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81  structures 4924  species 1  interaction 11944  sequences 69  architectures

Family: His_Phos_2 (PF00328)

Summary: Histidine phosphatase superfamily (branch 2)

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Phosphatase". More...

Phosphatase Edit Wikipedia article

A phosphatase is an enzyme that removes a phosphate group from its substrate by hydrolysing phosphoric acid monoesters into a phosphate ion and a molecule with a free hydroxyl group (see dephosphorylation). This action is directly opposite to that of phosphorylases and kinases, which attach phosphate groups to their substrates by using energetic molecules like ATP. A common phosphatase in many organisms is alkaline phosphatase. Another large group of proteins present in archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote exhibits deoxyribonucleotide and ribonucleotide phosphatase or pyrophosphatase activities that catalyse the decomposition of dNTP/NTP into dNDP/NDP and a free phosphate ion or dNMP/NMP and a free pyrophosphate ion.[1][2][3] The other group of phosphatase is collectively called as protein phosphatase, which removes a phosphate group from the phosphorylated amino acid residue of the substrate protein. Protein phosphorylation is a common posttranslational modification of protein catalyzed by protein kinases, and protein phospatases reverse the effect.

See also

References

  1. ^ Davies O, Mendes P, Smallbone K, Malys N (2012). "Characterisation of multiple substrate-specific (d)ITP/(d)XTPase and modelling of deaminated purine nucleotide metabolism". BMB Reports 45 (4): 259–64. doi:10.5483/BMBRep.2012.45.4.259. PMID 22531138. 
  2. ^ Martin, S. S. and Senior, H. E. (1980). "Membrane adenosine triphosphatase activities in rat pancreas". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 602: 401–418. doi:10.1016/0005-2736(80)90320-x. PMID 6252965. 
  3. ^ Riley, M. V. and Peters, M. I. (1981). "The localization of the anion-sensitive ATPase activity in corneal endothelium". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 644: 251–256. doi:10.1016/0005-2736(81)90382-5. PMID 6114746. 

External links

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Histidine phosphatase superfamily (branch 2) Provide feedback

The histidine phosphatase superfamily is so named because catalysis centres on a conserved His residue that is transiently phosphorylated during the catalytic cycle. Other conserved residues contribute to a 'phosphate pocket' and interact with the phospho group of substrate before, during and after its transfer to the His residue. Structure and sequence analyses show that different families contribute different additional residues to the 'phosphate pocket' and, more surprisingly, differ in the position, in sequence and in three dimensions, of a catalytically essential acidic residue. The superfamily may be divided into two main branches.The smaller branch 2 contains predominantly eukaryotic proteins. The catalytic functions in members include phytase, glucose-1-phosphatase and multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase. The in vivo roles of the mammalian acid phosphatases in branch 2 are not fully understood, although activity against lysophosphatidic acid and tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins has been demonstrated.

Literature references

  1. Kostrewa D, Wyss M, D'Arcy A, van Loon AP; , J Mol Biol 1999;288:965-974.: Crystal structure of Aspergillus niger pH 2.5 acid phosphatase at 2.4 A resolution. PUBMED:10329192 EPMC:10329192

  2. Rigden DJ;, Biochem J. 2008;409:333-348.: The histidine phosphatase superfamily: structure and function. PUBMED:18092946 EPMC:18092946


Internal database links

External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR000560

The histidine phosphatase superfamily is so named because catalysis centres on a conserved His residue that is transiently phosphorylated during the catalytic cycle. Other conserved residues contribute to a 'phosphate pocket' and interact with the phospho group of substrate before, during and after its transfer to the His residue. Structure and sequence analyses show that different families contribute different additional residues to the 'phosphate pocket' and, more surprisingly, differ in the position, in sequence and in three dimensions, of a catalytically essential acidic residue. The superfamily may be divided into two main branches. The relationship between the two branches is not evident by (PSI-)BLAST but is clear from more sensitive sequence searches and structural comparisons [PUBMED:18092946].

The smaller clade-2 contains predominantly eukaryotic proteins. The catalytic functions in members include phytase, glucose-1-phosphatase and multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase. The in vivo roles of the mammalian acid phosphatases in clade-2 are not fully understood, although activity against lysophosphatidic acid and tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins has been demonstrated.

Acid phosphatases (EC) are a heterogeneous group of proteins that hydrolyse phosphate esters, optimally at low pH. It has been shown [PUBMED:1989985] that a number of acid phosphatases, from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, share two regions of sequence similarity, each centred around a conserved histidine residue. These two histidines seem to be involved in the enzymes' catalytic mechanism [PUBMED:8334986, PUBMED:1429631]. The first histidine is located in the N-terminal section and forms a phosphohistidine intermediate while the second is located in the C-terminal section and possibly acts as proton donor. Enzymes belonging to this family are called 'histidine acid phosphatases' and include:

Gene Ontology

The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan His_phosphatase (CL0071), which has the following description:

The histidine phosphatase superfamily is so named because catalysis centres on a conserved His residue that is transiently phosphorylated during the catalytic cycle. Other conserved residues contribute to a 'phosphate pocket' and interact with the phospho group of substrate before, during and after its transfer to the His residue. Structure and sequence analyses show that different families contribute different additional residues to the 'phosphate pocket' and, more surprisingly, differ in the position, in sequence and in three dimensions, of a catalytically essential acidic residue. The superfamily may be divided into two main branches [1].

The clan contains the following 2 members:

His_Phos_1 His_Phos_2

Alignments

We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...

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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

  Seed
(43)
Full
(11944)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(8309)
Meta
(34)
RP15
(828)
RP35
(1610)
RP55
(2330)
RP75
(2957)
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  Seed
(43)
Full
(11944)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(8309)
Meta
(34)
RP15
(828)
RP35
(1610)
RP55
(2330)
RP75
(2957)
Alignment:
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We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

  Seed
(43)
Full
(11944)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(8309)
Meta
(34)
RP15
(828)
RP35
(1610)
RP55
(2330)
RP75
(2957)
Raw Stockholm Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  
Gzipped Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

External links

MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...

Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Prosite
Previous IDs: acid_phosphat; Acid_phosphat_A;
Type: Family
Author: Finn RD, Griffiths-Jones SR, Rigden DJ
Number in seed: 43
Number in full: 11944
Average length of the domain: 315.90 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 21 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 67.20 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 80369284 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 20.3 20.3
Trusted cut-off 20.3 20.3
Noise cut-off 20.2 20.2
Model length: 383
Family (HMM) version: 18
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence

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Interactions

There is 1 interaction for this family. More...

His_Phos_2

Structures

For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the His_Phos_2 domain has been found. There are 81 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.

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