Summary: WD domain, G-beta repeat
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WD40 repeat Edit Wikipedia article
|WD domain, G-beta repeat|
The WD40 repeat (also known as the WD or beta-transducin repeat) is a short structural motif of approximately 40 amino acids, often terminating in a tryptophan-aspartic acid (W-D) dipeptide. Tandem copies of these repeats typically fold together to form a type of circular solenoid protein domain called the WD40 domain.
WD40 domain-containing proteins have 4 to 16 repeating units, all of which are thought to form a circularised beta-propeller structure (see figure to the right). The WD40 domain is composed of several repeats, a variable region of around 20 residues at the beginning followed by a more common repeated set of residues. These repeats typically form a four stranded anti-parallel beta sheet or blade. These blades come together to form a propeller with the most common being a 7 bladed beta propeller. The blades interlock so that the last beta strand of one repeat forms with the first three of the next repeat to form the 3D blade structure.
WD40-repeat proteins are a large family found in all eukaryotes and are implicated in a variety of functions ranging from signal transduction and transcription regulation to cell cycle control, autophagy and apoptosis. The underlying common function of all WD40-repeat proteins is coordinating multi-protein complex assemblies, where the repeating units serve as a rigid scaffold for protein interactions. The specificity of the proteins is determined by the sequences outside the repeats themselves. Examples of such complexes are G proteins (beta subunit is a beta-propeller), TAFII transcription factor, and E3 ubiquitin ligase.
According to the initial analysis of the human genome WD40 repeats are the eighth largest family of proteins. In all 277 proteins were identified to contain them. Human genes encoding proteins containing this domain include:
- AAAS, AAMP, AHI1, AMBRA1, APAF1, ARPC1A, ARPC1B, ATG16L1,
- BOP1, BRWD1, BRWD2, BRWD3, BTRC, BUB3,
- C6orf11, CDC20, CDC40, CDRT1, CHAF1B, CIAO1, CIRH1A, COPA, COPB2, CORO1A, CORO1B, CORO1C, CORO2A, CORO2B, CORO6, CORO7, CSTF1,
- DDB2, DENND3, DMWD, DMXL1, DMXL2, DNAI1, DNAI2, DNCI1, DTL, DYNC1I1, DYNC1I2, EDC4,
- EED, EIF3S2, ELP2, EML1, EML2, EML3, EML4, EML4-ALK, EML5, ERCC8,
- FBXW10, FBXW11, FBXW2, FBXW4, FBXW5, FBXW7, FBXW8, FBXW9, FZR1,
- GBL, GEMIN5, GNB1, GNB1L, GNB2, GNB2L1, GNB3, GNB4, GNB5, GRWD1, GTF3C2,
- HERC1, HIRA, HZGJ,
- IFT121, IFT122, IFT140, IFT172, IFT80, IQWD1,
- KATNB1, KIAA1336, KIF21A, KIF21B, KM-PA-2,
- LLGL1, LLGL2, LRBA, LRRK1, LRRK2, LRWD1, LYST,
- MAPKBP1, MED16, MORG1,
- NBEA, NBEAL1, NEDD1, NLE1, NSMAF, NUP37, NUP43, NWD1,
- PAAF1, PAFAH1B1, PAK1IP1, PEX7, PHIP, PIK3R4, PLAA, PLRG1, PPP2R2A, PPP2R2B, PPP2R2C, PPP2R2D, PPWD1, PREB, PRPF19, PRPF4, PWP1, PWP2,
- RAE1, RPTOR, RBBP4, RBBP5, RBBP7, RFWD2, RFWD3, RRP9,
- SCAP, SEC13, SEC31A, SEC31B, SEH1L, SHKBP1, SMU1, SPAG16, SPG, STRAP, STRN, STRN3, STRN4, STXBP5, STXBP5L,
- TAF5, TAF5L, TBL1X, TBL1XR1, TBL1Y, TBL2, TBL3, TEP1, THOC3, THOC6, TLE1, TLE2, TLE3, TLE4, TLE6, TRAF7, TSSC1, TULP4, TUWD12,
