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650  structures 628  species 0  interactions 127566  sequences 1078  architectures

Family: 7tm_1 (PF00001)

Summary: 7 transmembrane receptor (rhodopsin family)

Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.

This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "G protein-coupled receptor". More...

G protein-coupled receptor Edit Wikipedia article

G-protein-coupled receptors are biological transmembrane receptors that are essential for eukaryotes. They can recognize hormones such as adrenaline and histamine, but are also used for the recognition of taste, smell and light (vision). Once the receptor recognizes its specific signal, it activates a G protein within the cell as a first element in the internal singnal transduction chain.


Receptor structure

G-protein-coupled receptors are proteins that posess seven transmembrane elements (parts that cross the plasma membrane), all of them α helices. The extracellular parts of the receptor can by glycosilated. These extracellular loops also contain highly conserved cysteine residues which build disulfide bonds to stabelize the receptor structure.


Ligand binding and signal transduction

In spite of most ligands binding at the extracellular domain to transmembrane receptors, small ligands of G-protein-coupled receptors can be recognized by the transmembrane domain. In these cases, the extracellular domain takes no part in the recognition.

The transduction of the signal through the membrane by the receptor is not completely understood. It is known that the inactive G protein is bound to the receptor in its inactive state. Once the ligand is recognized, the receptor shifts conformation so it gets highly affine to the ligand and activates the G protein, which then detatches from the receptor. The receptor can now either activate another G protein, or switch back to its inactive state.


Receptor regulation

G-protein-coupled receptors are known to react less sensitive to their ligand when they are exposed to it for a prolonged period of time. The key reaction of this downregulation is the phosphorylation of the intracellular (or cytoplasmic) receptor domain by protein kinases.

Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent kinases

cAMP-dependent protein kinases (for example, proteine kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was activated by the receptor) via adenylate cyclase A and cAMP. In a feedback mechanism, these activated kinases phosphorylate the receptor. The longer the receptor remains active, the more kinases are activated, the more receptors are phosphorylated.

Phosphorylation by GRKs

The G-protein-coupled Receptor Kinases (GRKs) are protein kinases that phosphorylate only active G-protein-coupled receptors.


Phosphorylation of the receptor can have two consequences :

  1. Translocation. The receptor is, along with the part of the membrane it is embedded in, brought to the inside of the cell, where it is dephosphorylated and then brought back. This mechanism is used to regulate long-term exposure, for example, to a hormone.
  1. Arrestine linking. The phosphorylated receptor can be linked to arrestine molecules that prevent it from binding (and activating) G proteins, effectively switching it off for a short period of time. This mechanism is used, for example, with rhodopsine in retina cells to compensate for exposure to bright light.


This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Rhodopsin-like receptors". More...

Rhodopsin-like receptors Edit Wikipedia article

7 transmembrane receptor (rhodopsin family)
Identifiers
Symbol7tm_1
PfamPF00001
InterProIPR000276
PROSITEPDOC00211
SCOP21f88 / SCOPe / SUPFAM
OPM superfamily6
OPM protein1gzm

Rhodopsin-like receptors is main family of G-protein coupled receptors.

