glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH). However, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is not the same as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), whose substrate is an aldehyde not an alcohol.
GPDH plays a major role in lipid biosynthesis. Through the reduction of dihydroxyacetone phosphate into glycerol 3-phosphate, GPDH allows the prompt dephosphorylation of glycerol 3-phosphate into glycerol. Additionally, GPDH is one of the enzymes involved in maintaining the redox potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The NAD+/NADH coenzyme couple act as an electron reservoir for metabolic redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. Most of these metabolism reactions occur in the mitochondria. To regenerate NAD+ for further use, NADH pools in the cytosol must be reoxidized. Since the mitochondrial inner membrane is impermeable to both NADH and NAD+, these cannot be freely exchanged between the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix.
One way to shuttle this reducing equivalent across the membrane is through the Glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle, which employs the two forms of GPDH:
- Cytosolic GPDH, or GPD1 is located in the mitochondrial inner-membrane space or cytosol, and catalyzes the reduction of dihydroxyacetone phosphate into glycerol-3-phosphate.
- In conjunction, Mitochondrial GPDH, or GPD2 is embedded on the outer surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane, overlooking the cytosol, and catalyzes the oxidation of glycerol-3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate.
The reactions catalyzed by cytosolic (soluble) and mitochondrial GPDH are as follows:
There are two forms of GPDH:
|EC number||Name||Donor / Acceptor||Name||Subcellular location||Abbreviation||Name||Symbol|
|184.108.40.206||glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase||NADH / NAD+||Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD+]||cytoplasmic||GPDH-C||glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (soluble)||GPD1|
|220.127.116.11||glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase||quinol / quinone||Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase||mitochondrial||GPDH-M||glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (mitochondrial)||GPD2|
The following human genes encode proteins with GPDH enzymatic activity:
Cytosolic Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1), is an NAD+-dependent enzyme that reduces dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol-3-phosphate. Simultaneously, NADH is oxidized to NAD+ in the following reaction:
As a result, NAD+ is regenerated for further metabolic activity.
Figure 4. The putative active site. The phosphate group of DHAP is half-encircled by the side-chain of Arg269, and interacts with Arg269 and Gly268 directly by hydrogen bonds (not shown). The conserved residues Lys204, Asn205, Asp260 and Thr264 form a stable hydrogen bonding network. The other hydrogen bonding network includes residues Lys120 and Asp260, as well as an ordered water molecule (with a B-factor of 16.4 Ã…2), which hydrogen bonds to Gly149 and Asn151 (not shown). In these two electrostatic networks, only the Îµ-NH3+ group of Lys204 is the nearest to the C2 atom of DHAP (3.4 Ã…).
Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD2), catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of glycerol-3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and concomitantly transfers two electrons from FAD to the electron transport chain. GPD2 consists of 4 identical subunits.
Response to environmental stresses
- Studies indicate that GPDH is mostly unaffected by pH changes: neither GPD1 or GPD2 is favored under certain pH conditions.
- At high salt concentrations (E.g. NaCl), GPD1 activity is enhanced over GPD2, since an increase in the salinity of the medium leads to an accumulation of glycerol in response.
- Changes in temperature do not appear to favor neither GPD1 nor GPD2.
The cytosolic together with the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase work in concert. Oxidation of cytoplasmic NADH by the cytosolic form of the enzyme creates glycerol-3-phosphate from dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Once the glycerol-3-phosphate has moved through the inner mitochondrial membrane it can then be oxidised by a separate isoform of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that uses quinone as an oxidant and FAD as a co-factor. As a result, there is a net loss in energy, comparable to one molecule of ATP.
Role in disease
- Enhanced GPDH activity, particularly GPD2, leads to an increase in glycerol production. Since glycerol is a main subunit in lipid metabolism, its abundance can easily lead to an increase in triglyceride accumulation at a cellular level. As a result, there is a tendency to form adipose tissue leading to an accumulation of fat that favors obesity.
- GPDH has also been found to play a role in Brugada syndrome. Mutations in the gene encoding GPD1 have been proven to cause defects in the electron transport chain. This conflict with NAD+/NADH levels in the cell is believed to contribute to defects in cardiac sodium ion channel regulation and can lead to a lethal arrythmia during infancy.
Sarcophaga barbata was used to study the oxidation of L-3-glycerophosphate in mitochondria. It is found that the L-3-glycerophosphate does not enter the mitochondrial matrix, unlike pyruvate. This helps locate the L-3-glycerophosphate-flavoprotein oxidoreductase, which is on the inner membrane of the mitochondria.