- UTP15, UTP18,
- WAIT1, WDF3, WDFY1, WDFY2, WDFY3, WDFY4, WDHD1, WDR1, WDR10, WDR12, WDR13, WDR16, WDR17, WDR18, WDR19, WDR20, WDR21A, WDR21C, WDR22, WDR23, WDR24, WDR25, WDR26, WDR27, WDR3, WDR31, WDR32, WDR33, WDR34, WDR35, WDR36, WDR37, WDR38, WDR4, WDR40A, WDR40B, WDR40C, WDR41, WDR42A, WDR42B, WDR43, WDR44, WDR46, WDR47, WDR48, WDR49, WDR5, WDR51A, WDR51B, WDR52, WDR53, WDR54, WDR55, WDR57, WDR59, WDR5B, WDR6, WDR60, WDR61, WDR62, WDR63, WDR64, WDR65, WDR66, WDR67, WDR68, WDR69, WDR7, WDR70, WDR72, WDR73, WDR74, WDR75, WDR76, WDR77, WDR78, WDR79, WDR8, WDR81, WDR82, WDR85, WDR86, WDR88, WDR89, WDR90, WDR91, WDR92, WDSOF1, WDSUB1, WDTC1, WSB1, WSB2,
|WDR gene||other gene names||NCBI Entrez Gene ID||Human disease associated with mutations|
|WDR1||AIP1; NORI-1; HEL-S-52||9948|
|WDR2||CORO2A; IR10; CLIPINB||7464|
|WDR5||SWD3; BIG-3; CFAP89||11091|
|WDR7||TRAG; KIAA0541; Rabconnectin 3 beta||23335|
|WDR9||BRWD1; N143; C21orf107||54014|
|WDR10||IFT122; CED; SPG; CED1; WDR10p; WDR140||55764||Sensenbrenner syndrome|
|WDR11||DR11; HH14; BRWD2; WDR15||55717||Kallmann syndrome|
|WDR14||GNB1L; GY2; FKSG1; WDVCF; DGCRK3||54584|
|WDR19||ATD5; CED4; DYF-2; ORF26; Oseg6; PWDMP; SRTD5; IFT144; NPHP13||57728||Sensenbrenner syndrome, Jeune syndrome|
|WDR22||DCAF5; BCRG2; BCRP2||8816|
|WDR23||DCAF11; GL014; PRO2389||80344|
|WDR26||CDW2; GID7; MIP2||80232|
|WDR28||GRWD1; CDW4; GRWD; RRB1||83743|
|WDR30||ATG16L1; IBD10; APG16L; ATG16A; ATG16L||55054||Crohn’s disease|
|WDR34||DIC5; FAP133; SRTD11||89891||Jeune syndrome|
|WDR35||CED2; IFTA1; SRTD7; IFT121||57539||Sensenbrenner syndrome|
|WDR36||GLC1G; UTP21; TAWDRP; TA-WDRP||134430||Primary Open Angle Glaucoma|
|WDR40A||DCAF12; CT102; TCC52; KIAA1892||25853|
|WDR45||JM5; NBIA4; NBIA5; WDRX1; WIPI4; WIPI-4||11152|
|WDR46||UTP7; BING4; FP221; C6orf11||9277|
|WDR48||P80; UAF1; SPG60||57599|
|WDR56||IFT80; ATD2; SRTD2||57560||Jeune syndrome|
|WDR57||SNRNP40; SPF38; PRP8BP; HPRP8BP; PRPF8BP||9410|
|WDR58||THOC6; BBIS; fSAP35||79228|
|WDR60||SRPS6; SRTD8; FAP163||55112||Jeune syndrome|
|WDR65||CFAP57; VWS2||149465||Van der Woude syndrome|
|WDR68||DCAF7; AN11; HAN11; SWAN-1||10238|
|WDR71||PAAF1; PAAF; Rpn14||80227|
|WDR77||p44; MEP50; MEP-50; HKMT1069; Nbla10071; p44/Mep50||79084|
|WDR79||WRAP53; DKCB3; TCAB1||55135|
|WDR81||CAMRQ2; PPP1R166||124997||cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and dysequilibrium syndrome-2|
|WDR82||SWD2; MST107; WDR82A; MSTP107; PRO2730; TMEM113; PRO34047||80335|
|WDR84||PAK1IP1; PIP1; MAK11||55003|
|WDR85||DPH7; RRT2; C9orf112||92715|
|WDR90||C16orf15; C16orf16; C16orf17; C16orf18; C16orf19||197335|
- "Structure of the C-terminal domain of Tup1, a corepressor of transcription in yeast". EMBO J. 19 (12): 3016–27. PMC . PMID 10856245. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.12.3016.; Sprague ER, Redd MJ, Johnson AD, Wolberger C (June 2000).
- Neer EJ, Schmidt CJ, Nambudripad R, Smith TF (September 1994). "The ancient regulatory-protein family of WD-repeat proteins". Nature. 371 (6495): 297–300. PMID 8090199. doi:10.1038/371297a0.
