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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "ETS transcription factor family". More...
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ETS transcription factor family Edit Wikipedia article
Structure of Ets-1 DNA binding autoinhibition.
In the field of molecular biology, the ETS (E26 transformation-specific or E-twenty-six) family is one of the largest families of transcription factors and is unique to metazoans. There are 29 genes in humans, 28 in the mouse, 10 in Caenorhabditis elegans and 9 in Drosophila. The founding member of this family was identified as a gene transduced by the leukemia virus, E26. The members of the family have been implicated in the development of different tissues as well as cancer progression.
The ETS family is divided into 12 subfamilies, which are listed below:
|Subfamily||Mammalian family members||Invertebrate orthologs|
|ELF||ELF1, ELF2 (NERF), ELF4 (MEF)|
|ERG||ERG, FLI1, FEV|
|ERF||ERF (PE2), ETV3 (PE1)|
|ESE||ELF3 (ESE1/ESX), ELF5 (ESE2), ESE3 (EHF)|
|PEA3||ETV4 (PEA3/E1AF), ETV5 (ERM), ETV1 (ER81)|
|SPI||SPI1 (PU.1), SPIB, SPIC|
|TCF||ELK1, ELK4 (SAP1), ELK3 (NET/SAP2)||LIN|
|TEL||ETV6 (TEL), ETV7 (TEL2)||YAN|
All ETS family members are identified through a highly conserved DNA binding domain, the ETS domain, which is a winged helix-turn-helix structure that binds to DNA sites with a central GGA(A/T) DNA sequence. As well as DNA-binding functions, evidence suggests that the ETS domain is also involved in protein-protein interactions. There is limited similarity outside the ETS DNA binding domain.
Other domains are also present and vary from ETS member to ETS member, including the Pointed domain, a subclass of the SAM domain family.
The ETS family is present throughout the body and is involved in a wide variety of functions including the regulation of cellular differentiation, cell cycle control, cell migration, cell proliferation, apoptosis (programmed cell death) and angiogenesis.
Multiple Ets factors have been found to be associated with cancer, such as through gene fusion. For example, the ERG ETS transcription factor is fused to the EWS gene, resulting in a condition called Ewing's sarcoma. The fusion of TEL to the JAK2 protein results in early pre-B acute lymphoid leukaemia. ERG and ETV1 are known gene fusions found in prostate cancer. 
In addition, Ets factors, e.g. the vertebrate Etv1 and the invertebrate Ast-1, have been shown to be important players in the specification and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in both C. elegans and olfactory bulbs of mice.
Mode of action
Amongst members of the ETS family, there is extensive conservation in the DNA-binding ETS domain and, therefore, a lot of redundancy in DNA binding. It is thought that interactions with other proteins is one way in which specific binding to DNA is achieved. ETS factors act as transcriptional repressors, transcriptional activators, or both.
- Lee GM, Donaldson LW, Pufall MA et al. (February 2005). "The structural and dynamic basis of Ets-1 DNA binding autoinhibition". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (8): 7088–99. doi:10.1074/jbc.M410722200. PMID 15591056.
- Nunn, M. F.; Seeburg, P. H.; Moscovici, C.; Duesberg, P. H. (1983). "Tripartite structure of the avian erythroblastosis virus E26 transforming gene". Nature 306 (5941): 391–395. doi:10.1038/306391a0. PMID 6316155.
- Leprince, D.; Gegonne, A.; Coll, J.; De Taisne, C.; Schneeberger, A.; Lagrou, C.; Stehelin, D. (1983). "A putative second cell-derived oncogene of the avian leukaemia retrovirus E26". Nature 306 (5941): 395–397. doi:10.1038/306395a0. PMID 6316156.
- Gutierrez-Hartman A, Duval DL, Bradford AP (2007). "ETS transcription factors in endocrine systems". Trends Endocrinol Metab 18 (4): 150–8. doi:10.1016/j.tem.2007.03.002. PMID 17387021.
- Ida K, Kobayashi S, Taki T, Hanada R, Bessho F, Yamamori S, Sugimoto T, Ohki M, Hayashi Y (1995). "EWS-FLI-1 and EWS-ERG chimeric mRNAs in Ewing's sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor". Int J Cancer 63 (4): 500–4. doi:10.1002/ijc.2910630407. PMID 7591257.
