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Metallothionein Edit Wikipedia article
|Metallothionein superfamily (plant)|
Cyanobacterial SmtA metallothionein bound to zinc ions. Cysteines in yellow, zinc in purple. ( )
Metallothionein (MT) is a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight (MW ranging from 500 to 14000 Da) proteins. They are localized to the membrane of the Golgi apparatus. MTs have the capacity to bind both physiological (such as zinc, copper, selenium) and xenobiotic (such as cadmium, mercury, silver, arsenic) heavy metals through the thiol group of its cysteine residues, which represent nearly 30% of its constituent amino acid residues.
MT was discovered in 1957 by Vallee and Margoshe from purification of a Cd-binding protein from horse (equine) renal cortex. MT plays a role in the protection against metal toxicity and oxidative stress, and is involved in zinc and copper regulation. There are four main isoforms expressed in humans (family 1, see chart below): MT1 (subtypes A, B, E, F, G, H, L, M, X), MT2, MT3, and MT4. In the human body, large quantities are synthesised primarily in the liver and kidneys. Their production is dependent on availability of the dietary minerals such as zinc, copper, and selenium, as well as the amino acids histidine and cysteine.
Structure and classification
MTs are present in a vast range of taxonomic groups, ranging from prokaryotes (such as the cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp.), protozoa (such as the ciliate Tetrahymena genera), plants (such as Pisum sativum, Triticum durum, Zea mays, or Quercus suber), yeast (such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Candida albicans), invertebrates (such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the insect Drosophila melanogaster, the mollusc Mytilus edulis, or the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and vertebrates (such as the chicken Gallus gallus, or the mammalian Homo sapiens or Mus musculus).
The MTs from this diverse taxonomic range represent a high-heterogeneity sequence (regarding molecular weight and number and distribution of Cys residues) and do not show general homology; in spite of this, homology is found inside some taxonomic groups (such as vertebrate MTs).
From their primary structure, MTs have been classified by different methods. The first one dates from 1987, when Fowler et al., established three classes of MTs: Class I, including the MTs which show homology with horse MT, Class II, including the rest of the MTs with no homology with horse MT, and Class III, which includes phytochelatins, Cys-rich enzymatically synthesised peptides. The second classification was performed by Binz and Kagi in 2001, and takes into account taxonomic parameters and the patterns of distribution of Cys residues along the MT sequence. It results in a classification of 15 families for proteinaceous MTs. Family 15 contains the plant MTs, which in 2002 have been further classified by Cobbet and Goldsbrough into 4 Types (1, 2, 3 and 4) depending on the distribution of their Cys residues and a Cys-devoid regions (called spacers) characteristic of plant MTs.
A table including the principal aspects of the two latter classifications is included.
|1||Vertebrate||K-x(1,2)-C-C-x-C-C-P-x(2)-C||Mus musculus MT1
|2||Molluscan||C-x-C-x(3)-C-T-G-x(3)-C-x-C-x(3)-C-x-C-K||Mytilus edulis 10MTIV
|3||Crustacean||P-[GD]-P-C-C-x(3,4)-C-x-C||Homarus americanus MTH
|4||Echinoderms||P-D-x-K-C-V-C-C-x(5)-C-x-C-x(4)-C-C-x(4)-C-C-x(4,6)-C-C||Strongylocentrotus purpuratus SpMTA
|5||Diptera||C-G-x(2)-C-x-C-x(2)-Q-x(5)-C-x-C-x(2)D-C-x-C||Drosophila melanogaster MTNB
|6||Nematoda||K-C-C-x(3)-C-C||Caenorhabditis elegans MT1
|7||Ciliate||x-C-C-C-x ?||Tetrahymena thermophila MTT1
|8||Fungal 1||C-G-C-S-x(4)-C-x-C-x(3,4)-C-x-C-S-x-C||Neurospora crassa MT
|9||Fungal 2||---||Candida glabrata MT2
|10||Fungal 3||---||Candida glabrata MT2
|11||Fungal 4||C-X-K-C-x-C-x(2)-C-K-C||Yarrowia lipolytica MT3
|12||Fungal 5||---||Saccharomyces cerevisiae CUP1
|13||Fungal 6||---||Saccharomyces cerevisiae CRS5
|14||Procaryota||K-C-A-C-x(2)-C-L-C||Synechococcus sp SmtA
|15.1||Plant MTs Type 1||C-X-C-X(3)- C-X-C-X(3)- C-X-C-X(3)-spacer-C-X-C-X(3)- C-X-C-X(3)- C-X-C-X(3)||Pisum sativum MT
|15.2||Plant MTs Type 2||C-C-X(3)-C-X-C-X(3)- C-X-C-X(3)- C-X-C-X(3)-spacer- C-X-C-X(3)- C-X-C-X(3)- C-X-C-X(3)||Lycopersicon esculentum MT
|15.3||Plant MTs Type 3||---||Arabidopsis thaliana MT3
|15.4||Plant MTs Type 4 or Ec||C-x(4)-C-X-C-X(3)-C-X(5)-C-X-C-X(9,11)-HTTCGCGEHC-
|Triticum aestivum MT
|99||Phytochelatins and other non-proteinaceous MT-like polypeptides||---||Schizosaccharomyces pombe
More data on this classification are discoverable at the Expasy metallothionein page.
