Summary: Histidine phosphatase superfamily (branch 2)
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Phosphatase Edit Wikipedia article
A phosphatase is an enzyme that removes a phosphate group from its substrate by hydrolysing phosphoric acid monoesters into a phosphate ion and a molecule with a free hydroxyl group (see dephosphorylation). This action is directly opposite to that of phosphorylases and kinases, which attach phosphate groups to their substrates by using energetic molecules like ATP. A common phosphatase in many organisms is alkaline phosphatase. Another large group of proteins present in archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote exhibits deoxyribonucleotide and ribonucleotide phosphatase or pyrophosphatase activities that catalyse the decomposition of dNTP/NTP into dNDP/NDP and a free phosphate ion or dNMP/NMP and a free pyrophosphate ion.
Protein phosphorylation is one of the most common forms of reversible protein posttranslational modification (PTM), with up to 30% of all proteins being phosphorylated at any given time. Protein kinases (PKs) are the effectors of phosphorylation and catalyse the transfer of a γ-phosphate from ATP to specific amino acids on proteins. Several hundred PKs exist in mammals and are classified into distinct super-families. Proteins are phosphorylated predominantly on Ser, Thr and Tyr residues, which account for 86, 12 and 2% respectively of the phosphoproteome, at least in mammals. In contrast, protein phosphatases (PPs) are the primary effectors of dephosphorylation and can be grouped into three main classes based on sequence, structure and catalytic function. The largest class of PPs is the phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPP) family comprising PP1, PP2A, PP2B, PP4, PP5, PP6 and PP7, and the protein phosphatase Mg2+- or Mn2+-dependent (PPM) family, composed primarily of PP2C. The protein Tyr phosphatase (PTP) super-family forms the second group, and the aspartate-based protein phosphatases the third.
Cysteine-dependent phosphatases (CDPs) catalyse the hydrolysis of a phosphoester bond via a phospho-cysteine intermediate.
The free cysteine nucleophile forms a bond with the phosphorus atom of the phosphate moiety, and the P-O bond linking the phosphate group to the tyrosine is protonated, either by a suitably positioned acidic amino acid residue (Asp in the diagram below) or a water molecule. The phospho-cysteine intermediate is then hydrolysed by another water molecule, thus regenerating the active site for another dephosphorylation reaction.
Metallo-phosphatases (e.g. PP2C) co-ordinate 2 catalytically essential metal ions within their active site. There is currently some confusion of the identity of these metal ions, as successive attempts to identify them yield different answers. There is currently evidence that these metals could be Magnesium, Manganese, Iron, Zinc, or any combination thereof. It is thought that a hydroxyl ion bridging the two metal ions takes part in nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus ion.
Phosphatases can be subdivided based upon their substrate specificity.
|Serine-/threonine-specific phosphatases||PP2C (PPP2CA)||Phosphoserine/-threonine|||
|Dual specificity phosphatases||VHR, DUSP1–DUSP28||Phosphotyrosine/-serine/-threonine|||
Serine/threonine PP (PPM/PPP) families
Protein Ser/Thr phosphatases were originally classified using biochemical assays as either, type 1 (PP1) or type 2 (PP2), and were further subdivided based on metal-ion requirement (PP2A, no metal ion; PP2B, Ca2+ stimulated; PP2C, Mg2+ dependent) (Moorhead et al., 2007). The protein Ser/Thr phosphatases PP1, PP2A and PP2B of the PPP family, together with PP2C of the PPM family, account for the majority of Ser/Thr PP activity in vivo (Barford et al., 1998). In the brain, they are present in different subcellular compartments in neuronal and glial cells, and contribute to different neuronal functions.
The PPM family, which includes PP2C and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase, are enzymes with Mn2+/Mg2+ metal ions that are resistant to classic inhibitors and toxins of the PPP family. Unlike most PPPs, PP2C exists in only one subunit but, like PTPs, it displays a wide variety of structural domains that confer unique functions. In addition, PP2C does not seem to be evolutionarily related to the major family of Ser/Thr PPs and has no sequence homology to ancient PPP enzymes. The current assumption is that PPMs evolved separately from PPPs but converged during evolutionary development.
Class I: Cys-based PTPs
Class I PTPs constitute the largest family. They contain the well-known classical receptor (a) and non-receptor PTPs (b), which are strictly tyrosine-specific, and the DSPs (c) which target Ser/Thr as well as Tyr and are the most diverse in terms of substrate specificity.
Class II: Cys-based LMW-PTPs
This class of PTPs is represented by a single gene in humans encoding the 18 kDa low MW phosphatase (LM-PTP/LMW-PTP). Related classes are widely distributed in living organisms and were highly conserved through evolution. The preservation of this class of phosphatases and the involvement of LMPTPs in many common diseases suggest that it is involved in the regulation of many fundamental processes in cellular physiology.
Class III: Cys-based PTPs
The third class of PTPs contains three cell cycle regulators, CDC25A, CDC25B and CDC25C, which dephosphorylate CDKs at their N-terminal, a reaction required to drive progression of the cell cycle. They are themselves regulated by phosphorylation and are degraded in response to DNA damage to prevent chromosomal abnormalities.