- Peeters P, Raynaud SD, Cools J, Wlodarska I, Grosgeorge J, Philip P, Monpoux F, Van Rompaey L, Baens M, Van den Berghe H, Marynen P (1997). "Fusion of TEL, the ETS-variant gene 6 (ETV6), to the receptor-associated kinase JAK2 as a result of t(9;12) in a lymphoid and t(9;15;12) in a myeloid leukemia". Blood 90 (7): 2535–40. PMID 9326218.
- Tomlins SA, Rhodes DR, Perner S, Dhanasekaran SM, Mehra R, Sun XW, Varambally S, Cao X, Tchinda J, Kuefer R, Lee C, Montie JE, Shah RB, Pienta KJ, Rubin MA, Chinnaiyan AM (October 2005). "Recurrent fusion of TMPRSS2 and ETS transcription factor genes in prostate cancer". Science 310 (5748): 644–8. doi:10.1126/science.1117679. PMID 16254181.
- Flames N and Hobert O (2009). "Gene regulatory logic of dopaminergic neuron differentiation". Nature 458 (7240): 885–890. doi:10.1038/nature07929. PMC 2671564. PMID 19287374.
- Verger A, Duterque-Coquillaud M (2002). "When Ets transcription factors meet their partners". BioEssays 24 (4): 362–70. doi:10.1002/bies.10068. PMID 11948622.
- Sharrocks AD (2001). "The ETS-domain transcription factor family". Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2 (11): 827–37. doi:10.1038/35099076. PMID 11715049.
- Blair DG, Athanasiou M (2000). "Ets and retroviruses - transduction and activation of members of the Ets oncogene family in viral oncogenesis". Oncogene 19 (55): 6472–81. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204046. PMID 11175363.
- Li R, Pei H, Watson DK (2000). "Regulation of Ets function by protein - protein interactions". Oncogene 19 (55): 6514–23. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204035. PMID 11175367.
- Mimeault M (2000). "Structure-function studies of ETS transcription factors". Crit Rev Oncog 11 (3–4): 227–53. doi:10.1615/critrevoncog.v11.i34.20. PMID 11358268.
- Oikawa T, Yamada T (2003). "Molecular biology of the Ets family of transcription factors". Gene 303: 11–34. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(02)01156-3. PMID 12559563.
- Sementchenko VI, Watson DK (2000). "Ets target genes: past, present and future". Oncogene 19 (55): 6533–48. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204034. PMID 11175369.
- Verger A, Duterque-Coquillaud M (2002). "When Ets transcription factors meet their partners". BioEssays 24 (4): 362–70. doi:10.1002/bies.10068. PMID 11948622.
- Nunn M, Seeburg P, Moscovici C, Duesberg P (1983). "Tripartite structure of the avian erythroblastosis virus E26 transforming gene". Nature 306 (5941): 391–95. doi:10.1038/306391a0. PMID 6316155.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
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No Pfam abstract.
Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||HSF_DNA-bind|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000418
Transcription factors are protein molecules that bind to specific DNA sequences in the genome, resulting in the induction or inhibition of gene transcription [PUBMED:2163347]. The ets oncogene is such a factor, possessing a region of 85-90 amino acids known as the ETS (erythroblast transformation specific) domain [PUBMED:2163347, PUBMED:2253872, PUBMED:14693367]. This domain is rich in positively-charged and aromatic residues, and binds to purine-rich segments of DNA. The ETS domain has been identified in other transcription factors such as PU.1, human erg, human elf-1, human elk-1, GA binding protein, and a number of others [PUBMED:2163347, PUBMED:2253872, PUBMED:8425553]. It is generally localized at the C terminus of the protein, with the exception of ELF-1, ELK-1, ELK-3, ELK-4 and ERF where it is found at the N terminus.
NMR-analysis of the structure of the Ets domains revealed that it contains three alpha-helixes (1-3) and four-stranded beta-sheets (1-4) arranged in the order alpha1-beta1-beta2-alpha2-alpha3-beta3-beta4 forming a winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH) topology [PUBMED:12559563]. The third alpha-helix is responsive to contact to the major groove of the DNA. Different members of the Ets family proteins display distinct DNA binding specificities. The Ets domains and the flanking amino acid sequences of the proteins influence the binding affinity, and the alteration of a single amino acid in the Ets domain can change its DNA binding specificities.
