Summary: 'Paired box' domain
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'Paired box' domain Provide feedback
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Internal database links
|SCOOP:||Pox_G7 HTH_42 TraI Swi5 SpoIIP Hairy_orange HTH_9 DUF2007|
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||HTH_23 HTH_29 HTH_32|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001523
The paired domain is an approximately 126 amino acid DNA-binding domain, which is found in eukaryotic transcription regulatory proteins involved in embryogenesis. The domain was originally described as the 'paired box' in the Drosophila protein paired (prd) [PUBMED:2877747, PUBMED:3123319]. The paired domain is generally located in the N-terminal part. An octapeptide [PUBMED:10811620] and/or a homeodomain can occur C-terminal to the paired domain, as well as a Pro-Ser-Thr-rich C terminus.
Paired domain proteins can function as transcription repressors or activators. The paired domain contains three subdomains, which show functional differences in DNA-binding. The crystal structures of prd and Pax proteins show that the DNA-bound paired domain is bipartite, consisting of an N-terminal subdomain (PAI or NTD) and a C-terminal subdomain (RED or CTD), connected by a linker. PAI and RED each form a three-helical fold, with the most C-terminal helices comprising a helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif that binds the DNA major groove. In addition, the PAI subdomain encompasses an N-terminal beta-turn and beta-hairpin, also named 'wing', participating in DNA-binding. The linker can bind into the DNA minor groove. Different Pax proteins and their alternatively spliced isoforms use different (sub)domains for DNA-binding to mediate the specificity of sequence recognition [PUBMED:11103953, PUBMED:15148315].
Some proteins known to contain a paired domain:
- Drosophila paired (prd), a segmentation pair-rule class protein.
- Drosophila gooseberry proximal (gsb-p) and gooseberry distal (gsb-d), segmentation polarity class proteins.
- Drosophila Pox-meso and Pox-neuro proteins.
The Pax proteins:
- Mammalian protein Pax1, which may play a role in the formation of segmented structures in the embryo. In mouse, mutations in Pax1 produce the undulated phenotype, characterised by vertebral malformations along the entire rostro-caudal axis.
- Mammalian protein Pax2, a probable transcription factor that may have a role in kidney cell differentiation.
- Mammalian protein Pax3. Pax3 is expressed during early neurogenesis. In Man, defects in Pax3 are the cause of Waardenburg's syndrome (WS), an autosomal dominant combination of deafness and pigmentary disturbance.
- Mammalian protein Pax5, also known as B-cell specific transcription factor (BSAP). Pax5 is involved in the regulation of the CD19 gene. It plays an important role in B-cell differentiation as well as neural development and spermatogenesis.
- Mammalian protein Pax6 (oculorhombin). Pax6 is a transcription factor with important functions in eye and nasal development. In Man, defects in Pax6 are the cause of aniridia type II (AN2), an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by complete or partial absence of the iris.
- Mammalian protein Pax8, required in thyroid development.
- Mammalian protein Pax9. In man, defects in Pax9 cause oligodontia.
- Zebrafish proteins Pax[Zf-a] and Pax[Zf-b].
|Molecular function||DNA binding (GO:0003677)|
|Biological process||regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0006355)|
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This family contains a diverse range of mostly DNA-binding domains that contain a helix-turn-helix motif.
The clan contains the following 202 members:AphA_like Arg_repressor B-block_TFIIIC Bac_DnaA_C BetR Bot1p BrkDBD CENP-B_N Cro Crp DDRGK Dimerisation DUF1133 DUF1153 DUF1323 DUF134 DUF1441 DUF1492 DUF1495 DUF1670 DUF1804 DUF1836 DUF1870 DUF2089 DUF2250 DUF2316 DUF3116 DUF3853 DUF387 DUF3908 DUF4095 DUF4364 DUF739 DUF742 DUF977 E2F_TDP ELK Ets Exc F-112 FaeA Fe_dep_repr_C Fe_dep_repress FeoC Ftsk_gamma FUR GcrA GerE GntR HARE-HTH HemN_C Homeobox Homeobox_KN Homez HrcA_DNA-bdg HSF_DNA-bind HTH_1 HTH_10 HTH_11 HTH_12 HTH_13 HTH_15 HTH_16 HTH_17 HTH_18 HTH_19 HTH_20 HTH_21 HTH_22 HTH_23 HTH_24 HTH_25 HTH_26 HTH_27 HTH_28 HTH_29 HTH_3 HTH_30 HTH_31 HTH_32 HTH_33 HTH_34 HTH_35 HTH_36 HTH_37 HTH_38 HTH_39 HTH_40 HTH_41 HTH_42 HTH_43 HTH_45 HTH_5 HTH_6 HTH_7 HTH_8 HTH_9 HTH_AraC HTH_AsnC-type HTH_CodY HTH_Crp_2 HTH_DeoR HTH_IclR HTH_Mga HTH_OrfB_IS605 HTH_psq HTH_Tnp_1 HTH_Tnp_1_2 HTH_Tnp_4 HTH_Tnp_IS1 HTH_Tnp_IS630 HTH_Tnp_ISL3 HTH_Tnp_Mu_1 HTH_Tnp_Mu_2 HTH_Tnp_Tc3_1 HTH_Tnp_Tc3_2 HTH_Tnp_Tc5 HTH_WhiA HxlR IF2_N KorB LacI LexA_DNA_bind LZ_Tnp_IS481 MADF_DNA_bdg MarR MarR_2 Med9 MerR MerR-DNA-bind MerR_1 MerR_2 Mga Mnd1 Mor MotA_activ MRP-L20 Myb_DNA-bind_2 Myb_DNA-bind_3 Myb_DNA-bind_4 Myb_DNA-bind_5 Myb_DNA-bind_6 Myb_DNA-binding Neugrin NUMOD1 OST-HTH P22_Cro PaaX PadR PAX PCI PCI_Csn8 Penicillinase_R Phage_AlpA Phage_antitermQ Phage_CI_repr Phage_CII Phage_rep_org_N Phage_terminase Pou Pox_D5 PuR_N Put_DNA-bind_N Rap1-DNA-bind Rep_3 RepA_C RepA_N RepC RepL Replic_Relax RFX_DNA_binding Ribosomal_S25 Rio2_N RNA_pol_Rpc34 RP-C RPA RPA_C RQC Rrf2 RTP SAC3_GANP SgrR_N Sigma54_CBD Sigma54_DBD Sigma70_ECF Sigma70_r2 Sigma70_r3 Sigma70_r4 Sigma70_r4_2 SpoIIID Sulfolobus_pRN TBPIP Terminase_5 TetR_N TFIIE_alpha Tn916-Xis Trans_reg_C TrfA TrmB Trp_repressor UPF0122 z-alpha
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Curation and family details
|Number in seed:||6|
|Number in full:||1629|
|Average length of the domain:||115.90 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||67 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||31.76 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||13|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the PAX domain has been found. There are 7 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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