Please note: this site relies heavily on the use of javascript. Without a javascript-enabled browser, this site will not function correctly. Please enable javascript and reload the page, or switch to a different browser.
15  structures 3366  species 10  interactions 4004  sequences 48  architectures

Family: GATase_2 (PF00310)

Summary: Glutamine amidotransferases class-II

Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.

The Pfam group coordinates the annotation of Pfam families in Wikipedia, but we have not yet assigned a Wikipedia article to this family. If you think that a particular Wikipedia article provides good annotation, please let us know.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Glutamine amidotransferases class-II Provide feedback

No Pfam abstract.

Literature references

  1. van den Heuvel RH, Ferrari D, Bossi RT, Ravasio S, Curti B, Vanoni MA, Florencio FJ, Mattevi A; , J Biol Chem 2002;277:24579-24583.: Structural studies on the synchronization of catalytic centers in glutamate synthase. PUBMED:11967268 EPMC:11967268


Internal database links

External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR017932

A large group of biosynthetic enzymes are able to catalyse the removal of the ammonia group from glutamine and then to transfer this group to a substrate to form a new carbon-nitrogen group. This catalytic activity is known as glutamine amidotransferase (GATase) [PUBMED:4355768]. The GATase domain exists either as a separate polypeptidic subunit or as part of a larger polypeptide fused in different ways to a synthase domain. On the basis of sequence similarities two classes of GATase domains have been identified [PUBMED:3298209, PUBMED:6086650]: class-I (also known as trpG-type or triad) and class-II (also known as purF-type or Ntn). Class-II (or type 2) GATase domains have been found in the following enzymes:

  • Amido phosphoribosyltransferase (glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase). An enzyme which catalyses the first step in purine biosynthesis, the transfer of the ammonia group of glutamine to PRPP to form 5-phosphoribosylamine (gene purF in bacteria, ADE4 in yeast).
  • Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase. This enzyme catalyses a key reaction in amino sugar synthesis, the formation of glucosamine 6-phosphate from fructose 6-phosphate and glutamine (gene glmS in Escherichia coli, nodM in Rhizobium, GFA1 in yeast).
  • Asparagine synthetase (glutamine-hydrolyzing). This enzyme is responsible for the synthesis of asparagine from aspartate and glutamine.
  • Glutamate synthase (gltS), an enzyme which participates in the ammonia assimilation process by catalysing the formation of glutamate from glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate. Glutamate synthase is a multicomponent iron-sulphur flavoprotein and three types occur which use a different electron donor: NADPH-dependent gltS (large chain), ferredoxin-dependent gltS and NADH-dependent gltS [PUBMED:10357231].

The active site is formed by a cysteine present at the N-terminal extremity of the mature form of all these enzymes [PUBMED:6411716, PUBMED:2573597, PUBMED:9575335, PUBMED:15052410]. Two other conserved residues, Asn and Gly, form an oxyanion hole for stabilisation of the formed tetrahedral intermediate. An insert of ~120 residues can occur between the conserved regions [PUBMED:10357231]. In some class-II GATases (for example in Bacillus subtilis or chicken amido phosphoribosyltransferase) the enzyme is synthesised with a short propeptide which is cleaved off post-translationally by a proposed autocatalytic mechanism. Nuclear-encoded Fd-dependent gltS have a longer propeptide which may contain a chloroplast-targeting peptide in addition to the propeptide that is excised on enzyme activation.

The 3-D structure of the GATase type 2 domain forms a four layer alpha/beta/beta/alpha architecture which consists of a fold similar to the N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn) hydrolases. These have the capacity for nucleophilic attack and the possibility of autocatalytic processing. The N-terminal position and the folding of the catalytic Cys differ strongly from the Cys-His-Glu triad which forms the active site of GATases of type 1.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

Loading domain graphics...

Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan NTN (CL0052), which has the following description:

In the N-terminal nucleophile aminohydrolases (Ntn hydrolases) the N-terminal residue provides two catalytic groups, nucleophile and proton donor. These enzymes use the side chain of the amino-terminal residue, incorporated in a beta-sheet, as the nucleophile in the catalytic attack at the carbonyl carbon. The nucleophile is cysteine in GAT, serine in penicillin acylase, and threonine in the proteasome. All the enzymes share an unusual fold in which the nucleophile and other catalytic groups occupy equivalent sites. This fold provides both the capacity for nucleophilic attack and the possibility of autocatalytic processing [1].

The clan contains the following 16 members:

AAT Asparaginase_2 CBAH DUF1933 DUF3700 G_glu_transpept GATase_2 GATase_4 GATase_6 GATase_7 IMP_cyclohyd Penicil_amidase Peptidase_C69 Phospholip_B Proteasome Proteasome_A_N

Alignments

We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...

View options

We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

  Seed
(30)
Full
(4004)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(10974)
NCBI
(22885)
Meta
(4084)
RP15
(761)
RP35
(2259)
RP55
(3940)
RP75
(5969)
Jalview View  View  View  View  View  View  View  View  View 
HTML View  View               
PP/heatmap 1 View               

1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

Key: ✓ available, x not generated, not available.

Format an alignment

  Seed
(30)
Full
(4004)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(10974)
NCBI
(22885)
Meta
(4084)
RP15
(761)
RP35
(2259)
RP55
(3940)
RP75
(5969)
Alignment:
Format:
Order:
Sequence:
Gaps:
Download/view:

Download options

We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

  Seed
(30)
Full
(4004)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(10974)
NCBI
(22885)
Meta
(4084)
RP15
(761)
RP35
(2259)
RP55
(3940)
RP75
(5969)
Raw Stockholm Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  
Gzipped Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...

Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Prosite & Pfam-B_5381 (Release 7.5) & Pfam-B_455 (release 7.6)
Previous IDs: none
Type: Domain
Author: Finn RD, Bateman A, Eberhardt R
Number in seed: 30
Number in full: 4004
Average length of the domain: 386.50 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 42 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 26.47 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 19.9 19.9
Trusted cut-off 19.9 19.9
Noise cut-off 19.8 19.8
Model length: 420
Family (HMM) version: 20
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

Sunburst controls

Hide

Weight segments by...


Change the size of the sunburst

Small
Large

Colour assignments

Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence

Selections

Align selected sequences to HMM

Generate a FASTA-format file

Clear selection

This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the adjacent tab. More...

Loading sunburst data...

Tree controls

Hide

The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...

Loading...

Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.

Interactions

There are 10 interactions for this family. More...

SIS Glu_syn_central Glu_synthase Glu_synthase Glu_syn_central Pribosyltran SIS Pribosyltran GXGXG GATase_2

Structures

For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the GATase_2 domain has been found. There are 15 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.

Loading structure mapping...