- Smith TF, Gaitatzes C, Saxena K, Neer EJ (May 1999). "The WD40 repeat: a common architecture for diverse functions". Trends Biochem. Sci. 24 (5): 181–5. PMID 10322433. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(99)01384-5.
- Li D, Roberts R (December 2001). "WD-repeat proteins: structure characteristics, biological function, and their involvement in human diseases". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 58 (14): 2085–97. PMID 11814058. doi:10.1007/PL00000838.
- Stirnimann CU, Petsalaki E, Russell RB, Müller CW (May 2010). "WD40 proteins propel cellular networks.". Trends Biochem. Sci. 35 (10): 565–74. PMID 20451393. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2010.04.003.
- Lander ES, Linton LM, Birren B, et al. (February 2001). "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome". Nature. 409 (6822): 860–921. PMID 11237011. doi:10.1038/35057062.
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_APCC_Dbox_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_APCC_KENbox_2
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_COP1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_CRL4_Cdt2_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_CRL4_Cdt2_2
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_EH1_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_GLEBS_BUB3_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_RAPTOR_TOS_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_SCF_FBW7_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_SCF_FBW7_2
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_SCF-TrCP1_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_WRPW_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_WRPW_2
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class TRG_ER_diArg_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class TRG_ER_diLys_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class TRG_Golgi_diPhe_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class TRG_PTS2
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
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Internal database links
|SCOOP:||ANAPC4_WD40 CEP19 Coatomer_WDAD Cytochrom_D1 eIF2A Frtz Ge1_WD40 Gmad1 IKI3 Nucleoporin_N Nup160 PQQ_2 RAB3GAP2_N SGL Utp8 WD40_like|
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||eIF2A ANAPC4_WD40 Ge1_WD40|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001680
WD-40 repeats (also known as WD or beta-transducin repeats) are short ~40 amino acid motifs, often terminating in a Trp-Asp (W-D) dipeptide. WD40 repeats usually assume a 7-8 bladed beta-propeller fold, but proteins have been found with 4 to 16 repeated units, which also form a circularised beta-propeller structure. WD-repeat proteins are a large family found in all eukaryotes and are implicated in a variety of functions ranging from signal transduction and transcription regulation to cell cycle control and apoptosis. Repeated WD40 motifs act as a site for protein-protein interaction, and proteins containing WD40 repeats are known to serve as platforms for the assembly of protein complexes or mediators of transient interplay among other proteins. The specificity of the proteins is determined by the sequences outside the repeats themselves. Examples of such complexes are G proteins (beta subunit is a beta-propeller), TAFII transcription factor, and E3 ubiquitin ligase [PUBMED:11814058, PUBMED:10322433]. In Arabidopsis spp., several WD40-containing proteins act as key regulators of plant-specific developmental events.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||protein binding (GO:0005515)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
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This large clan contains proteins that contain beta propellers. These are composed of between 6 and 8 repeats. The individual repeats are composed of a four stranded sheet. The clan includes families such as WD40 Pfam:PF00400 where the individual repeats are modeled. The clan also includes families where the entire propeller is modeled such as Pfam:PF02239 usually because the individual repeats are not discernible. These proteins carry out a very wide diversity of functions including catalysis.
The clan contains the following 71 members:ANAPC4_WD40 Arylesterase Arylsulfotran_2 Arylsulfotrans BBS2_Mid Beta_propel Coatomer_WDAD CPSF_A Cytochrom_D1 DPPIV_N DUF1513 DUF1668 DUF2415 DUF4221 DUF4934 DUF5046 DUF5050 DUF5122 DUF5128 DUF839 eIF2A FG-GAP FG-GAP_2 Frtz Ge1_WD40 Glu_cyclase_2 Gmad1 GSDH IKI3 Itfg2 Kelch_1 Kelch_2 Kelch_3 Kelch_4 Kelch_5 Kelch_6 Lactonase Ldl_recept_b Lgl_C LVIVD Me-amine-dh_H MRJP Nbas_N Neisseria_PilC NHL Nucleoporin_N Nup160 PALB2_WD40 PD40 Pectate_lyase22 Peptidase_S9_N Phytase-like PQQ PQQ_2 PQQ_3 RAG2 RCC1 RCC1_2 Reg_prop SBBP SBP56 SdiA-regulated SGL Str_synth TcdB_toxin_midN TolB_like VCBS WD40 WD40_3 WD40_4 WD40_like
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_2 (release 1.0)|
|Number in seed:||1465|
|Number in full:||378719|
|Average length of the domain:||39.40 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||25 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||19.92 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||31|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
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a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 54 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the WD40 domain has been found. There are 3109 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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