Avian leukemia virus E26 is a replication defective retrovirus that induces a mixed erythroid/myeloid leukemia in chickens.This virus carries two distinct oncogenes: v-myb and v-ets. The ets portion of this oncogene is required for the induction of erythroblastosis. V-ets and c-ets-1, its cellular progenitor, have been shown [PUBMED:2165853] to be nuclear DNA-binding proteins. Ets-1 differs slightly from v-ets at its carboxy-terminal region. In most species where it has been sequenced, c-ets-1 exists in various isoforms generated by alternative splicing and differential phosphorylation.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||sequence-specific DNA binding (GO:0043565)|
|sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity (GO:0003700)|
|Biological process||regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0006355)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
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This family contains a diverse range of mostly DNA-binding domains that contain a helix-turn-helix motif.
The clan contains the following 202 members:AphA_like Arg_repressor B-block_TFIIIC Bac_DnaA_C BetR Bot1p BrkDBD CENP-B_N Cro Crp DDRGK Dimerisation DUF1133 DUF1153 DUF1323 DUF134 DUF1441 DUF1492 DUF1495 DUF1670 DUF1804 DUF1836 DUF1870 DUF2089 DUF2250 DUF2316 DUF3116 DUF3853 DUF387 DUF3908 DUF4095 DUF4364 DUF739 DUF742 DUF977 E2F_TDP ELK Ets Exc F-112 FaeA Fe_dep_repr_C Fe_dep_repress FeoC Ftsk_gamma FUR GcrA GerE GntR HARE-HTH HemN_C Homeobox Homeobox_KN Homez HrcA_DNA-bdg HSF_DNA-bind HTH_1 HTH_10 HTH_11 HTH_12 HTH_13 HTH_15 HTH_16 HTH_17 HTH_18 HTH_19 HTH_20 HTH_21 HTH_22 HTH_23 HTH_24 HTH_25 HTH_26 HTH_27 HTH_28 HTH_29 HTH_3 HTH_30 HTH_31 HTH_32 HTH_33 HTH_34 HTH_35 HTH_36 HTH_37 HTH_38 HTH_39 HTH_40 HTH_41 HTH_42 HTH_43 HTH_45 HTH_5 HTH_6 HTH_7 HTH_8 HTH_9 HTH_AraC HTH_AsnC-type HTH_CodY HTH_Crp_2 HTH_DeoR HTH_IclR HTH_Mga HTH_OrfB_IS605 HTH_psq HTH_Tnp_1 HTH_Tnp_1_2 HTH_Tnp_4 HTH_Tnp_IS1 HTH_Tnp_IS630 HTH_Tnp_ISL3 HTH_Tnp_Mu_1 HTH_Tnp_Mu_2 HTH_Tnp_Tc3_1 HTH_Tnp_Tc3_2 HTH_Tnp_Tc5 HTH_WhiA HxlR IF2_N KorB LacI LexA_DNA_bind LZ_Tnp_IS481 MADF_DNA_bdg MarR MarR_2 Med9 MerR MerR-DNA-bind MerR_1 MerR_2 Mga Mnd1 Mor MotA_activ MRP-L20 Myb_DNA-bind_2 Myb_DNA-bind_3 Myb_DNA-bind_4 Myb_DNA-bind_5 Myb_DNA-bind_6 Myb_DNA-binding Neugrin NUMOD1 OST-HTH P22_Cro PaaX PadR PAX PCI PCI_Csn8 Penicillinase_R Phage_AlpA Phage_antitermQ Phage_CI_repr Phage_CII Phage_rep_org_N Phage_terminase Pou Pox_D5 PuR_N Put_DNA-bind_N Rap1-DNA-bind Rep_3 RepA_C RepA_N RepC RepL Replic_Relax RFX_DNA_binding Ribosomal_S25 Rio2_N RNA_pol_Rpc34 RP-C RPA RPA_C RQC Rrf2 RTP SAC3_GANP SgrR_N Sigma54_CBD Sigma54_DBD Sigma70_ECF Sigma70_r2 Sigma70_r3 Sigma70_r4 Sigma70_r4_2 SpoIIID Sulfolobus_pRN TBPIP Terminase_5 TetR_N TFIIE_alpha Tn916-Xis Trans_reg_C TrfA TrmB Trp_repressor UPF0122 z-alpha
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
- Pfam viewer
- an HTML-based viewer that uses DAS to retrieve alignment fragments on request
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Number in seed:||15|
|Number in full:||2375|
|Average length of the domain:||80.40 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||50 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||21.09 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||17|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 2 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Ets domain has been found. There are 41 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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