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase consists of two protein domains. The N-terminal domain is an NAD-binding domain, and the C-terminus acts as a substrate-binding domain. However, dimer and tetramer interface residues are involved in GAPDH-RNA binding, as GAPDH can exhibit several moonlighting activities, including the modulation of RNA binding and/or stability.
- substrate pages: glycerol 3-phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate
- related topics: glycerol phosphate shuttle, creatine kinase, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis
- doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2005.12.074. PMID 16460752. ; Ou X, Ji C, Han X, Zhao X, Li X, Mao Y, Wong LL, Bartlam M, Rao Z (Mar 2006). "Crystal structures of human glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1)". Journal of Molecular Biology. 357 (3): 858â€“69.
- Ou X, Ji C, Han X, Zhao X, Li X, Mao Y, Wong LL, Bartlam M, Rao Z (Mar 2006). "Crystal structures of human glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1)". Journal of Molecular Biology. 357 (3): 858â€“69. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2005.12.074. PMID 16460752.
- Harding JW, Pyeritz EA, Copeland ES, White HB (Jan 1975). "Role of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase in glyceride metabolism. Effect of diet on enzyme activities in chicken liver" (PDF). The Biochemical Journal. 146 (1): 223â€“9. doi:10.1042/bj1460223. PMC 1165291. PMID 167714.
- Geertman JM, van Maris AJ, van Dijken JP, Pronk JT (Nov 2006). "Physiological and genetic engineering of cytosolic redox metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved glycerol production". Metabolic Engineering. 8 (6): 532â€“42. doi:10.1016/j.ymben.2006.06.004. PMID 16891140.
- Ansell R, Granath K, Hohmann S, Thevelein JM, Adler L (May 1997). "The two isoenzymes for yeast NAD+-dependent glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded by GPD1 and GPD2 have distinct roles in osmoadaptation and redox regulation". The EMBO Journal. 16 (9): 2179â€“87. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.9.2179. PMC 1169820. PMID 9171333.
- Kota V, Rai P, Weitzel JM, Middendorff R, Bhande SS, Shivaji S (Sep 2010). "Role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 in mouse sperm capacitation". Molecular Reproduction and Development. 77 (9): 773â€“83. doi:10.1002/mrd.21218. PMID 20602492.
- Stryer, Lubert; Berg, Jeremy Mark; Tymoczko, John L. (2002). "Chapter 18.5: Glycerol 3-Phosphate Shuttle". Biochemistry. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-4684-0.
- Guindalini C, Lee KS, Andersen ML, Santos-Silva R, Bittencourt LR, Tufik S (Jan 2010). "The influence of obstructive sleep apnea on the expression of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 gene". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 235 (1): 52â€“6. doi:10.1258/ebm.2009.009150. PMID 20404019. Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2011-05-16.
- Bunoust O, Devin A, AvÃ©ret N, Camougrand N, Rigoulet M (Feb 2005). "Competition of electrons to enter the respiratory chain: a new regulatory mechanism of oxidative metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (5): 3407â€“13. doi:10.1074/jbc.M407746200. PMID 15557339.
- Kota V, Dhople VM, Shivaji S (Apr 2009). "Tyrosine phosphoproteome of hamster spermatozoa: role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 in sperm capacitation". Proteomics. 9 (7): 1809â€“26. doi:10.1002/pmic.200800519. PMID 19333995.
- Kumar S, Kalyanasundaram GT, Gummadi SN (Feb 2011). "Differential response of the catalase, superoxide dismutase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase to different environmental stresses in Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413". Current Microbiology. 62 (2): 382â€“7. doi:10.1007/s00284-010-9717-z. PMID 20644932.
- Xu SP, Mao XY, Ren FZ, Che HL (Feb 2011). "Attenuating effect of casein glycomacropeptide on proliferation, differentiation, and lipid accumulation of in vitro Sprague-Dawley rat preadipocytes". Journal of Dairy Science. 94 (2): 676â€“83. doi:10.3168/jds.2010-3827. PMID 21257036.
- Van Norstrand DW, Valdivia CR, Tester DJ, Ueda K, London B, Makielski JC, Ackerman MJ (Nov 2007). "Molecular and functional characterization of novel glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 like gene (GPD1-L) mutations in sudden infant death syndrome". Circulation. 116 (20): 2253â€“9. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.704627. PMC 3332545. PMID 17967976.
- Ferrannini E (Oct 2014). "The target of metformin in type 2 diabetes". The New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (16): 1547â€“8. doi:10.1056/NEJMcibr1409796. PMID 25317875.