Secondary structure elements have been observed in several MTs SmtA from Syneccochoccus, mammalian MT3, Echinoderma SpMTA, fish Notothenia coriiceps MT, Crustacean MTH, but until this moment, the content of such structures is considered to be poor in MTs, and its functional influence is not considered.
Tertiary structure of MTs is also highly heterogeneous. While vertebrate, echinoderm and crustacean MTs show a bidominial structure with divalent metals as Zn(II) or Cd(II) (the protein is folded so as to bind metals in two functionally independent domains, with a metallic cluster each), yeast and procariotyc MTs show a monodominial structure (one domain with a single metallic cluster). Although no structural data is available for molluscan, nematoda and Drosophila MTs, it is commonly assumed that the former are bidominial and the latter monodominial. No conclusive data are available for Plant MTs, but two possible structures have been proposed: 1) a bidominial structure similar to that of vertebrate MTs; 2) a codominial structure, in which two Cys-rich domains interact to form a single metallic cluster.
Quaternary structure has not been broadly considered for MTs. Dimerization and oligomerization processes have been observed and attributed to several molecular mechanisms, including intermolecular disulfide formation, bridging through metals bound by either Cys or His residues on different MTs, or inorganic phosphate-mediated interactions. Dimeric and polymeric MTs have been shown to acquire novel properties upon metal detoxification, but the physiological significance of these processes has been demonstrated only in the case of prokaryotic Synechococcus SmtA. The MT dimer produced by this organism forms structures similar to zinc fingers and has Zn-regulatory activity.
Metallothioneins have diverse metal-binding preferences, which have been associated with functional specificity. As an example, the mammalian Mus musculus MT1 preferentially binds divalent metal ions (Zn(II), Cd(II),...), while yeast CUP1 is selective for monovalent metal ions (Cu(I), Ag(I),...). Strictly metal-selective MTs with metal-specific physiological functions were discovered by Dallinger et al. (1997) in pulmonate snails (Gastropoda, Mollusca). The Roman snail (Helix pomatia), for example, possesses a Cd-selective (CdMT) and a Cu-selective isoform (CuMT) involved in Cd detoxification and Cu regulation, respectively. While both isoforms contain unvaried numbers and positions of Cys residues responsible for metal ligation, metal selectivity is apparently achieved by sequence modulation of amino acid residues not directly involved in metal binding (Palacios et al. 2011).
A novel functional classification of MTs as Zn- or Cu-thioneins is currently being developed based on these functional preferences.
Metallothioneins are characterized by an abundance of cysteine residues and a lack of generic secondary structure motifs. Yeast Metallothionein (MT) are also alternatively named, Copper metallothionein (CUP).
This protein functions in primary metal storage, transport, and detoxification. More specifically, Yeast MT stores copper so therefore protects the cell against copper toxicity by tightly chelating copper ions.
Yeast MT can be found in the following:
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae
- Neurospora crassa
Metallothionein has been documented to bind a wide range of metals including cadmium, lead, zinc, mercury, copper, arsenic, silver, etc. Metalation of MT was previously reported to occur cooperatively  but recent reports have provided strong evidence that metal-binding occurs via a sequential, noncooperative mechanism. The observation of partially metalated MT (that is, having some free metal binding capacity) suggest that these species are biologically important.
Metallothioneins likely participate in the uptake, transport, and regulation of zinc in biological systems. Mammalian MT binds three Zn(II) ions in its beta domain and four in the alpha domain. Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and chloride ions has been proposed for some MT forms. In some MTs, mostly bacterial, histidine participates in zinc binding. By binding and releasing zinc, metallothioneins (MTs) may regulate zinc levels within the body. Zinc, in turn, is a key element for the activation and binding of certain transcription factors through its participation in the zinc finger region of the protein. Metallothionein also carries zinc ions (signals) from one part of the cell to another. When zinc enters a cell, it can be picked up by thionein (which thus becomes "metallothionein") and carried to another part of the cell where it is released to another organelle or protein. In this way the thionein-metallothionein becomes a key component of the zinc signaling system in cells. This system is particularly important in the brain, where zinc signaling is prominent both between and within nerve cells. It also seems to be important for the regulation of the tumor suppressor protein p53.
