Summary: Glutamine amidotransferase class-I
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Glutamine amidotransferase Edit Wikipedia article
|Glutamine amidotransferase class-I|
crystal structure of putative glutamine amido transferase (tm1158) from thermotoga maritima at 1.70 a resolution
In molecular biology, glutamine amidotransferases (GATase) are enzymes which catalyse the removal of the ammonia group from a glutamine molecule and its subsequent transfer to a specific substrate, thus creating a new carbon-nitrogen group on the substrate. This activity is found in a range of biosynthetic enzymes, including glutamine amidotransferase, anthranilate synthase component II, p-aminobenzoate, and glutamine-dependent carbamoyl-transferase (CPSase). Glutamine amidotransferase (GATase) domains can occur either as single polypeptides, as in glutamine amidotransferases, or as domains in a much larger multifunctional synthase protein, such as CPSase. On the basis of sequence similarities two classes of GATase domains have been identified: class-I (also known as trpG-type) and class-II (also known as purF-type). Class-I GATase domains are defined by a conserved catalytic triad consisting of cysteine, histidine and glutamate. Class-I GATase domains have been found in the following enzymes: the second component of anthranilate synthase and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) synthase; CTP synthase; GMP synthase; glutamine-dependent carbamoyl-phosphate synthase; phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase II; and the histidine amidotransferase hisH.
- Weng ML, Zalkin H (July 1987). "Structural role for a conserved region in the CTP synthetase glutamine amide transfer domain". J. Bacteriol. 169 (7): 3023–8. PMC . PMID 3298209.
- Nyunoya H, Lusty CJ (August 1984). "Sequence of the small subunit of yeast carbamyl phosphate synthetase and identification of its catalytic domain". J. Biol. Chem. 259 (15): 9790–8. PMID 6086650.
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Internal database links
|SCOOP:||CbiA DJ-1_PfpI GATase_3 GATase_5 HTS Peptidase_C26 Peptidase_S51 SNO ThiJ_like|
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||SNO DJ-1_PfpI HTS GATase_3 Peptidase_C26|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR017926
Glutamine amidotransferase (GATase) enzymes catalyse the removal of the ammonia group from glutamine and then transfer this group to a substrate to form a new carbon-nitrogen group [PUBMED:4355768]. The GATase domain exists either as a separate polypeptidic subunit or as part of a larger polypeptide fused in different ways to a synthase domain. Two classes of GATase domains have been identified [PUBMED:3298209, PUBMED:6086650]: class-I (also known as trpG-type or triad) and class-II (also known as purF-type or Ntn). Class-I (or type 1) GATase domains have been found in the following enzymes:
- The second component of anthranilate synthase (AS) [PUBMED:2679363]. AS catalyzes the biosynthesis of anthranilate from chorismate and glutamine. AS is generally a dimeric enzyme: the first component can synthesize anthranilate using ammonia rather than glutamine, whereas component II provides the GATase activity [PUBMED:10449718]. In some bacteria and in fungi the GATase component of AS is part of a multifunctional protein that also catalyzes other steps of the biosynthesis of tryptophan.
- The second component of 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) synthase, a dimeric prokaryotic enzyme that functions in the pathway that catalyzes the biosynthesis of para-aminobenzoate (PABA) from chorismate and glutamine. The second component (gene pabA) provides the GATase activity [PUBMED:2679363].
- CTP synthase. CTP synthase catalyzes the final reaction in the biosynthesis of pyrimidine, the ATP-dependent formation of CTP from UTP and glutamine. CTP synthase is a single chain enzyme that contains two distinct domains; the GATase domain is in the C-terminal section [PUBMED:3298209].
- GMP synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing). GMP synthase catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of GMP from xanthosine 5'-phosphate and glutamine. GMP synthase is a single chain enzyme that contains two distinct domains; the GATase domain is in the N-terminal section [PUBMED:2982857, PUBMED:8548458].
- Glutamine-dependent carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (GD-CPSase); an enzyme involved in both arginine and pyrimidine biosynthesis and which catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine and carbon dioxide. In bacteria GD-CPSase is composed of two subunits: the large chain (gene carB) provides the CPSase activity, while the small chain (gene carA) provides the GATase activity. In yeast the enzyme involved in arginine biosynthesis is also composed of two subunits: CPA1 (GATase), and CPA2 (CPSase). In most eukaryotes, the first three steps of pyrimidine biosynthesis are catalyzed by a large multifunctional enzyme (called URA2 in yeast, rudimentary in Drosophila, and CAD in mammals). The GATase domain is located at the N-terminal extremity of this polyprotein [PUBMED:8098212].
- Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase, an enzyme that catalyzes the fourth step in the de novo biosynthesis of purines. In some species of bacteria and rchaea, FGAM synthase II is composed of two subunits: a small chain (gene purQ) which provides the GATase activity and a large chain (gene purL) which provides the aminator activity. In eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria a single polypeptide (large type of purL) contains a FGAM synthethase domain and the GATase as the C-terminal domain [PUBMED:15301531].
- Imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase subunit hisH, an enzyme that catalyzes the fifth step in the biosynthesis of histidine.
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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Most members of this clan are glutaminase enzymes. This superfamily is shown to be related in . The clan also contains the DJ-1/PfpI family that includes the peptidase PfpI that has a catalytic Cys-His-Glu triad that differs from the class I GAT Cys-His-Glu triad.
The clan contains the following 15 members:BPL_N DJ-1_PfpI DUF4159 GATase GATase1_like GATase_3 GATase_5 Glyco_hydro_42M HTS LBP_M Peptidase_C26 Peptidase_S51 SNO ThiJ_like ThuA
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Number in seed:||97|
|Number in full:||29042|
|Average length of the domain:||191.20 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||21 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||43.83 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||27|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
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Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
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Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
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Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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There are 14 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the GATase domain has been found. There are 147 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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