Summary: Glutamine amidotransferases class-II
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Glutamine amidotransferases class-II Provide feedback
No Pfam abstract.
van den Heuvel RH, Ferrari D, Bossi RT, Ravasio S, Curti B, Vanoni MA, Florencio FJ, Mattevi A; , J Biol Chem 2002;277:24579-24583.: Structural studies on the synchronization of catalytic centers in glutamate synthase. PUBMED:11967268 EPMC:11967268
Internal database links
|SCOOP:||GATase_4 GATase_6 GATase_7|
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||GATase_6|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR017932
A large group of biosynthetic enzymes are able to catalyse the removal of the ammonia group from glutamine and then to transfer this group to a substrate to form a new carbon-nitrogen group. This catalytic activity is known as glutamine amidotransferase (GATase) [PUBMED:4355768]. The GATase domain exists either as a separate polypeptidic subunit or as part of a larger polypeptide fused in different ways to a synthase domain. On the basis of sequence similarities two classes of GATase domains have been identified [PUBMED:3298209, PUBMED:6086650]: class-I (also known as trpG-type or triad) and class-II (also known as purF-type or Ntn). Class-II (or type 2) GATase domains have been found in the following enzymes:
- Amido phosphoribosyltransferase (glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase). An enzyme which catalyses the first step in purine biosynthesis, the transfer of the ammonia group of glutamine to PRPP to form 5-phosphoribosylamine (gene purF in bacteria, ADE4 in yeast).
- Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase. This enzyme catalyses a key reaction in amino sugar synthesis, the formation of glucosamine 6-phosphate from fructose 6-phosphate and glutamine (gene glmS in Escherichia coli, nodM in Rhizobium, GFA1 in yeast).
- Asparagine synthetase (glutamine-hydrolyzing). This enzyme is responsible for the synthesis of asparagine from aspartate and glutamine.
- Glutamate synthase (gltS), an enzyme which participates in the ammonia assimilation process by catalysing the formation of glutamate from glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate. Glutamate synthase is a multicomponent iron-sulphur flavoprotein and three types occur which use a different electron donor: NADPH-dependent gltS (large chain), ferredoxin-dependent gltS and NADH-dependent gltS [PUBMED:10357231].
The active site is formed by a cysteine present at the N-terminal extremity of the mature form of all these enzymes [PUBMED:6411716, PUBMED:2573597, PUBMED:9575335, PUBMED:15052410]. Two other conserved residues, Asn and Gly, form an oxyanion hole for stabilisation of the formed tetrahedral intermediate. An insert of ~120 residues can occur between the conserved regions [PUBMED:10357231]. In some class-II GATases (for example in Bacillus subtilis or chicken amido phosphoribosyltransferase) the enzyme is synthesised with a short propeptide which is cleaved off post-translationally by a proposed autocatalytic mechanism. Nuclear-encoded Fd-dependent gltS have a longer propeptide which may contain a chloroplast-targeting peptide in addition to the propeptide that is excised on enzyme activation.
The 3-D structure of the GATase type 2 domain forms a four layer alpha/beta/beta/alpha architecture which consists of a fold similar to the N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn) hydrolases. These have the capacity for nucleophilic attack and the possibility of autocatalytic processing. The N-terminal position and the folding of the catalytic Cys differ strongly from the Cys-His-Glu triad which forms the active site of GATases of type 1.
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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In the N-terminal nucleophile aminohydrolases (Ntn hydrolases) the N-terminal residue provides two catalytic groups, nucleophile and proton donor. These enzymes use the side chain of the amino-terminal residue, incorporated in a beta-sheet, as the nucleophile in the catalytic attack at the carbonyl carbon. The nucleophile is cysteine in GAT, serine in penicillin acylase, and threonine in the proteasome. All the enzymes share an unusual fold in which the nucleophile and other catalytic groups occupy equivalent sites. This fold provides both the capacity for nucleophilic attack and the possibility of autocatalytic processing .
The clan contains the following 16 members:AAT Asparaginase_2 CBAH DUF1933 DUF3700 G_glu_transpept GATase_2 GATase_4 GATase_6 GATase_7 IMP_cyclohyd Penicil_amidase Peptidase_C69 Phospholip_B Proteasome Proteasome_A_N
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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Curation and family details
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|Seed source:||Prosite & Pfam-B_5381 (Release 7.5) & Pfam-B_455 (release 7.6)|
|Author:||Finn RD , Bateman A , Eberhardt R|
|Number in seed:||30|
|Number in full:||7388|
|Average length of the domain:||392.80 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||41 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||26.56 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||21|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
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Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
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Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
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Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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There are 10 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the GATase_2 domain has been found. There are 15 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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