Subfamilies

Human proteins containing this domain

5HT1A; 6M1-16; ADORA1; ADORA2A; ADORA2B; ADORA3; ADRA1A; ADRA1B; ADRA1D; ADRA2A; ADRA2B; ADRA2C; ADRB1; ADRB2; ADRB3; AGTR1; AGTR2; AGTRL1; AVPR1; AVPR1A; AVPR1B; AVPR2; BDKRB1; BDKRB2; BLR1; BRS3; C3AR1; C5AR1; CCBP2; CCKAR; CCKBR; CCR-5; CCR1; CCR10; CCR2; CCR3; CCR4; CCR5; CCR6; CCR7; CCR8; CCR9; CCRL1; CCRL2; CHEDG1; CHRM1; CHRM2; CHRM3; CHRM4; CHRM5; CMKLR1; CNR1; CNR2; CX3CR1; CXCR3; CXCR4; CXCR6; CXCR7; CYSLTR1; CYSLTR2; DRD1; DRD2; DRD3; DRD4; DRD5; DRD5P1; DRD5P2; EBI2; EDG1; EDG2; EDG3; EDG4; EDG5; EDG6; EDG7; EDG8; EDNRA; EDNRB; EP3-I; EP3-III; EP3-IV; EP3-V; EP3-VI; EP3e; EP3f; F2R; F2RL1; F2RL2; F2RL3; FFAR1; FFAR2; FFAR3; FKSG35; FPR1; FPRL1; FPRL2; FSHR; GALR1; GALR2; GALR3; GHSR; GNRHR; GNRHR2; GPBAR1; GPCR; GPCR40; GPCRLTM7; GPER; GPR1; GPR101; GPR103; GPR109A; GPR109B; GPR119; GPR12; GPR120; GPR132; GPR135; GPR139; GPR141; GPR142; GPR146; GPR148; GPR15; GPR150; GPR151; GPR152; GPR153; GPR161; GPR162; GPR17; GPR171; GPR173; GPR174; GPR176; GPR18; GPR182; GPR19; GPR20; GPR21; GPR22; GPR23; GPR24; GPR25; GPR26; GPR27; GPR3; GPR30; GPR31; GPR32; GPR33; GPR34; GPR35; GPR37; GPR37L1; GPR39; GPR4; GPR42; GPR44; GPR45; GPR50; GPR52; GPR55; GPR6; GPR61; GPR62; GPR63; GPR65; GPR68; GPR75; GPR77; GPR78; GPR81; GPR82; GPR83; GPR84; GPR85; GPR87; GPR88; GPR92; GPRg1b; GRPR; HCRTR1; HCRTR2; HRH1; HRH2; HRH3; HRH4; HTR1A; HTR1B; HTR1D; HTR1E; HTR1F; HTR2A; HTR2B; HTR2C; HTR4; HTR4B; HTR5A; HTR6; HTR7; IL8RA; IL8RB; KISS1R; KPG_002; KPG_004; KPG_005; KPG_007; KPG_010; KPG_011; KPG_013; LGR4; LGR5; LGR6; LHCGR; LOC653166; LTB4R; LTB4R2; MAS1; MAS1L; MC1R; MC2R; MC3R; MC4R; MC5R; MCHR1; MCHR2; MGC72080; MLNR; MRGPRD; MRGPRE; MRGPRF; MRGPRG; MRGPRX1; MRGPRX2; MRGPRX3; MRGPRX4; MTNR1A; MTNR1B; NMBR; NMUR1; NMUR2; NPBWR1; NPBWR2; NPFFR1; NPFFR2; NPSR1; NPY1R; NPY2R; NPY5R; NPY6R; NTSR1; NTSR2; OPN1LW; OPN1MW; OPN1SW; OPN3; OPN4; OPN5; OPRD1; OPRK1; OPRL1; OPRM; OPRM1; OXER1; OXGR1; OXTR; P2RY1; P2RY10; P2RY11; P2RY12; P2RY13; P2RY14; P2RY2; P2RY4; P2RY5; P2RY6; P2RY8; P2Y2-like; PPYR1; PRLHR; PROKR1; PROKR2; PTAFR; PTGDR; PTGER1; PTGER2; PTGER3; PTGER4; PTGFR; PTGIR; RGR; RHO; RRH; RXFP1; RXFP2; RXFP3; RXFP4; SSTR1; SSTR2; SSTR3; SSTR4; SSTR5; SUCNR1; TAAR1; TAAR2; TAAR3; TAAR5; TAAR6; TAAR8; TAAR9; TACR1; TACR2; TACR3; TBXA2R; TRHR; TSHR; UTS2R; XCR1;

References

  • [ 1] PMID 15774036 The opsins. Terakita A; Genome Biol 2005;6:213.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

7 transmembrane receptor (rhodopsin family) Provide feedback

This family contains, amongst other G-protein-coupled receptors (GCPRs), members of the opsin family, which have been considered to be typical members of the rhodopsin superfamily. They share several motifs, mainly the seven transmembrane helices, GCPRs of the rhodopsin superfamily. All opsins bind a chromophore, such as 11-cis-retinal. The function of most opsins other than the photoisomerases is split into two steps: light absorption and G-protein activation. Photoisomerases, on the other hand, are not coupled to G-proteins - they are thought to generate and supply the chromophore that is used by visual opsins [1].

Literature references

  1. Terakita A; , Genome Biol 2005;6:213.: The opsins. PUBMED:15774036 EPMC:15774036


Internal database links

External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR000276

The rhodopsin-like GPCRs (GPCRA) represent a widespread protein family that includes hormone, neurotransmitter and light receptors, all of which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. Although their activating ligands vary widely in structure and character, the amino acid sequences of the receptors are very similar and are believed to adopt a common structural framework comprising 7 transmembrane (TM) helices [ PUBMED:2111655 , PUBMED:2830256 , PUBMED:8386361 ].

