Summary: Pilin (bacterial filament)
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Pilin Edit Wikipedia article
|Pilin (bacterial filament)|
|SCOPe||1paj / SUPFAM|
Pilin refers to a class of fibrous proteins that are found in pilus structures in bacteria. Bacterial pili are used in the exchange of genetic material during bacterial conjugation, while a shorter type of appendages also made up of pilin, called fimbriae, are used as a cell adhesion mechanism. Although not all bacteria have pili or fimbriae, bacterial pathogens often use their fimbriae to attach to host cells. In Gram-negative bacteria, where pili are more common, individual pilin molecules are linked by noncovalent protein-protein interactions, while Gram-positive bacteria often have polymerized pilin.
Some pilin proteins are Î±+Î² proteins characterized by a very long N-terminal alpha helix. The assembly of these pili relies on interactions between the N-terminal helices of the individual monomers. The pilus structure sequesters the helices in the center of the fiber lining a central pore, while antiparallel beta sheets occupy the exterior of the fiber. The exact mechanism of assembly of these pili from monomers is not known, although chaperone proteins have been identified for some types of pilin. and specific amino acids required for proper pilus formation have been isolated.
Development of molecular tools
Pili in Gram-positive bacteria contain spontaneously formed isopeptide bonds. These bonds provide enhanced mechanical and proteolytic stability to the pilin protein. Recently, the pilin protein from Streptococcus pyogenes has been split into two fragments to develop a new molecular tool called the isopeptag. The isopeptag is a short peptide that can be attached to a protein of interest and can bind its binding partner through a spontaneously formed isopeptide bond. This new peptide tag can allow scientists to target and isolate their proteins of interest through a permanent covalent bond.
Role of ComP pilin in bacterial transformation
Genetic transformation is the process by which a recipient bacterial cell takes up DNA from a neighboring cell and integrates this DNA into the recipientâ€™s genome by homologous recombination. In Neisseria meningitidis, DNA transformation requires the presence of short DNA uptake sequences (DUSs) which are 9-10mers residing in coding regions of the donor DNA. Specific recognition of DUSs is mediated by a type IV pilin, ComP. Menningococcal type IV pili bind DNA through the minor pilin ComP via an electropositive stripe that is predicted to be exposed on the filament's surface. ComP displays an exquisite binding preference for selective DUSs. The distribution of DUSs within the N. meningitidis genome favors certain genes, suggesting that there is a bias for genes involved in genomic maintenance and repair.
- Telford JL, Barocchi MA, Margarit I, Rappuoli R, Grandi G (2006). "Pili in gram-positive pathogens". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 4 (7): 509â€“19. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1443. PMID 16778837.
- Forest KT, Tainer JA (1997). "Type-4 pilus-structure: outside to inside and top to bottom--a minireview". Gene. 192 (1): 165â€“9. doi:10.1016/s0378-1119(97)00008-5. PMID 9224887.
- Jones CH, Pinkner JS, Nicholes AV, Slonim LN, Abraham SN, Hultgren SJ (1993). "FimC is a periplasmic PapD-like chaperone that directs assembly of type 1 pili in bacteria". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (18): 8397â€“401. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.18.8397. PMC 47363. PMID 8104335.
- Mu XQ, Jiang ZG, Bullitt E (2005). "Localization of a critical interface for helical rod formation of bacterial adhesion P-pili". J. Mol. Biol. 346 (1): 13â€“20. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.11.037. PMID 15663923.
- Alegre-Cebollada J, Badilla CL, FernÃ¡ndez JM (2010). "Isopeptide bonds block the mechanical extension of pili in pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes". J. Biol. Chem. 285 (15): 11235â€“11242. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.102962. PMC 2857001. PMID 20139067.
- Kang HJ, Coulibaly F, Clow F, Proft T, Baker EN (2007). "Stabilizing isopeptide bonds revealed in gram-positive bacterial pilus structure". Science. 318 (5856): 1625â€“1628. doi:10.1126/science.1145806. PMID 18063798.
- Zakeri B, Howarth M (2010). "Spontaneous intermolecular amide bond formation between side chains for irreversible peptide targeting". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (13): 4526â€“7. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.706.4839. doi:10.1021/ja910795a. PMID 20235501.
- Berry JL, Cehovin A, McDowell MA, Lea SM, Pelicic V (2013). "Functional analysis of the interdependence between DNA uptake sequence and its cognate ComP receptor during natural transformation in Neisseria species". PLoS Genet. 9 (12): e1004014. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004014. PMC 3868556. PMID 24385921.
- Cehovin A, Simpson PJ, McDowell MA, Brown DR, Noschese R, Pallett M, Brady J, Baldwin GS, Lea SM, Matthews SJ, Pelicic V (2013). "Specific DNA recognition mediated by a type IV pilin". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110 (8): 3065â€“70. doi:10.1073/pnas.1218832110. PMC 3581936. PMID 23386723.
- Davidsen T, RÃ¸dland EA, Lagesen K, Seeberg E, Rognes T, TÃ¸njum T (2004). "Biased distribution of DNA uptake sequences towards genome maintenance genes". Nucleic Acids Res. 32 (3): 1050â€“8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkh255. PMC 373393. PMID 14960717.
- Caugant DA, Maiden MC (2009). "Meningococcal carriage and disease--population biology and evolution". Vaccine. 27 Suppl 2: B64â€“70. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.061. PMC 2719693. PMID 19464092.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Pilin (bacterial filament) Provide feedback
Proteins with only the short N-terminal methylation site are not separated from the noise. The Prosite pattern detects those better.
Internal database links
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001082Pilin is a subunit of the pilus, a polar flexible filament, which consists of a single polypeptide chain arranged in a helical configuration of five subunits per turn. Gram-negative bacteria produce pilin which is characterised by the presence of a very short leader peptide of 6 to 7 residues, followed by a methylated N-terminal phenylalanine residue and by a highly conserved sequence of about 24 hydrophobic residues, of the NMePhe type pilin [PUBMED:2898203, PUBMED:3118043].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||pilus (GO:0009289)|
|Biological process||cell adhesion (GO:0007155)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
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This is a clan contains bacterial pilus subunits and proteins involved in secretion. Pili proteins enable the transfer of plasmid between bacteria. The families in this clan adopt an alpha helical structure which is packed against a beta sheet [2-3].
The clan contains the following 13 members:Bundlin ComP_DUS GspH Pilin Pilin_GH Pilin_PilX PilJ_C PilM PilS T2SSG T2SSI T2SSJ TcpA
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Number in seed:||140|
|Number in full:||1521|
|Average length of the domain:||112.40 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||20 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||66.32 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||19|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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- 0 sequences
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There is 1 interaction for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Pilin domain has been found. There are 93 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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