Summary: GATA zinc finger
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|GATA zinc finger|
zinc fingers as protein recognition motifs: structural basis for the gata-1/friend of gata interaction
In molecular biology, GATA zinc fingers are zinc-containing domains found in a number of transcription factors (including erythroid-specific transcription factor and nitrogen regulatory proteins). Some members of this class of zinc fingers specifically bind the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G) in the regulatory regions of genes., giving rise to the name of the domain. In these domains, a single zinc ion is coordinated by 4 cysteine residues. NMR studies have shown the core of the Znf to comprise 2 irregular anti-parallel beta-sheets and an alpha-helix, followed by a long loop to the C-terminal end of the finger. The N-terminal part, which includes the helix, is similar in structure, but not sequence, to the N-terminal zinc module of the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding domain. The helix and the loop connecting the 2 beta-sheets interact with the major groove of the DNA, while the C-terminal tail wraps around into the minor groove. Interactions between the Znf and DNA are mainly hydrophobic, explaining the preponderance of thymines in the binding site; a large number of interactions with the phosphate backbone have also been observed. Two GATA zinc fingers are found in GATA-family transcription factors. However, there are several proteins that only contains a single copy of the domain. It is also worth noting that many GATA-type Znfs (such as those found in the proteins GATAD2B and MTA1) have not been experimentally demonstrated to be DNA-binding domains. Furthermore, several GATA-type Znfs have been demonstrated to act as protein-recognition domains. For example, the N-terminal Znf of GATA1 binds specifically to a zinc finger from the transcriptional coregulator FOG1 (ZFPM1).
- Yamamoto M, Ko LJ, Leonard MW, Beug H, Orkin SH, Engel JD (October 1990). "Activity and tissue-specific expression of the transcription factor NF-E1 multigene family". Genes Dev. 4 (10): 1650–62. doi:10.1101/gad.4.10.1650. PMID 2249770.
- Evans T, Felsenfeld G (September 1989). "The erythroid-specific transcription factor Eryf1: a new finger protein". Cell. 58 (5): 877–85. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(89)90940-9. PMID 2776214.
- Omichinski JG, Clore GM, Schaad O, Felsenfeld G, Trainor C, Appella E, Stahl SJ, Gronenborn AM (July 1993). "NMR structure of a specific DNA complex of Zn-containing DNA binding domain of GATA-1". Science. 261 (5120): 438–46. doi:10.1126/science.8332909. PMID 8332909.
- Liew CK, Simpson RJ, Kwan AH, Crofts LA, Loughlin FE, Matthews JM, Crossley M, Mackay JP (March 2005). "Zinc fingers as protein recognition motifs: structural basis for the GATA-1/friend of GATA interaction". PNAS USA. 102 (3): 583–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0407511102. PMC . PMID 15644435.
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GATA zinc finger Provide feedback
This domain uses four cysteine residues to coordinate a zinc ion. This domain binds to DNA. Two GATA zinc fingers are found in the GATA transcription factors. However there are several proteins which only contain a single copy of the domain.
Omichinski JG, Clore GM, Schaad O, Felsenfeld G, Trainor C, Appella E, Stahl SJ, Gronenborn AM; , Science 1993;261:438-446.: NMR structure of a specific DNA complex of Zn-containing DNA binding domain of GATA-1. PUBMED:8332909 EPMC:8332909
Internal database links
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000679
This entry represents GATA-type zinc fingers (Znf). A number of transcription factors (including erythroid-specific transcription factor and nitrogen regulatory proteins), specifically bind the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G) [ PUBMED:2249770 ] in the regulatory regions of genes. They are consequently termed GATA-binding transcription factors. The interactions occur via highly-conserved Znf domains in which the zinc ion is coordinated by four cysteine residues [ PUBMED:2776214 , PUBMED:8332909 ]. NMR studies have shown the core of the Znf to comprise two irregular anti-parallel beta-sheets and an alpha-helix, followed by a long loop to the C-terminal end of the finger. The N-terminal part, which includes the helix, is similar in structure, but not sequence, to the N-terminal zinc module of the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding domain. The helix and the loop connecting the two beta-sheets interact with the major groove of the DNA, while the C-terminal tail wraps around into the minor groove. It is this tail that is the essential determinant of specific binding. Interactions between the Znf and DNA are mainly hydrophobic, explaining the preponderance of thymines in the binding site; a large number of interactions with the phosphate backbone have also been observed [ PUBMED:8332909 ]. Two GATA zinc fingers are found in the GATA transcription factors. However there are several proteins which only contains a single copy of the domain.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||sequence-specific DNA binding (GO:0043565)|
|zinc ion binding (GO:0008270)|
|Biological process||regulation of transcription, DNA-templated (GO:0006355)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
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Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
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A clan of zinc-binding ribbon domains.
The clan contains the following 89 members:A2L_zn_ribbon Auto_anti-p27 Baculo_LEF5_C CpXC DNA_RNApol_7kD DUF1451 DUF1936 DUF2072 DUF2116 DUF2180 DUF2387 DUF2614 DUF35_N DUF3945 DUF4379 DUF6574 DZR DZR_2 Elf1 GATA HVO_2753_ZBP Lar_restr_allev LIM MscL Mu-like_Com NinF NOB1_Zn_bind Nudix_N_2 Ogr_Delta OrfB_Zn_ribbon PriA_CRR Prim_Zn_Ribbon RecO_C Ribosomal_L32p Ribosomal_L33 Ribosomal_L37ae Ribosomal_L37e Ribosomal_L40e Ribosomal_L44 Ribosomal_S27 Ribosomal_S27e RNA_POL_M_15KD Rubredoxin_2 Spt4 Stc1 TF_Zn_Ribbon TFIIS_C Tnp_zf-ribbon_2 Topo_Zn_Ribbon Toprim_Crpt Trm112p UPF0547 YjdM_Zn_Ribbon zf-C4 zf-C4_ClpX zf-C4_Topoisom zf-CHC2 zf-CSL zf-dskA_traR zf-FPG_IleRS zf-GRF zf-ISL3 zf-NADH-PPase zf-PARP zf-RanBP zf-ribbon_3 zf-RING_7 zf-RRN7 zf-TFIIB zf-trcl zf-ZPR1 zf_PR_Knuckle zf_Rg zinc-ribbon_6 zinc-ribbons_6 zinc_ribbon_10 zinc_ribbon_11 zinc_ribbon_12 zinc_ribbon_13 zinc_ribbon_15 zinc_ribbon_2 zinc_ribbon_4 zinc_ribbon_5 zinc_ribbon_9 Zn-ribbon_8 Zn_ribbon_recom Zn_ribbon_SprT Zn_Tnp_IS1 Zn_Tnp_IS1595
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You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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|Number in seed:||56|
|Number in full:||22653|
|Average length of the domain:||35.60 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||45 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||7.98 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 61295632 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||30|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
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Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
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Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
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Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
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For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the GATA domain has been found. There are 57 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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AlphaFold Structure Predictions
The list of proteins below match this family and have AlphaFold predicted structures. Click on the protein accession to view the predicted structure.