Control of oxidative stress
Cysteine residues from MTs can capture harmful oxidant radicals like the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. In this reaction, cysteine is oxidized to cystine, and the metal ions which were bound to cysteine are liberated to the media. As explained in the Expression and regulation section, this Zn can activate the synthesis of more MTs. This mechanism has been proposed to be an important mechanism in the control of the oxidative stress by MTs. The role of MTs in oxidative stress has been confirmed by MT Knockout mutants, but some experiments propose also a prooxidant role for MTs.
Expression and regulation
Metallothionein gene expression is induced by a high variety of stimuli, as metal exposure, oxidative stress, glucocorticoids, Vitamin D, hydric stress, etc. The level of the response to these inducers depends on the MT gene. MT genes present in their promotors specific sequences for the regulation of the expression, elements as metal response elements (MRE), glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), GC-rich boxes, basal level elements (BLE), and thyroid response elements (TRE).
Metallothionein and disease
Because MTs play an important role in transcription factor regulation, defects in MT function or expression may lead to malignant transformation of cells and ultimately cancer. Studies have found increased expression of MTs in some cancers of the breast, colon, kidney, liver, skin (melanoma), lung, nasopharynx, ovary, prostate, mouth, salivary gland, testes, thyroid and urinary bladder; they have also found lower levels of MT expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and liver adenocarcinoma.
Heavy metal toxicity has been proposed as a hypothetical etiology of autism, and dysfunction of MT synthesis and activity may play a role in this. Many heavy metals, including mercury, lead, and arsenic have been linked to symptoms that resemble the neurological symptoms of autism. However, MT dysfunction has not specifically been linked to autistic spectrum disorders. A 2006 study, investigating children exposed to the vaccine preservative thiomersal, found that levels of MT and antibodies to MT in autistic children did not differ significantly from non-autistic children.
A low zinc to copper ratio has been seen as a biomarker for autism and suggested as an indication that the Metallothionein system has been affected.
Further, there is indication that the mother's zinc levels may affect the developing baby's immunological state that may lead to autism and could be again an indication that the Metallothionein system has been affected.
- doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2009.01.035. PMID 19361445.; Peroza EA, Schmucki R, Güntert P, Freisinger E, Zerbe O (March 2009). "The beta(E)-domain of wheat E(c)-1 metallothionein: a metal-binding domain with a distinctive structure". J. Mol. Biol. 387 (1): 207–18.
- Sigel H, Sigel A, eds. (2009). Metallothioneins and Related Chelators (Metal Ions in Life Sciences). Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 5. Cambridge, England: Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 1-84755-899-2.
- Margoshes M, Vallee BL (1957). "A cadmium protein from equine kidney cortex". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 79 (17): 4813–4814. doi:10.1021/ja01574a064.
- Felizola SJ, Nakamura Y, Arata Y, Ise K, Satoh F, Rainey WE, Midorikawa S, Suzuki S, Sasano H (2014). "Metallothionein-3 (MT-3) in the human adrenal cortex and its disorders". Endocrine Pathology. 25 (3): 229–235. doi:10.1007/s12022-013-9280-9. PMID 24242700.
- "Metallothioneins: classification and list of entries". www.uniprot.org.
- Dallinger R, Berger B, Hunziker P, Kägi JH (1997). "Metallothionein in snail Cd and Cu metabolism". Nature. 388 (6639): 237–238.
- Palacios Ò, Pagani A, Pérez-Rafael S, Egg M, Höckner M, Brandstätter A, Capdevila M, Atrian S, Dallinger R (2011). "Shaping mechanisms of metal specificity in a family of metazoan metallothioneins: evolutionary differentiation of mollusc metallothioneins". BMC Biology. 9 (4): 1–20. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-9-4.
- Peterson CW, Narula SS, Armitage IM (January 1996). "3D solution structure of copper and silver-substituted yeast metallothioneins". FEBS Lett. 379 (1): 85–93. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)01492-6. PMID 8566237.
- Butt TR, Ecker DJ (September 1987). "Yeast metallothionein and applications in biotechnology". Microbiol. Rev. 51 (3): 351–64. PMC . PMID 3312986.
- Freisinger E, Vašák M (2013). "Cadmium in metallothioneins". Met Ions Life Sci. 11: 339–71. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5179-8_11. PMID 23430778.
- Wong, Daisy L.; Merrifield-MacRae, Maureen E.; Stillma, Martin J. (2017). "Chapter 9. Lead(II) Binding in Metallothioneins". In Astrid, S.; Helmut, S.; Sigel, R. K. O. Lead: Its Effects on Environment and Health. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 17. de Gruyter. pp. 241–270. doi:10.1515/9783110434330-009.
