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237  structures 3472  species 0  interactions 30858  sequences 146  architectures

Family: SNF (PF00209)

Summary: Sodium:neurotransmitter symporter family

Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.

This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Sodium:neurotransmitter symporter". More...

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This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Sodium:neurotransmitter symporter family Provide feedback

These are twelve xTM-containing region transporters.

External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR000175

Neurotransmitter transport systems are integral to the release, re-uptake and recycling of neurotransmitters at synapses. High affinity transport proteins found in the plasma membrane of presynaptic nerve terminals and glial cells are responsible for the removal from the extracellular space of released-transmitters, thereby terminating their actions [ PUBMED:15336049 ]. Plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters fall into two structurally and mechanistically distinct families. The majority of the transporters constitute an extensive family of homologous proteins that derive energy from the co-transport of Na + and Cl - , in order to transport neurotransmitter molecules into the cell against their concentration gradient. The family has a common structure of 12 presumed transmembrane helices and includes carriers for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), noradrenaline/adrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, proline, glycine, choline, betaine and taurine. They are structurally distinct from the second more-restricted family of plasma membrane transporters, which are responsible for excitatory amino acid transport. The latter couple glutamate and aspartate uptake to the cotransport of Na + and the counter-transport of K + , with no apparent dependence on Cl - [ PUBMED:8811182 ]. In addition, both of these transporter families are distinct from the vesicular neurotransmitter transporters [ PUBMED:8103691 , PUBMED:7823024 ].

Gene Ontology

The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan APC (CL0062), which has the following description:

This large superfamily contains a variety of transporters including amino acid permeases that according to TCDB belong to the APC (Amino acid-Polyamine-organoCation) superfamily.

The clan contains the following 21 members:

AA_permease AA_permease_2 AA_permease_C Aa_trans BCCT BenE Branch_AA_trans CstA DUF3360 HCO3_cotransp K_trans MFS_MOT1 Na_Ala_symp Nramp SNF Spore_permease SSF Sulfate_transp Transp_cyt_pur Trp_Tyr_perm Xan_ur_permease


We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...

View options

We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

Representative proteomes UniProt
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PP/heatmap 1            

1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

Key: ✓ available, x not generated, not available.

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Representative proteomes UniProt

Download options

We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

Representative proteomes UniProt
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You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...


This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Prosite
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Sequence Ontology: SO:0100021
Author: Finn RD
Number in seed: 15
Number in full: 30858
Average length of the domain: 346.00 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 26 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 84.11 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 61295632 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 27.0 27.0
Trusted cut-off 27.0 27.0
Noise cut-off 26.9 26.9
Model length: 523
Family (HMM) version: 21
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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Colour assignments

Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence


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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the adjacent tab. More...

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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...


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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the SNF domain has been found. There are 237 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.

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AlphaFold Structure Predictions

The list of proteins below match this family and have AlphaFold predicted structures. Click on the protein accession to view the predicted structure.

Protein Predicted structure External Information
A0A0B4K7V4 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A0G2KCU6 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A140LG64 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1B0GSD2 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1L1SR47 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A2R8QFZ8 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A2R8QPW7 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A2R8RP73 View 3D Structure Click here
A1Z8V9 View 3D Structure Click here
A1ZBC7 View 3D Structure Click here
A2BIG0 View 3D Structure Click here
A5D6R9 View 3D Structure Click here
A5D8R6 View 3D Structure Click here
A5WUQ3 View 3D Structure Click here
B0S5N6 View 3D Structure Click here
B0V3R4 View 3D Structure Click here
B3DJ31 View 3D Structure Click here
B7Z122 View 3D Structure Click here
E7EXM3 View 3D Structure Click here
E7EY30 View 3D Structure Click here
F1LNR9 View 3D Structure Click here
F1M3H9 View 3D Structure Click here
F1Q5E6 View 3D Structure Click here
F1Q9B5 View 3D Structure Click here
F1QB29 View 3D Structure Click here
F1QE60 View 3D Structure Click here
F1QGM4 View 3D Structure Click here
F1QUY7 View 3D Structure Click here
F1QZL5 View 3D Structure Click here
F1QZU3 View 3D Structure Click here
F1R3H6 View 3D Structure Click here
F1R3N3 View 3D Structure Click here
F1REB8 View 3D Structure Click here
F6NN04 View 3D Structure Click here
F7EU61 View 3D Structure Click here
G5EBM5 View 3D Structure Click here
G5EBN9 View 3D Structure Click here
G5EE39 View 3D Structure Click here
G5EF43 View 3D Structure Click here
O35316 View 3D Structure Click here