Summary: Phorbol esters/diacylglycerol binding domain (C1 domain)
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "C1 domain". More...
The Wikipedia text that you see displayed here is a download from Wikipedia. This means that the information we display is a copy of the information from the Wikipedia database. The button next to the article title ("Edit Wikipedia article") takes you to the edit page for the article directly within Wikipedia. You should be aware you are not editing our local copy of this information. Any changes that you make to the Wikipedia article will not be displayed here until we next download the article from Wikipedia. We currently download new content on a nightly basis.
Does Pfam agree with the content of the Wikipedia entry ?
Pfam has chosen to link families to Wikipedia articles. In some case we have created or edited these articles but in many other cases we have not made any direct contribution to the content of the article. The Wikipedia community does monitor edits to try to ensure that (a) the quality of article annotation increases, and (b) vandalism is very quickly dealt with. However, we would like to emphasise that Pfam does not curate the Wikipedia entries and we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information on the Wikipedia page.
Editing Wikipedia articles
Before you edit for the first time
Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopedia. Although anyone can edit or contribute to an article, Wikipedia has some strong editing guidelines and policies, which promote the Wikipedia standard of style and etiquette. Your edits and contributions are more likely to be accepted (and remain) if they are in accordance with this policy.
You should take a few minutes to view the following pages:
How your contribution will be recorded
Anyone can edit a Wikipedia entry. You can do this either as a new user or you can register with Wikipedia and log on. When you click on the "Edit Wikipedia article" button, your browser will direct you to the edit page for this entry in Wikipedia. If you are a registered user and currently logged in, your changes will be recorded under your Wikipedia user name. However, if you are not a registered user or are not logged on, your changes will be logged under your computer's IP address. This has two main implications. Firstly, as a registered Wikipedia user your edits are more likely seen as valuable contribution (although all edits are open to community scrutiny regardless). Secondly, if you edit under an IP address you may be sharing this IP address with other users. If your IP address has previously been blocked (due to being flagged as a source of 'vandalism') your edits will also be blocked. You can find more information on this and creating a user account at Wikipedia.
If you have problems editing a particular page, contact us at email@example.com and we will try to help.
The community annotation is a new facility of the Pfam web site. If you have problems editing or experience problems with these pages please contact us.
C1 domain Edit Wikipedia article
|Phorbol esters/diacylglycerol binding domain (C1 domain)|
C1 domain of PKC-delta (1ptr) Middle plane of the lipid bilayer - black dots. Boundary of the hydrocarbon core region - blue dots (cytoplasmic side). Layer of lipid phosphates - yellow dots.
C1 domain (also known as phorbol esters/diacylglycerol binding domain) binds an important secondary messenger diacylglycerol (DAG), as well as the analogous phorbol esters. Phorbol esters can directly stimulate protein kinase C, PKC. The N-terminal region of PKC, known as C1, has been shown
Phorbol esters (such as PMA) are analogues of DAG and potent tumor promoters that cause a variety of physiological changes when administered to both cells and tissues. DAG activates a family of serine/threonine protein kinases, collectively known as protein kinase C (PKC). Phorbol esters can directly stimulate PKC.
The N-terminal region of PKC, known as C1, binds PMA and DAG in a phospholipid and zinc-dependent fashion. The C1 region contains one or two copies of a cysteine-rich domain, which is about 50 amino-acid residues long, and which is essential for DAG/PMA-binding.
The DAG/PMA-binding domain binds two zinc ions; the ligands of these metal ions are probably the six cysteines and two histidines that are conserved in this domain.
Human proteins containing this domain
AKAP13; ARAF; ARHGAP29; ARHGEF2; BRAF; CDC42BPA; CDC42BPB; CDC42BPG; CHN1; CHN2; CIT; DGKA; DGKB; DGKD; DGKE; DGKG; DGKH; DGKI; DGKK; DGKQ; DGKZ; GMIP; HMHA1; KSR1; KSR2; MYO9A; MYO9B; PDZD8; PRKCA; PRKCB1; PRKCD; PRKCE; PRKCG; PRKCH; PRKCI; PRKCN; PRKCQ; PRKCZ; PRKD1; PRKD2; PRKD3; RACGAP1; RAF1; RASGRP; RASGRP1; RASGRP2; RASGRP3; RASGRP4; RASSF1; RASSF5; ROCK1; ROCK2; STAC; STAC2; STAC3; TENC1; UNC13A; UNC13B; UNC13C; VAV1; VAV2; VAV3;
- Azzi A, Boscoboinik D, Hensey C (1992). "The protein kinase C family". Eur. J. Biochem. 208 (3): 547–557. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1992.tb17219.x. PMID 1396661.
- Kikkawa U, Nishizuka Y, Igarashi K, Fujii T, Ono Y, Kuno T, Tanaka C (1989). "Phorbol ester binding to protein kinase C requires a cysteine-rich zinc-finger-like sequence". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86 (13): 4868–4871. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.13.4868. PMC 297516. PMID 2500657.
- UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes families/superfamily-63 - Orientations of C1 domains in membranes (OPM)
Phorbol esters/diacylglycerol binding domain (C1 domain) Provide feedback
This domain is also known as the Protein kinase C conserved region 1 (C1) domain.
Knighton DR, Zheng JH, Ten Eyck LF, Ashford VA, Xuong NH, Taylor SS, Sowadski JM; , Science. 1991;253:407-414.: Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. PUBMED:1862342 EPMC:1862342
Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||C1_2 C1_3|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR002219
Diacylglycerol (DAG) is an important second messenger. Phorbol esters (PE) are analogues of DAG and potent tumour promoters that cause a variety of physiological changes when administered to both cells and tissues. DAG activates a family of serine/threonine protein kinases, collectively known as protein kinase C (PKC) [PUBMED:1396661]. Phorbol esters can directly stimulate PKC. The N-terminal region of PKC, known as C1, has been shown [PUBMED:2500657] to bind PE and DAG in a phospholipid and zinc-dependent fashion. The C1 region contains one or two copies (depending on the isozyme of PKC) of a cysteine-rich domain, which is about 50 amino-acid residues long, and which is essential for DAG/PE-binding. The DAG/PE-binding domain binds two zinc ions; the ligands of these metal ions are probably the six cysteines and two histidines that are conserved in this domain.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Biological process||intracellular signal transduction (GO:0035556)|
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Loading domain graphics...
The members of this clan are all variations of the protein kinase C1 domain that is characterised by a rich cysteine and histidine content. The C1 domain is the N-terminal region of conservation found in protein kinase C domains. This domain is involved in binding many ligands, which include diacylglycerol, phorbol esters and zinc .
The clan contains the following 5 members:C1_1 C1_2 C1_3 C1_4 ZZ
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- Pfam viewer
- an HTML-based viewer that uses DAS to retrieve alignment fragments on request
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
|Previous IDs:||DAG_PE-bind; C1;|
|Number in seed:||46|
|Number in full:||6123|
|Average length of the domain:||52.60 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||31 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||8.26 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||17|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
How the sunburst is generated
Colouring and labels
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
Missing taxonomic levels
Unmapped species names
Too many species/sequences
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
There are 2 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the C1_1 domain has been found. There are 24 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
Loading structure mapping...