Class IV: Asp-based DSPs
The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily is a further PP group that uses Asp as a nucleophile and was recently shown to have dual-specificity. These PPs can target both Ser and Tyr, but are thought to have greater specificity towards Tyr. A subfamily of HADs, the Eyes Absent Family (Eya), are also transcription factors and can therefore regulate their own phosphorylation and that of transcriptional cofactor/s, and contribute to the control of gene transcription. The combination of these two functions in Eya reveals a greater complexity of transcriptional gene control than previously thought . A further member of this class is the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphatase. While this family remains poorly understood, it is known to play important roles in development and nuclear morphology.
Phosphatases act in opposition to kinases/phosphorylases, which add phosphate groups to proteins. The addition of a phosphate group may activate or de-activate an enzyme (e.g., kinase signalling pathways) or enable a protein-protein interaction to occur (e.g., SH2 domains ); therefore phosphatases are integral to many signal transduction pathways. It should be noted that phosphate addition and removal do not necessarily correspond to enzyme activation or inhibition, and that several enzymes have separate phosphorylation sites for activating or inhibiting functional regulation. CDK, for example, can be either activated or deactivated depending on the specific amino acid residue being phosphorylated. Phosphates are important in signal transduction because they regulate the proteins to which they are attached. To reverse the regulatory effect, the phosphate is removed. This occurs on its own by hydrolysis, or is mediated by protein phosphatases.
Protein phosphorylation plays a crucial role in biological functions and controls nearly every cellular process, including metabolism, gene transcription and translation, cell-cycle progression, cytoskeletal rearrangement, protein-protein interactions, protein stability, cell movement, and apoptosis. These processes depend on the highly regulated and opposing actions of PKs and PPs, through changes in the phosphorylation of key proteins. Histone phosphorylation, along with methylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation and acetylation, also regulates access to DNA through chromatin reorganisation.
One of the major switches for neuronal activity is the activation of PKs and PPs by elevated intracellular calcium. The degree of activation of the various isoforms of PKs and PPs is controlled by their individual sensitivities to calcium. Furthermore, a wide range of specific inhibitors and targeting partners such as scaffolding, anchoring, and adaptor proteins also contribute to the control of PKs and PPs and recruit them into signalling complexes in neuronal cells. Such signalling complexes typically act to bring PKs and PPs in close proximity with target substrates and signalling molecules as well as enhance their selectivity by restricting accessibility to these substrate proteins. Phosphorylation events, therefore, are controlled not only by the balanced activity of PKs and PPs but also by their restricted localisation. Regulatory subunits and domains serve to restrict specific proteins to particular subcellular compartments and to modulate protein specificity. These regulators are essential for maintaining the coordinated action of signalling cascades, which in neuronal cells include short-term (synaptic) and long-term (nuclear) signalling. These functions are, in part, controlled by allosteric modification by secondary messengers and reversible protein phosphorylation.
It is thought that around 30% of known PPs are present in all tissues, with the rest showing some level of tissue restriction. While protein phosphorylation is a cell-wide regulatory mechanism, recent quantitative proteomics studies have shown that phosphorylation preferentially targets nuclear proteins. Many PPs that regulate nuclear events, are often enriched or exclusively present in the nucleus. In neuronal cells, PPs are present in multiple cellular compartments and play a critical role at both pre- and post-synapses, in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus where they regulate gene expression.
Learning and memory
In the adult brain, PPs are essential for synaptic functions and are involved in the negative regulation of higher-order brain functions such as learning and memory. Dysregulation of their activity has been linked to several disorders including cognitive ageing and neurodegeneration, as well as cancer, diabetes and obesity.
- Davies O, Mendes P, Smallbone K, Malys N (2012). "Characterisation of multiple substrate-specific (d)ITP/(d)XTPase and modelling of deaminated purine nucleotide metabolism". BMB Reports 45 (4): 259–64. doi:10.5483/BMBRep.2012.45.4.259. PMID 22531138.
- Martin, S. S. and Senior, H. E. (1980). "Membrane adenosine triphosphatase activities in rat pancreas". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 602: 401–418. doi:10.1016/0005-2736(80)90320-x. PMID 6252965.
- Riley, M. V. and Peters, M. I. (1981). "The localization of the anion-sensitive ATPase activity in corneal endothelium". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 644: 251–256. doi:10.1016/0005-2736(81)90382-5. PMID 6114746.
- Barford D (November 1996). "Molecular mechanisms of the protein serine/threonine phosphatases". Trends Biochem. Sci. 21 (11): 407–12. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(96)10060-8. PMID 8987393.
- Zhang ZY (2002). "Protein tyrosine phosphatases: structure and function, substrate specificity, and inhibitor development". Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 42 (1): 209–34. doi:10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.42.083001.144616. PMID 11807171.
- Mumby MC, Walter G (October 1993). "Protein serine/threonine phosphatases: structure, regulation, and functions in cell growth". Physiol. Rev. 73 (4): 673–99. PMID 8415923.