- Suresh S, Turley S, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA, Hol WG (May 2000). "A potential target enzyme for trypanocidal drugs revealed by the crystal structure of NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leishmania mexicana". Structure. 8 (5): 541â€“52. doi:10.1016/s0969-2126(00)00135-0. PMID 10801498.
- White MR, Khan MM, Deredge D, Ross CR, Quintyn R, Zucconi BE, Wysocki VH, Wintrode PL, Wilson GM, Garcin ED (Jan 2015). "A dimer interface mutation in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase regulates its binding to AU-rich RNA". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 290 (3): 1770â€“85. doi:10.1074/jbc.M114.618165. PMC 4340419. PMID 25451934.
- Baranowski T (1963). "Î±-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase". In Boyer PD, Lardy H, MyrbÃ¤ck K (eds.). The Enzymes (2nd ed.). New York: Academic Press. pp. 85â€“96.
- Brosemer RW, Kuhn RW (May 1969). "Comparative structural properties of honeybee and rabbit alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenases". Biochemistry. 8 (5): 2095â€“105. doi:10.1021/bi00833a047. PMID 4307630.
- O'Brien SJ, MacIntyre RJ (Oct 1972). "The -glycerophosphate cycle in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Biochemical and developmental aspects". Biochemical Genetics. 7 (2): 141â€“61. doi:10.1007/BF00486085. PMID 4340553.
- Warkentin DL, Fondy TP (Jul 1973). "Isolation and characterization of cytoplasmic L-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from rabbit-renal-adipose tissue and its comparison with the skeletal-muscle enzyme". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 36 (1): 97â€“109. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1973.tb02889.x. PMID 4200180.
- Albertyn J, van Tonder A, Prior BA (Aug 1992). "Purification and characterization of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae". FEBS Letters. 308 (2): 130â€“2. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(92)81259-O. PMID 1499720.
- Koekemoer TC, Litthauer D, Oelofsen W (Jun 1995). "Isolation and characterization of adipose tissue glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 27 (6): 625â€“32. doi:10.1016/1357-2725(95)00012-E. PMID 7671141.
- PÃ¥hlman IL, Larsson C, AverÃ©t N, Bunoust O, Boubekeur S, Gustafsson L, Rigoulet M (Aug 2002). "Kinetic regulation of the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by the external NADH dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (31): 27991â€“5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M204079200. PMID 12032156.
- Overkamp KM, Bakker BM, KÃ¶tter P, van Tuijl A, de Vries S, van Dijken JP, Pronk JT (May 2000). "In vivo analysis of the mechanisms for oxidation of cytosolic NADH by Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria". Journal of Bacteriology. 182 (10): 2823â€“30. doi:10.1128/JB.182.10.2823-2830.2000. PMC 101991. PMID 10781551.
- Dawson AG, Cooney GJ (Jul 1978). "Reconstruction of the alpha-glycerolphosphate shuttle using rat kidney mitochondria". FEBS Letters. 91 (2): 169â€“72. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(78)81164-8. PMID 210038.
- Opperdoes FR, Borst P, Bakker S, Leene W (Jun 1977). "Localization of glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase in the mitochondrion and particulate NAD+-linked glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the microbodies of the bloodstream form to Trypanosoma brucei". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 76 (1): 29â€“39. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1977.tb11567.x. PMID 142010.
- Eswaramoorthy S, Bonanno JB, Burley SK, Swaminathan S (Jun 2006). "Mechanism of action of a flavin-containing monooxygenase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103 (26): 9832â€“7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0602398103. PMC 1502539. PMID 16777962.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase N-terminus Provide feedback
NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) catalyses the interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and L-glycerol-3-phosphate. This family represents the N-terminal NAD-binding domain .
Pahlman IL, Larsson C, Averet N, Bunoust O, Boubekeur S, Gustafsson L, Rigoulet M; , J Biol Chem 2002;277:27991-27995.: Kinetic regulation of the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by the external NADH dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PUBMED:12032156 EPMC:12032156
Suresh S, Turley S, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA, Hol WG; , Structure Fold Des 2000;8:541-552.: A potential target enzyme for trypanocidal drugs revealed by the crystal structure of NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leishmania mexicana. PUBMED:10801498 EPMC:10801498
Internal database links
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR011128NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) catalyses the interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and L-glycerol-3-phosphate. This family represents the N-terminal NAD-binding domain [PUBMED:10801498].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor (GO:0016616)|
|NAD binding (GO:0051287)|
|Biological process||glycerol-3-phosphate catabolic process (GO:0046168)|
|oxidation-reduction process (GO:0055114)|
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A class of redox enzymes are two domain proteins. One domain, termed the catalytic domain, confers substrate specificity and the precise reaction of the enzyme. The other domain, which is common to this class of redox enzymes, is a Rossmann-fold domain. The Rossmann domain binds nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and it is this cofactor that reversibly accepts a hydride ion, which is lost or gained by the substrate in the redox reaction. Rossmann domains have an alpha/beta fold, which has a central beta sheet, with approximately five alpha helices found surrounding the beta sheet.The strands forming the beta sheet are found in the following characteristic order 654123. The inter sheet crossover of the stands in the sheet form the NAD+ binding site . In some more distantly relate Rossmann domains the NAD+ cofactor is replaced by the functionally similar cofactor FAD.
