Summary: RNA recognition motif. (a.k.a. RRM, RBD, or RNP domain)
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RNA recognition motif Edit Wikipedia article
|RNA recognition motif. (a.k.a. RRM, RBD, or RNP domain)|
|Pfam clan||RRM CL0221 RRM|
|SCOPe||1sxl / SUPFAM|
RRM proteins have a variety of RNA binding preferences and functions, and include heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), proteins implicated in regulation of alternative splicing (SR, U2AF2, Sxl), protein components of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U1 and U2 snRNPs), and proteins that regulate RNA stability and translation (PABP, La, Hu). The RRM in heterodimeric splicing factor U2 snRNP auxiliary factor appears to have two RRM-like domains with specialised features for protein recognition. The motif also appears in a few single stranded DNA binding proteins.
The typical RRM consists of four anti-parallel beta-strands and two alpha-helices arranged in a beta-alpha-beta-beta-alpha-beta fold with side chains that stack with RNA bases. A third helix is present during RNA binding in some cases. The RRM is reviewed in a number of publications.
Human proteins containing this domain
A2BP1; ACF; BOLL; BRUNOL4; BRUNOL5; BRUNOL6; CCBL2; CGI-96; CIRBP; CNOT4; CPEB2; CPEB3; CPEB4; CPSF7; CSTF2; CSTF2T; CUGBP1; CUGBP2; D10S102; DAZ1; DAZ2; DAZ3; DAZ4; DAZAP1; DAZL; DNAJC17; DND1; EIF3S4; EIF3S9; EIF4B; EIF4H; ELAVL1; ELAVL2; ELAVL3; ELAVL4; ENOX1; ENOX2; EWSR1; FUS; FUSIP1; G3BP; G3BP1; G3BP2; GRSF1; HNRNPL; HNRPA0; HNRPA1; HNRPA2B1; HNRPA3; HNRPAB; HNRPC; HNRPCL1; HNRPD; HNRPDL; HNRPF; HNRPH1; HNRPH2; HNRPH3; HNRPL; HNRPLL; HNRPM; HNRPR; HRNBP1; HSU53209; HTATSF1; IGF2BP1; IGF2BP2; IGF2BP3; LARP7; MKI67IP; MSI1; MSI2; MSSP-2; MTHFSD; MYEF2; NCBP2; NCL; NOL8; NONO; P14; PABPC1; PABPC1L; PABPC3; PABPC4; PABPC5; PABPN1; POLDIP3; PPARGC1; PPARGC1A; PPARGC1B; PPIE; PPIL4; PPRC1; PSPC1; PTBP1; PTBP2; PUF60; RALY; RALYL; RAVER1; RAVER2; RBM10; RBM11; RBM12; RBM12B; RBM14; RBM15; RBM15B; RBM16; RBM17; RBM18; RBM19; RBM22; RBM23; RBM24; RBM25; RBM26; RBM27; RBM28; RBM3; RBM32B; RBM33; RBM34; RBM35A; RBM35B; RBM38; RBM39; RBM4; RBM41; RBM42; RBM44; RBM45; RBM46; RBM47; RBM4B; RBM5; RBM7; RBM8A; RBM9; RBMS1; RBMS2; RBMS3; RBMX; RBMX2; RBMXL2; RBMY1A1; RBMY1B; RBMY1E; RBMY1F; RBMY2FP; RBPMS; RBPMS2; RDBP; RNPC3; RNPC4; RNPS1; ROD1; SAFB; SAFB2; SART3; SETD1A; SF3B14; SF3B4; SFPQ; SFRS1; SFRS10; SFRS11; SFRS12; SFRS15; SFRS2; SFRS2B; SFRS3; SFRS4; SFRS5; SFRS6; SFRS7; SFRS9; SLIRP; SLTM; SNRP70; SNRPA; SNRPB2; SPEN; SR140; SRRP35; SSB; SYNCRIP; TAF15; TARDBP; THOC4; TIA1; TIAL1; TNRC4; TNRC6C; TRA2A; TRSPAP1; TUT1; U1SNRNPBP; U2AF1; U2AF2; UHMK1; ZCRB1; ZNF638; ZRSR1; ZRSR2;
- Swanson MS, Dreyfuss G, Pinol-Roma S (1988). "Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles and the pathway of mRNA formation". Trends Biochem. Sci. 13 (3): 86â€“91. doi:10.1016/0968-0004(88)90046-1. PMID 3072706.
- Keene JD, Chambers JC, Kenan D, Martin BJ (1988). "Genomic structure and amino acid sequence domains of the human La autoantigen". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (34): 18043â€“51. PMID 3192525.
- Davis RW, Sachs AB, Kornberg RD (1987). "A single domain of yeast poly(A)-binding protein is necessary and sufficient for RNA binding and cell viability". Mol. Cell. Biol. 7 (9): 3268â€“76. PMC 367964. PMID 3313012.
- Bandziulis RJ, Swanson MS, Dreyfuss G (1989). "RNA-binding proteins as developmental regulators". Genes Dev. 3 (4): 431â€“437. doi:10.1101/gad.3.4.431. PMID 2470643.
- Keene JD, Query CC, Bentley RC (1989). "A common RNA recognition motif identified within a defined U1 RNA binding domain of the 70K U1 snRNP protein". Cell. 57 (1): 89â€“101. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(89)90175-X. PMID 2467746.
