Summary: Pathogenesis-related protein Bet v I family
Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Bet v I allergen". More...
The Wikipedia text that you see displayed here is a download from Wikipedia. This means that the information we display is a copy of the information from the Wikipedia database. The button next to the article title ("Edit Wikipedia article") takes you to the edit page for the article directly within Wikipedia. You should be aware you are not editing our local copy of this information. Any changes that you make to the Wikipedia article will not be displayed here until we next download the article from Wikipedia. We currently download new content on a nightly basis.
Does Pfam agree with the content of the Wikipedia entry ?
Pfam has chosen to link families to Wikipedia articles. In some case we have created or edited these articles but in many other cases we have not made any direct contribution to the content of the article. The Wikipedia community does monitor edits to try to ensure that (a) the quality of article annotation increases, and (b) vandalism is very quickly dealt with. However, we would like to emphasise that Pfam does not curate the Wikipedia entries and we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information on the Wikipedia page.
Editing Wikipedia articles
Before you edit for the first time
Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopedia. Although anyone can edit or contribute to an article, Wikipedia has some strong editing guidelines and policies, which promote the Wikipedia standard of style and etiquette. Your edits and contributions are more likely to be accepted (and remain) if they are in accordance with this policy.
You should take a few minutes to view the following pages:
How your contribution will be recorded
Anyone can edit a Wikipedia entry. You can do this either as a new user or you can register with Wikipedia and log on. When you click on the "Edit Wikipedia article" button, your browser will direct you to the edit page for this entry in Wikipedia. If you are a registered user and currently logged in, your changes will be recorded under your Wikipedia user name. However, if you are not a registered user or are not logged on, your changes will be logged under your computer's IP address. This has two main implications. Firstly, as a registered Wikipedia user your edits are more likely seen as valuable contribution (although all edits are open to community scrutiny regardless). Secondly, if you edit under an IP address you may be sharing this IP address with other users. If your IP address has previously been blocked (due to being flagged as a source of 'vandalism') your edits will also be blocked. You can find more information on this and creating a user account at Wikipedia.
If you have problems editing a particular page, contact us at email@example.com and we will try to help.
The community annotation is a new facility of the Pfam web site. If you have problems editing or experience problems with these pages please contact us.
Bet v I allergen Edit Wikipedia article
|Bet v I allergen|
Bet v I allergen is a family of protein allergens. Allergies are hypersensitivity reactions of the immune system to specific substances called allergens (such as pollen, stings, drugs, or food) that, in most people, result in no symptoms.
Trees within the order Fagales possess particularly potent allergens, e.g. the prototypical Bet v1, the major white birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen antigen. Bet v 1 is the main cause of type I allergies observed in early spring. Type I, or immunoglobulin E-mediated (IgE-mediated) allergies affect 1 in 5 people in Europe and North America. Commonly observed symptoms are hay fever, dermatitis, asthma and, in severe cases, anaphylactic shock. First contact with these allergens results in sensitisation; subsequent contact produces a cross-linking reaction of IgE on mast cells and concomitant release of histamine. The inevitable symptoms of an allergic reaction ensue.
A nomenclature system has been established for antigens (allergens) that cause IgE-mediated atopic allergies in humans. This nomenclature system is defined by a designation that is composed of the first three letters of the genus; a space; the first letter of the species name; a space and an Arabic number. In the event that two species names have identical designations, they are discriminated from one another by adding one or more letters (as necessary) to each species designation.
The allergens in this family include allergens with the following designations: Bet v 1, Dau c 1, and Pru a 1. Other proteins belonging to this family include the major pollen allergens:
- Aln g I from Alnus glutinosa (Alder);
- Api G I from Apium graveolens (Celery);
- Car b I from Carpinus betulus (European hornbeam);
- Cor a I from Corylus avellana (European hazel);
- Mal d I from Malus domestica (Apple).
NMR analysis has confirmed earlier predictions of the protein structure and site of the major T-cell epitope. The Bet v 1 protein comprises 6 anti-parallel beta-strands and 3 alpha-helices. Four of the strands dominate the global fold, and 2 of the helices form a C-terminal amphipathic helical motif. This motif is believed to be the T-cell epitope. However, one very striking feature of the three-dimensional structure of Bet v 1 is the presence of a large hydrophobic cavity, which is open to the exterior and probably functions as a ligand binding site.