The clan contains the following 204 members:2-Hacid_dh_C 3Beta_HSD 3HCDH_N 3HCDH_RFF adh_short adh_short_C2 ADH_zinc_N ADH_zinc_N_2 AdoHcyase_NAD AdoMet_MTase AlaDh_PNT_C Amino_oxidase ApbA AviRa B12-binding Bac_GDH Bin3 Bmt2 CbiJ CheR CMAS CmcI CoA_binding CoA_binding_2 CoA_binding_3 Cons_hypoth95 DAO DapB_N DFP DNA_methylase DOT1 DRE2_N DREV DUF1188 DUF1442 DUF1611_N DUF166 DUF1776 DUF2431 DUF268 DUF2855 DUF3410 DUF364 DUF43 DUF5129 DUF5130 DUF938 DXP_reductoisom DXPR_C Eco57I ELFV_dehydrog Eno-Rase_FAD_bd Eno-Rase_NADH_b Enoyl_reductase Epimerase F420_oxidored FAD_binding_2 FAD_binding_3 FAD_oxidored Fibrillarin FMO-like FmrO FtsJ G6PD_N GCD14 GDI GDP_Man_Dehyd GFO_IDH_MocA GIDA GidB GLF Glu_dehyd_C Glyco_hydro_4 Glyco_tran_WecB GMC_oxred_N Gp_dh_N GRAS GRDA HI0933_like HIM1 IlvN ISPD_C K_oxygenase KR LCM Ldh_1_N LpxI_N Lycopene_cycl Malic_M Mannitol_dh MCRA Met_10 Methyltr_RsmB-F Methyltr_RsmF_N Methyltrans_Mon Methyltrans_SAM Methyltransf_10 Methyltransf_11 Methyltransf_12 Methyltransf_14 Methyltransf_15 Methyltransf_16 Methyltransf_17 Methyltransf_18 Methyltransf_19 Methyltransf_2 Methyltransf_20 Methyltransf_21 Methyltransf_22 Methyltransf_23 Methyltransf_24 Methyltransf_25 Methyltransf_28 Methyltransf_29 Methyltransf_3 Methyltransf_30 Methyltransf_31 Methyltransf_32 Methyltransf_33 Methyltransf_34 Methyltransf_4 Methyltransf_5 Methyltransf_7 Methyltransf_8 Methyltransf_9 Methyltransf_PK MethyltransfD12 MetW Mg-por_mtran_C MOLO1 Mqo MT-A70 MTS Mur_ligase N2227 N6-adenineMlase N6_Mtase N6_N4_Mtase NAD_binding_10 NAD_binding_2 NAD_binding_3 NAD_binding_4 NAD_binding_5 NAD_binding_7 NAD_binding_8 NAD_binding_9 NAD_Gly3P_dh_N NAS NmrA NNMT_PNMT_TEMT NodS NSP11 NSP16 OCD_Mu_crystall Orbi_VP4 PALP PARP_regulatory PCMT PDH PglD_N Polysacc_syn_2C Polysacc_synt_2 Pox_MCEL Pox_mRNA-cap Prenylcys_lyase PrmA PRMT5 Pyr_redox Pyr_redox_2 Pyr_redox_3 Reovirus_L2 RmlD_sub_bind Rossmann-like rRNA_methylase RrnaAD Rsm22 RsmJ Sacchrp_dh_NADP SAM_MT SE Semialdhyde_dh Shikimate_DH Spermine_synth TehB THF_DHG_CYH_C Thi4 ThiF TPM_phosphatase TPMT TrkA_N TRM TRM13 TrmK tRNA_U5-meth_tr Trp_halogenase TylF Ubie_methyltran UDPG_MGDP_dh_N UPF0020 UPF0146 Urocanase V_cholerae_RfbT XdhC_C YjeF_N
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|Author:||Finn RD , Bateman A , Moxon SJ|
|Number in seed:||35|
|Number in full:||10218|
|Average length of the domain:||152.80 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||28 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||44.28 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||23|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 4 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the NAD_Gly3P_dh_N domain has been found. There are 26 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
Loading structure mapping...