- CITATION NEEDED
- Krezel A, Maret W (September 2007). "Dual nanomolar and picomolar Zn(II) binding properties of metallothionein". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 (35): 10911–21. doi:10.1021/ja071979s. PMID 17696343.
- Huang M, Krepkiy D, Hu W, Petering D (2004). "Zn-, Cd-, and Pb-transcription factor IIIA: properties, DNA binding, and comparison with TFIIIA-finger 3 metal complexes". Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 98 (5): 775–785. doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2004.01.014. PMC . PMID 15134923.
- Huang M, Shaw CF, Petering D (2004). "Interprotein metal exchange between transcription factor IIIa and apo-metallothionein". Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 98 (4): 639–648. doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2004.02.004. PMC . PMID 15041244.
- Kumari MV, Hiramatsu M, Ebadi M (August 1998). "Free radical scavenging actions of metallothionein isoforms I and II". Free Radic. Res. 29 (2): 93–101. doi:10.1080/10715769800300111. PMID 9790511.
- Klaassen, C; Liu, J; Choudhuri, S (1999). "Metallothionein: an intracellular protein to protect against cadmium toxicity". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 39: 267–294. doi:10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.39.1.267. PMID 10331085.
- Mostafa WZ, Hegazy RA (2015). "Vitamin D and the skin: Focus on a complex relationship: A review". J Adv Res. 6 (6): 793–804. doi:10.1016/j.jare.2014.01.011. PMC . PMID 26644915.
- Krizkova S, Fabrik I, Adam V, Hrabeta J, Eckschlager T, Kizek R (2009). "Metallothionein--a promising tool for cancer diagnostics". Bratisl Lek Listy. 110 (2): 93–7. PMID 19408840.
- Cherian, M. (2003). "Metallothioneins in human tumors and potential roles in carcinogenesis". Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. 533: 201–209. doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2003.07.013. PMID 14643421.
- Basu, A. (2010). "Cellular Responses to Cisplatin-Induced DNA Damage". Journal of Nucleic Acids. 2010: 1–16. doi:10.4061/2010/201367.
- Drum DA (October 2009). "Are toxic biometals destroying your children's future?". Biometals. 22 (5): 697–700. doi:10.1007/s10534-009-9212-9. PMID 19205900.
- Singh VK, Hanson J (June 2006). "Assessment of metallothionein and antibodies to metallothionein in normal and autistic children having exposure to vaccine-derived thimerosal". Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 17 (4): 291–6. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2005.00348.x. PMID 16771783.
- Faber, S (2009). "The plasma zinc/serum copper ratio as a biomarker in children". Biomarkers. 14: 171–80. doi:10.1080/13547500902783747. PMID 19280374.
- Guillermo, Vela (2015). "Zinc in Gut-Brain Interaction in Autism". Neural Plast. 2015: 972791. doi:10.1155/2015/972791. PMC . PMID 25878905.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Metallothionein Provide feedback
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This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR003019
Metallothioneins (MT) are small proteins that bind heavy metals, such as zinc, copper, cadmium, nickel, etc. They have a high content of cysteine residues that bind the metal ions through clusters of thiolate bonds [PUBMED:1779825, PUBMED:2959513]. An empirical classification into three classes has been proposed by Fowler and coworkers [PUBMED:2959504] and Kojima [PUBMED:1779826]. Members of class I are defined to include polypeptides related in the positions of their cysteines to equine MT-1B, and include mammalian MTs as well as from crustaceans and molluscs. Class II groups MTs from a variety of species, including sea urchins, fungi, insects and cyanobacteria. Class III MTs are atypical polypeptides composed of gamma-glutamylcysteinyl units [PUBMED:2959504].
This original classification system has been found to be limited, in the sense that it does not allow clear differentiation of patterns of structural similarities, either between or within classes. Subsequently, a new classification was proposed on the basis of sequence similarity derived from phylogenetic relationships, which basically proposes an MT family for each main taxonomic group of organisms [PUBMED:21633816].This entry includes metallothioneins from vertebrates [PUBMED:22791193] and MT-10 type metallothioneins from aquatic molluscs [PUBMED:18389296].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||metal ion binding (GO:0046872)|
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This superfamily contains related families of metallothioneins, prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
The clan contains the following 7 members:Metallothi_Euk2 Metallothio Metallothio_6 Metallothio_Euk Metallothio_PEC Metallothio_Pro Yeast_MT
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|Number in seed:||6|
|Number in full:||480|
|Average length of the domain:||57.90 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||67 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||88.59 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||20|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Metallothio domain has been found. There are 15 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
Loading structure mapping...