- Green MR, Kielkopf CL, Lucke S (2004). "U2AF homology motifs: protein recognition in the RRM world". Genes Dev. 18 (13): 1513â€“1526. doi:10.1101/gad.1206204. PMC 2043112. PMID 15231733.
- Kumar S, Birney E, Krainer AR (1993). "Analysis of the RNA-recognition motif and RS and RGG domains: conservation in metazoan pre-mRNA splicing factors". Nucleic Acids Res. 21 (25): 5803â€“5816. doi:10.1093/nar/21.25.5803. PMC 310458. PMID 8290338.
- Keene JD, Kenan DJ, Query CC (1991). "RNA recognition: towards identifying determinants of specificity". Trends Biochem. Sci. 16 (6): 214â€“20. doi:10.1016/0968-0004(91)90088-d. PMID 1716386.
- Allain FH, Dominguez C, Maris C (2005). "The RNA recognition motif, a plastic RNA-binding platform to regulate post-transcriptional gene expression". FEBS J. 272 (9): 2118â€“31. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2005.04653.x. PMID 15853797.
- Teplova M, Yuan YR, Patel DJ, Malinina L, Teplov A, Phan AT, Ilin S (2006). "Structural basis for recognition and sequestration of UUU(OH) 3' temini of nascent RNA polymerase III transcripts by La, a rheumatic disease autoantigen". Mol. Cell. 21 (1): 75â€“85. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.10.027. PMC 4689297. PMID 16387655.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
RNA recognition motif. (a.k.a. RRM, RBD, or RNP domain) Provide feedback
The RRM motif is probably diagnostic of an RNA binding protein. RRMs are found in a variety of RNA binding proteins, including various hnRNP proteins, proteins implicated in regulation of alternative splicing, and protein components of snRNPs. The motif also appears in a few single stranded DNA binding proteins. The RRM structure consists of four strands and two helices arranged in an alpha/beta sandwich, with a third helix present during RNA binding in some cases The C-terminal beta strand (4th strand) and final helix are hard to align and have been omitted in the SEED alignment The LA proteins (P05455) have an N terminal rrm which is included in the seed. There is a second region towards the C terminus that has some features characteristic of a rrm but does not appear to have the important structural core of a rrm. The LA proteins (P05455) are one of the main autoantigens in Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease.
Birney E., Kumar S., Krainer A.R. , Nucleic Acid Res 1993;21:5803-5816.: Analysis of the RNA-recognition motif and RS and RGG domains: conservation in metazoan pre-mRNA splicing factors. PUBMED:8290338 EPMC:8290338
Internal database links
|SCOOP:||BRAP2 BUD22 CDC45 DbpA DUF1866 DUF2722 DUF4523 Limkain-b1 Nup35_RRM Nup35_RRM_2 RL RNA_bind RRM_2 RRM_3 RRM_5 RRM_7 RRM_8 RRM_occluded RRM_Rrp7 RSRP Rtf2 SDA1 TFIIA Transformer|
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||Smg4_UPF3 RRM_2 Calcipressin Nup35_RRM BRAP2 RNA_bind RRM_3 Limkain-b1 SET_assoc RRM_5 Nup35_RRM_2 RRM_7 RRM_occluded|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000504
Many eukaryotic proteins containing one or more copies of a putative RNA-binding domain of about 90 amino acids are known to bind single-stranded RNAs [PUBMED:3072706, PUBMED:3192525, PUBMED:3313012]. The largest group of single strand RNA-binding proteins is the eukaryotic RNA recognition motif (RRM) family that contains an eight amino acid RNP-1 consensus sequence [PUBMED:2470643, PUBMED:2467746]. RRM proteins have a variety of RNA binding preferences and functions, and include heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), proteins implicated in regulation of alternative splicing (SR, U2AF, Sxl), protein components of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U1 and U2 snRNPs), and proteins that regulate RNA stability and translation (PABP, La, Hu) [PUBMED:3192525, PUBMED:3313012, PUBMED:2467746]. The RRM in heterodimeric splicing factor U2 snRNP auxiliary factor (U2AF) appears to have two RRM-like domains with specialised features for protein recognition [PUBMED:15231733]. The motif also appears in a few single stranded DNA binding proteins.
The typical RRM consists of four anti-parallel beta-strands and two alpha-helices arranged in a beta-alpha-beta-beta-alpha-beta fold with side chains that stack with RNA bases. Specificity of RNA binding is determined by multiple contacts with surrounding amino acids. A third helix is present during RNA binding in some cases [PUBMED:8290338]. The RRM is reviewed in a number of publications [PUBMED:1716386, PUBMED:15853797, PUBMED:16387655].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||nucleic acid binding (GO:0003676)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
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This clan contains families that are related to the RNA recognition motif domains. However, not all these families are RNA binding.
The clan contains the following 31 members:BRAP2 Calcipressin DbpA DUF1743 DUF1866 DUF4523 GlcNAc-1_reg GUCT Limkain-b1 Nup35_RRM Nup35_RRM_2 PHM7_cyt RL RNA_bind RRM_1 RRM_2 RRM_3 RRM_5 RRM_7 RRM_8 RRM_9 RRM_occluded RRM_Rrp7 SET_assoc Smg4_UPF3 Spo7_2_N Tap-RNA_bind Transposase_22 U1snRNP70_N XS YlmH_RBD
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Author:||Eddy SR , Birney E|
|Number in seed:||72|
|Number in full:||192165|
|Average length of the domain:||67.40 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||22 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||22.58 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||22|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
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Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 19 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the RRM_1 domain has been found. There are 970 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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