The motif is also found in:
- the wound-induced protein AoPR1 from Asparagus officinalis (Garden asparagus);
- the pathogenesis-related proteins from Phaseolus vulgaris (Kidney bean) and Petroselinum crispum (Parsley) (PR1-1 and PR1-3);
- the disease resistance response proteins, STH-2 and STH-21, from Solanum tuberosum (Potato) and pI49, pI176 and DRRG49-C from Pisum sativum (Garden pea);
- the P.sativum abscisic acid-responsive proteins ABR17 and ABR18;
- and the stress-induced protein SAM22 from Glycine max (Soybean).
Additionally, the core domain of Bet v 1 founds or is part of a superfamily of domains called SRPBCC (START/RHOalphaC/PITP/Bet v1/CoxG/CalC) that include the StAR-related lipid-transfer (START) domain.
The biological function of Bet v 1 is still under investigations. Bet v 1 harbors a large hydrophobic pocket and is able to bind a large spectra of ligands in it like hormones and siderophores like flavenols. It belongs to the pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, which are usually expressed upon infections and stressful conditions, implicating a role in host defense. In vitro, Bet v 1 has been shown to be immune-suppressive, when it pocket was filled by a ligand, but was able to mount a Th2-response important in allergy development, when the pocket remained empty.
- Gajhede, M.; Osmark, P.; Poulsen, F. M.; Ipsen, H.; Larsen, J. N.; Joost Van Neerven, R. J.; Schou, C.; Løwenstein, H.; Spangfort, M. D. (1996). "X-ray and NMR structure of Bet v 1, the origin of birch pollen allergy". Nature Structural Biology 3 (12): 1040–1045. doi:10.1038/nsb1296-1040. PMID 8946858.
- [WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee King T.P., Hoffmann D., Loewenstein H., Marsh D.G., Platts-Mills T.A.E., Thomas W. Bull. World Health Organ. 72:797-806(1994)]
- Rosch P, Kraft D, Faber C, Lindemann A, Sticht H, Ejchart A, Kungl A, Susani M, Frank RW, Breitenbach M (1996). "Secondary structure and tertiary fold of the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 in solution". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (32): 19243–19250. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.32.19243. PMID 8702605.
- Kungl AJ, Kraft D, Lindemann A, Susani M, Breitenbach M, Scheiner O, Auer M, Machius M, Visser AJ (1996). "Evidence for an alpha helical T cell epitope in the C-terminus of the main birch pollen allergen Bet V 1". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 223 (1): 187–192. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1996.0867. PMID 8660368.
- Radauer, Christian; Lackner, Peter; Breiteneder, Heimo (2008-10-15). "The Bet v 1 fold: an ancient, versatile scaffold for binding of large, hydrophobic ligands". BMC Evolutionary Biology 8 (1): 286. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-286. PMC 2577659. PMID 18922149.
- Mogensen, Jesper E.; Wimmer, Reinhard; Larsen, Jørgen N.; Spangfort, Michael D.; Otzen, Daniel E. (2002-04-12). "The major birch allergen, Bet v 1, shows affinity for a broad spectrum of physiological ligands". Journal of Biological Chemistry 277: 23684–92. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202065200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11953433.
- Loon, L. C. van; Rep, M.; Pieterse, C. M. J. (2006-01-01). "Significance of Inducible Defense-related Proteins in Infected Plants". Annual Review of Phytopathology 44 (1): 135–162. doi:10.1146/annurev.phyto.44.070505.143425. PMID 16602946.
- Roth-Walter, Franziska; Gomez-Casado, Cristina; Pacios, Luis F.; Mothes-Luksch, Nadine; Roth, Georg A.; Singer, Josef; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika (2014-06-20). "Bet v 1 from Birch Pollen Is a Lipocalin-like Protein Acting as Allergen Only When Devoid of Iron by Promoting Th2 Lymphocytes". Journal of Biological Chemistry 289 (25): 17416–17421. doi:10.1074/jbc.M114.567875. ISSN 0021-9258. PMC 4067174. PMID 24798325.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Pathogenesis-related protein Bet v I family Provide feedback
This family is named after Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen. This protein belongs to family 10 of plant pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-10), cytoplasmic proteins of 15-17 kd that are wide-spread among dicotyledonous plants . In recent years, a number of diverse plant proteins with low sequence similarity to Bet v 1 was identified. A classification by sequence similarity yielded several subfamilies related to PR-10  - Pathogenesis-related proteins PR-10: These proteins were identified as major tree pollen allergens in birch and related species (hazel, alder), as plant food allergens expressed in high levels in fruits, vegetables and seeds (apple, celery, hazelnut), and as pathogenesis-related proteins whose expression is induced by pathogen infection, wounding, or abiotic stress. Hyp-1 (Q8H1L1), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of the bioactive naphthodianthrone hypericin in St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) also belongs to this family. Most of these proteins were found in dicotyledonous plants. In addition, related sequences were identified in monocots and conifers. - Cytokinin-specific binding proteins: These legume proteins bind cytokinin plant hormones . - (S)-Norcoclaurine synthases are enzymes catalysing the condensation of dopamine and 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde to (S)-norcoclaurine, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids such as morphine . -Major latex proteins and ripening-related proteins are proteins of unknown biological function that were first discovered in the latex of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and later found to be upregulated during ripening of fruits such as strawberry and cucumber . The occurrence of Bet v 1-related proteins is confined to seed plants with the exception of a cytokinin-binding protein from the moss Physcomitrella patens (Q9AXI3).