- Camps M, Nichols A, Arkinstall S (January 2000). "Dual specificity phosphatases: a gene family for control of MAP kinase function". FASEB J. 14 (1): 6–16. PMID 10627275.
- Bäumer N, Mäurer A, Krieglstein J, Klumpp S (2007). "Expression of protein histidine phosphatase in Escherichia Coli, purification, and determination of enzyme activity". Methods Mol. Biol. 365: 247–60. doi:10.1385/1-59745-267-X:247. PMID 17200567.
- Maehama T, Okahara F, Kanaho Y (April 2004). "The tumour suppressor PTEN: involvement of a tumour suppressor candidate protein in PTEN turnover". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 32 (Pt 2): 343–7. doi:10.1042/BST0320343. PMID 15046605.
- Seger R, Krebs EG (June 1995). "The MAPK signaling cascade". FASEB J. 9 (9): 726–35. PMID 7601337.
- Ladbury JE (January 2007). "Measurement of the formation of complexes in tyrosine kinase-mediated signal transduction". Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 63 (Pt 1): 26–31. doi:10.1107/S0907444906046373. PMC 2483503. PMID 17164523.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Histidine phosphatase superfamily (branch 2) Provide feedback
The histidine phosphatase superfamily is so named because catalysis centres on a conserved His residue that is transiently phosphorylated during the catalytic cycle. Other conserved residues contribute to a 'phosphate pocket' and interact with the phospho group of substrate before, during and after its transfer to the His residue. Structure and sequence analyses show that different families contribute different additional residues to the 'phosphate pocket' and, more surprisingly, differ in the position, in sequence and in three dimensions, of a catalytically essential acidic residue. The superfamily may be divided into two main branches.The smaller branch 2 contains predominantly eukaryotic proteins. The catalytic functions in members include phytase, glucose-1-phosphatase and multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase. The in vivo roles of the mammalian acid phosphatases in branch 2 are not fully understood, although activity against lysophosphatidic acid and tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins has been demonstrated.
Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||His_Phos_1|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000560
The histidine phosphatase superfamily is so named because catalysis centres on a conserved His residue that is transiently phosphorylated during the catalytic cycle. Other conserved residues contribute to a 'phosphate pocket' and interact with the phospho group of substrate before, during and after its transfer to the His residue. Structure and sequence analyses show that different families contribute different additional residues to the 'phosphate pocket' and, more surprisingly, differ in the position, in sequence and in three dimensions, of a catalytically essential acidic residue. The superfamily may be divided into two main branches. The relationship between the two branches is not evident by (PSI-)BLAST but is clear from more sensitive sequence searches and structural comparisons [PUBMED:18092946].
The smaller branch 2 contains predominantly eukaryotic proteins. The catalytic functions in members include phytase, glucose-1-phosphatase and multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase. The in vivo roles of the mammalian acid phosphatases in branch 2 are not fully understood, although activity against lysophosphatidic acid and tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins has been demonstrated.
Acid phosphatases (EC) are a heterogeneous group of proteins that hydrolyse phosphate esters, optimally at low pH. It has been shown [PUBMED:1989985] that a number of acid phosphatases, from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, share two regions of sequence similarity, each centred around a conserved histidine residue. These two histidines seem to be involved in the enzymes' catalytic mechanism [PUBMED:8334986, PUBMED:1429631]. The first histidine is located in the N-terminal section and forms a phosphohistidine intermediate while the second is located in the C-terminal section and possibly acts as proton donor. Enzymes belonging to this family are called 'histidine acid phosphatases' and include:
- Escherichia coli pH 2.5 acid phosphatase (gene appA).
- E. coli glucose-1-phosphatase (EC) (gene agp).
- Yeast constitutive and repressible acid phosphatases (genes PHO3 and PHO5).
- Schizosaccharomyces pombe acid phosphatase (gene pho1).
- Aspergillus awamori phytases A and B (EC) (gene phyA and phyB).
- Mammalian lysosomal and prostatic acid phosphatase.
- Several Caenorhabditis elegans hypothetical proteins.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||acid phosphatase activity (GO:0003993)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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This example describes an architecture with one
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Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
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The histidine phosphatase superfamily is so named because catalysis centres on a conserved His residue that is transiently phosphorylated during the catalytic cycle. Other conserved residues contribute to a 'phosphate pocket' and interact with the phospho group of substrate before, during and after its transfer to the His residue. Structure and sequence analyses show that different families contribute different additional residues to the 'phosphate pocket' and, more surprisingly, differ in the position, in sequence and in three dimensions, of a catalytically essential acidic residue. The superfamily may be divided into two main branches .
The clan contains the following 2 members:His_Phos_1 His_Phos_2
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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- an HTML-based viewer that uses DAS to retrieve alignment fragments on request
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
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You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Previous IDs:||acid_phosphat; Acid_phosphat_A;|
|Author:||Finn RD, Griffiths-Jones SR, Rigden DJ|
|Number in seed:||93|
|Number in full:||4055|
|Average length of the domain:||323.30 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||15 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||63.62 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||17|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
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Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There is 1 interaction for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the His_Phos_2 domain has been found. There are 64 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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