Please note: this site relies heavily on the use of javascript. Without a javascript-enabled browser, this site will not function correctly. Please enable javascript and reload the page, or switch to a different browser.
30  structures 414  species 1  interaction 47534  sequences 357  architectures

Family: Mito_carr (PF00153)

Summary: Mitochondrial carrier protein

Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.

This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Mitochondrial carrier". More...

Mitochondrial carrier Edit Wikipedia article

1okc opm.png
Mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier
Symbol Mito_carr
Pfam PF00153
InterPro IPR001993
SCOP 1okc
TCDB 2.A.29
OPM superfamily 21
OPM protein 1okc

Mitochondrial carriers are proteins from the solute carrier family which transfer molecules across the membranes of the mitochondria.[1]


A variety of substrate carrier proteins, which are involved in energy transfer, have been found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and other eukaryotic organelles such as the peroxisome.[2][3][4][5][6][7] Such proteins include: ADP, ATP carrier protein (ADP-ATP translocase); 2-oxoglutarate/malate carrier protein (SLC25A11); phosphate carrier protein (SLC25A3); tricarboxylate transport protein (SLC25A1, or citrate transport protein); Graves disease carrier protein (SLC25A16); yeast mitochondrial proteins MRS3 and MRS4; yeast mitochondrial FAD carrier protein; and many others.


All known mitochondrial carriers are encoded by nuclear genes. Most contain a primary structure exhibiting regions of 100 homologous amino acid repeats, and both the N and C termini face the intermembrane space. There are six definable transmembrane domains in each carrier. All carriers also contain a common sequence, referred to as the MCF motif, in each repeated region, with some variation in one or two signature sequences.[1]

Amongst the members of the mitochondrial carrier family that have been identified, it is the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) that is responsible for importing ADP into the mitochondria and exporting ATP out of the mitochondria and into the cytosol following synthesis.[8] The AAC is an integral membrane protein that is synthesised lacking a cleavable presequence, but instead contains internal targeting information.[9] It forms a dimer of two identical subunits[10] and consists of a basket shaped structure with six transmembrane helices that are tilted with respect to the membrane, 3 of them "kinked" at the level of proline residues.[1]


Examples of transported compounds include:


Human proteins containing this domain include:

External links


  1. ^ a b c Nury H, Dahout-Gonzalez C, Trézéguet V, Lauquin GJ, Brandolin G, Pebay-Peyroula E (2006). "Relations between structure and function of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 75: 713–41. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.75.103004.142747. PMID 16756509. 
  2. ^ Klingenberg M (1990). "Mechanism and evolution of the uncoupling protein of brown adipose tissue". Trends Biochem. Sci. 15 (3): 108–112. doi:10.1016/0968-0004(90)90194-G. PMID 2158156. 
  3. ^ Walker JE (1992). "The mitochondrial transporter family". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 2 (4): 519–526. doi:10.1016/0959-440X(92)90081-H. 
  4. ^ Kuan J, Saier Jr MH (1993). "Expansion of the mitochondrial carrier family". Res. Microbiol. 144 (8): 671–672. doi:10.1016/0923-2508(93)90073-B. PMID 8140286. 
  5. ^ Lawson JE, Nelson DR, Klingenberg M, Douglas MG (1993). "Site-directed mutagenesis of the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocator. Six arginines and one lysine are essential". J. Mol. Biol. 230 (4): 1159–1170. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1993.1233. PMID 8487299. 
  6. ^ Palmieri F (1994). "Mitochondrial carrier proteins". FEBS Lett. 346 (1): 48–54. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(94)00329-7. PMID 8206158. 
  7. ^ Jank B, Schweyen RJ, Link TA, Habermann B (1993). "PMP47, a peroxisomal homologue of mitochondrial solute carrier proteins". Trends Biochem. Sci. 18 (11): 427–428. doi:10.1016/0968-0004(93)90141-9. PMID 8291088. 
  8. ^ Endres M, Neupert W, Brunner M (June 1999). "Transport of the ADP/ATP carrier of mitochondria from the TOM complex to the TIM22.54 complex". EMBO J. 18 (12): 3214–21. doi:10.1093/emboj/18.12.3214. PMC 1171402. PMID 10369662. 
  9. ^ Ryan MT, Müller H, Pfanner N (July 1999). "Functional staging of ADP/ATP carrier translocation across the outer mitochondrial membrane". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (29): 20619–27. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.29.20619. PMID 10400693. 
  10. ^ Falconi M, Chillemi G, Di Marino D, D'Annessa I, Morozzo della Rocca B, Palmieri L, Desideri A (November 2006). "Structural dynamics of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier revealed by molecular dynamics simulation studies". Proteins 65 (3): 681–91. doi:10.1002/prot.21102. PMID 16988954. 

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Mitochondrial carrier protein Provide feedback

No Pfam abstract.

Internal database links

External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR018108

A variety of substrate carrier proteins that are involved in energy transfer are found in the inner mitochondrial membrane or integral to the membrane of other eukaryotic organelles such as the peroxisome [PUBMED:2158156, PUBMED:8140286, PUBMED:8487299, PUBMED:8206158, PUBMED:8291088]. Such proteins include: ADP, ATP carrier protein (ADP/ATP translocase); 2-oxoglutarate/malate carrier protein; phosphate carrier protein; tricarboxylate transport protein (or citrate transport protein); Graves disease carrier protein; yeast mitochondrial proteins MRS3 and MRS4; yeast mitochondrial FAD carrier protein; and many others. Structurally, these proteins can consist of up to three tandem repeats of a domain of approximately 100 residues, each domain containing two transmembrane regions.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

Loading domain graphics...


We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...

View options

We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

Representative proteomes UniProt
Jalview View  View  View  View  View  View  View  View  View 
HTML View                 
PP/heatmap 1                

1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

Key: ✓ available, x not generated, not available.

Format an alignment

Representative proteomes UniProt

Download options

We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

Representative proteomes UniProt
Raw Stockholm Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  
Gzipped Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...


This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Prosite
Previous IDs: mito_carr;
Type: Family
Author: Sonnhammer ELL
Number in seed: 161
Number in full: 47534
Average length of the domain: 94.40 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 21 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 74.17 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 11927849 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 22.2 22.2
Trusted cut-off 22.2 22.2
Noise cut-off 22.1 22.1
Model length: 97
Family (HMM) version: 24
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

Sunburst controls


Weight segments by...

Change the size of the sunburst


Colour assignments

Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence


Align selected sequences to HMM

Generate a FASTA-format file

Clear selection

This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the adjacent tab. More...

Loading sunburst data...

Tree controls


The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...


Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.


There is 1 interaction for this family. More...



For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Mito_carr domain has been found. There are 30 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.

Loading structure mapping...