Wen J, Vanek-Krebitz M, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Scheiner O, Breiteneder H; , Mol Phylogenet Evol. 1997;8:317-333.: The potential of Betv1 homologues, a nuclear multigene family, as phylogenetic markers in flowering plants. PUBMED:9417891 EPMC:9417891
Fujimoto Y, Nagata R, Fukasawa H, Yano K, Azuma M, Iida A, Sugimoto S, Shudo K, Hashimoto Y; , Eur J Biochem. 1998;258:794-802.: Purification and cDNA cloning of cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vigna radiata). PUBMED:9874249 EPMC:9874249
Samanani N, Liscombe DK, Facchini PJ; , Plant J. 2004;40:302-313.: Molecular cloning and characterization of norcoclaurine synthase, an enzyme catalyzing the first committed step in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. PUBMED:15447655 EPMC:15447655
Samanani N, Liscombe DK, Facchini PJ; , Plant J. 2004;40:302-313.: Molecular cloning and characterization of norcoclaurine synthase, an enzyme catalyzing the first committed step in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. PUBMED:15447655 EPMC:15447655
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000916
This domain is named after Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen. Bet v 1 belongs to family 10 of plant pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-10), cytoplasmic proteins of 15-17 kd that are wide-spread among dicotyledonous plants [PUBMED:9417891]. In recent years, a number of diverse plant proteins with low sequence similarity to Bet v 1 was identified. A classification by sequence similarity yielded several subfamilies related to PR-10 [PUBMED:18922149]:
- Pathogenesis-related proteins PR-10: These proteins were identified as major tree pollen allergens in birch and related species (hazel, alder), as plant food allergens expressed in high levels in fruits, vegetables and seeds (apple, celery, hazelnut), and as pathogenesis-related proteins whose expression is induced by pathogen infection, wounding, or abiotic stress. Hyp-1 (SWISSPROT), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of the bioactive naphthodianthrone hypericin in St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) also belongs to this family. Most of these proteins were found in dicotyledonous plants. In addition, related sequences were identified in monocots and conifers.
- Cytokinin-specific binding proteins: These legume proteins bind cytokinin plant hormones [PUBMED:9874249].
- (S)-Norcoclaurine synthases are enzymes catalysing the condensation of dopamine and 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde to (S)-norcoclaurine, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids such as morphine [PUBMED:15447655].
- Major latex proteins and ripening-related proteins are proteins of unknown biological function that were first discovered in the latex of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and later found to be upregulated during ripening of fruits such as strawberry and cucumber [PUBMED:15447655].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Biological process||defense response (GO:0006952)|
|response to biotic stimulus (GO:0009607)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
Loading domain graphics...
The Bet_V_I family is composed of sequences related to the major Birch (Betula verrucose) pollen antigen Betv1. This allergen is known to cause hayfever, dermatitis, asthma and occasionally anaphylactic shock. The other families in this clan share the same structure as Betv1 which is composed of antiparallel beta sheets and alpha helices. There is a cavity between the beta sheet and a long C terminal helix. The cavity appears to play roles in the binding of lipid molecules  which seems a common feature of the families in this clan.
The clan contains the following 14 members:AHSA1 Aromatic_hydrox Bet_v_1 COXG DUF1857 DUF2505 DUF3074 DUF3211 DUF3284 IP_trans Polyketide_cyc Polyketide_cyc2 Ring_hydroxyl_A START
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Author:||Finn RD, Radauer C|
|Number in seed:||18|
|Number in full:||1458|
|Average length of the domain:||137.80 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||23 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||92.87 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 17690987 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||17|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 2 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Bet_v_1 domain has been found. There are 152 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
Loading structure mapping...