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a vast protein family that encompasses a wide range of functions, including various autocrine, paracrine and endocrine processes. They show considerable diversity at the sequence level, on the basis of which they can be separated into distinct groups [ PUBMED:12679517 ]. The term clan can be used to describe the GPCRs, as they embrace a group of families for which there are indications of evolutionary relationship, but between which there is no statistically significant similarity in sequence [ PUBMED:8170923 ]. The currently known clan members include rhodopsin-like GPCRs (Class A, GPCRA), secretin-like GPCRs (Class B, GPCRB), metabotropic glutamate receptor family (Class C, GPCRC), fungal mating pheromone receptors (Class D, GPCRD), cAMP receptors (Class E, GPCRE) and frizzled/smoothened (Class F, GPCRF) [ PUBMED:8170923 , PUBMED:8081729 , PUBMED:15914470 , PUBMED:18948278 , PUBMED:16753280 ]. GPCRs are major drug targets, and are consequently the subject of considerable research interest. It has been reported that the repertoire of GPCRs for endogenous ligands consists of approximately 400 receptors in humans and mice [ PUBMED:12679517 ]. Most GPCRs are identified on the basis of their DNA sequences, rather than the ligand they bind, those that are unmatched to known natural ligands are designated by as orphan GPCRs, or unclassified GPCRs [ PUBMED:23020293 ].

This entry represents the G protein-coupled receptor, rhodopsin-like family.

Gene Ontology

The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan GPCR_A (CL0192), which has the following description:

This clan contains various seven-transmembrane receptors and related proteins. A major member is Pfam:PF00001, members of which have been considered to be typical members of the rhodopsin superfamily. Many members of this clan are Caenorhabditis proteins, suggesting great expansion of the relevant families in these nematode worms.

The clan contains the following 53 members:

7TM-7TMR_HD 7tm_1 7tm_2 7tm_3 7tm_4 7TM_GPCR_Sra 7TM_GPCR_Srab 7TM_GPCR_Srb 7TM_GPCR_Srbc 7TM_GPCR_Srd 7TM_GPCR_Srh 7TM_GPCR_Sri 7TM_GPCR_Srj 7TM_GPCR_Srsx 7TM_GPCR_Srt 7TM_GPCR_Sru 7TM_GPCR_Srv 7TM_GPCR_Srw 7TM_GPCR_Srx 7TM_GPCR_Srz 7TM_GPCR_Str 7TMR-DISM_7TM Bac_rhodopsin Ceramidase Chs7 Dicty_CAR DUF1182 DUF3522 DUF621 Frizzled Git3 GpcrRhopsn4 GPR_Gpa2_C Heliorhodopsin HisKA_7TM HlyIII Lung_7-TM_R MASE3 MASE4 Ocular_alb Per1 Pombe_5TM Serpentine_r_xa SID-1_RNA_chan Solute_trans_a Sre Srg STE3 TAS2R THH1_TOM1-3_dom TMEM187 Tmemb_40 V1R

Alignments

We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...

View options

We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

  Seed
(63)
Full
(127566)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(266147)
RP15
(24915)
RP35
(50446)
RP55
(101798)
RP75
(130592)
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HTML View             
PP/heatmap 1            

1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

Key: ✓ available, x not generated, not available.

Format an alignment

  Seed
(63)
Full
(127566)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(266147)
RP15
(24915)
RP35
(50446)
RP55
(101798)
RP75
(130592)
Alignment:
Format:
Order:
Sequence:
Gaps:
Download/view:

Download options

We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

  Seed
(63)
Full
(127566)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(266147)
RP15
(24915)
RP35
(50446)
RP55
(101798)
RP75
(130592)
Raw Stockholm Download     Download   Download        
Gzipped Download     Download   Download        

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...

Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Prosite
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Sequence Ontology: SO:0100021
Author: Sonnhammer ELL
Number in seed: 63
Number in full: 127566
Average length of the domain: 254.9 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 19 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 66.53 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null --hand HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 61295632 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 30.5 30.5
Trusted cut-off 30.5 30.5
Noise cut-off 30.4 30.4
Model length: 264
Family (HMM) version: 24
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence

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Structures

For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the 7tm_1 domain has been found. There are 650 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.

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AlphaFold Structure Predictions

The list of proteins below match this family and have AlphaFold predicted structures. Click on the protein accession to view the predicted structure.

Protein Predicted structure External Information
A0A044QP80 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044R7G5 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044RET2 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044RJD4 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044RY99 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044S9Q9 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044SB05 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044SIF5 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044SKD4 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044SLZ6 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044SP86 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044SPL8 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044SQM7 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044SUN4 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044T0G2 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044T0U2 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044T257 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044T2L1 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044T503 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044T5H8 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044T6H9 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044T6S3 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044T7E8 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044T8J1 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044T9W4 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044TAL2 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044TFX4 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044TQ39 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044TRJ5 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044TSS3 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044TXD6 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044TXE5 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044TZY2 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044U2M2 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044U2X9 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044U3I4 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044U4J4 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044UA33 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044UAE3 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A044UD25 View 3D Structure Click here