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146  structures 6896  species 5  interactions 24496  sequences 243  architectures

Family: Glutaredoxin (PF00462)

Summary: Glutaredoxin

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Glutaredoxin". More...

Glutaredoxin Edit Wikipedia article

PDB 1kte EBI.jpg
Pfam clanCL0172
OPM superfamily131
OPM protein1z9h

Glutaredoxins[1][2][3] are small redox enzymes of approximately one hundred amino-acid residues that use glutathione as a cofactor. Glutaredoxins are oxidized by substrates, and reduced non-enzymatically by glutathione. In contrast to thioredoxins, which are reduced by thioredoxin reductase, no oxidoreductase exists that specifically reduces glutaredoxins. Instead, glutaredoxins are reduced by the oxidation of glutathione. Oxidized glutathione is then regenerated by glutathione reductase. Together these components compose the glutathione system.[4]

Like thioredoxin, which functions in a similar way, glutaredoxin possesses an active centre disulfide bond.[5] It exists in either a reduced or an oxidized form where the two cysteine residues are linked in an intramolecular disulfide bond. Glutaredoxins function as electron carriers in the glutathione-dependent synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides by the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase.[4] Moreover, GRX act in antioxidant defense by reducing dehydroascorbate, peroxiredoxins, and methionine sulfoxide reductase. Beside their function in antioxidant defense, bacterial and plant GRX were shown to bind iron-sulfur clusters and to deliver the cluster to enzymes on demand.[6]

GRXs in viruses

Glutaredoxin has been sequenced in a variety of viruses. On the basis of extensive sequence similarity, it has been proposed[7] that Vaccinia virus protein O2L is, it seems, a glutaredoxin. Bacteriophage T4 thioredoxin seems to be evolution-related. In position 5 of the pattern T4, thioredoxin has Val instead of Pro.

GRXs in plants

Approximately 30 GRX isoforms are described in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and 48 in Oryza sativa L. According to their redox-active centre, they are subgrouped in six classes of the CSY[C/S]-, CGFS-, CC-type and 3 groups with additional domain of unknown function. The CC-type GRXs are only found in higher plants. In Arabidopsis GRXs are involved in flower development and Salicylic acid signalling.[6]

GRXs in skin care

Glutaredoxin is used as an antioxidant [8] in skin care products in conjunction with thioredoxin and glutathione.


Human proteins containing this domain



  1. ^ Holmgren A, Gleason FK (1988). "Thioredoxin and related proteins in procaryotes". FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 4 (4): 271–297. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1988.tb02747.x. PMID 3152490.
  2. ^ Holmgren A (1988). "Thioredoxin and glutaredoxin: small multi-functional redox proteins with active-site disulfide bonds". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 16 (2): 95–96. PMID 3286320.
  3. ^ Holmgren A (1989). "Thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (24): 13963–13966. PMID 2668278.
  4. ^ a b Holmgren A, Fernandes AP (2004). "Glutaredoxins: glutathione-dependent redox enzymes with functions far beyond a simple thioredoxin backup system". Antioxid. Redox Signal. 6 (1): 63–74. doi:10.1089/152308604771978354. PMID 14713336.
  5. ^ Nilsson L, Foloppe N (2004). "The glutaredoxin -C-P-Y-C- motif: influence of peripheral residues". Structure. 12 (2): 289–300. doi:10.1016/j.str.2004.01.009. PMID 14962389.
  6. ^ a b Rouhier N, Lemaire SD, Jacquot JP (2008). "The role of glutathione in photosynthetic organisms: emerging functions for glutaredoxins and glutathionylation". Annu Rev Plant Biol. 59: 143–66. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092811. PMID 18444899.
  7. ^ Johnson GP, Goebel SJ, Perkus ME, Davis SW, Winslow JP, Paoletti E (1991). "Vaccinia virus encodes a protein with similarity to glutaredoxins". Virology. 181 (1): 378–381. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(91)90508-9. PMID 1994586.
  8. ^

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External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR002109

Glutaredoxins [PUBMED:3152490, PUBMED:3286320, PUBMED:2668278], also known as thioltransferases (disulphide reductases, are small proteins of approximately one hundred amino-acid residues which utilise glutathione and NADPH as cofactors. Oxidized glutathione is regenerated by glutathione reductase. Together these components compose the glutathione system [PUBMED:14713336].

Glutaredoxin functions as an electron carrier in the glutathione-dependent synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides by the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase. Like thioredoxin (TRX), which functions in a similar way, glutaredoxin possesses an active centre disulphide bond [PUBMED:14962389]. It exists in either a reduced or an oxidized form where the two cysteine residues are linked in an intramolecular disulphide bond. It contains a redox active CXXC motif in a TRX fold and uses a similar dithiol mechanism employed by TRXs for intramolecular disulfide bond reduction of protein substrates. Unlike TRX, GRX has preference for mixed GSH disulfide substrates, in which it uses a monothiol mechanism where only the N-terminal cysteine is required. The flow of reducing equivalents in the GRX system goes from NADPH -> GSH reductase -> GSH -> GRX -> protein substrates [PUBMED:9860827, PUBMED:10493864, PUBMED:15814611, PUBMED:15706083]. By altering the redox state of target proteins, GRX is involved in many cellular functions including DNA synthesis, signal transduction and the defense against oxidative stress.

Glutaredoxin has been sequenced in a variety of species. On the basis of extensive sequence similarity, it has been proposed [PUBMED:1994586] that Vaccinia virus protein O2L is most probably a glutaredoxin. Finally, it must be noted that Bacteriophage T4 thioredoxin seems also to be evolutionary related. In position 5 of the pattern T4 thioredoxin has Val instead of Pro.

This entry represents Glutaredoxin.

Gene Ontology

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Domain organisation

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Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan Thioredoxin (CL0172), which has the following description:

This clan contains families related to the thioredoxin family. Thioredoxins are small enzymes that are involved in redox reactions via the reversible oxidation of an active centre disulfide bond. The thioredoxin fold consists of a 3 layer alpha/beta/alpha sandwich and a central beta sheet.

The clan contains the following 62 members:

2Fe-2S_thioredx AhpC-TSA AhpC-TSA_2 ArsC ArsD Calsequestrin DIM1 DSBA DUF1223 DUF1462 DUF1525 DUF1687 DUF2703 DUF2847 DUF4174 DUF836 DUF899 DUF953 ERp29_N GILT Glutaredoxin GSHPx GST_N GST_N_2 GST_N_3 GST_N_4 GST_N_5 HyaE KaiB L51_S25_CI-B8 MRP-S23 MRP-S25 OST3_OST6 Phe_hydrox_dim Phosducin QSOX_Trx1 Rdx Redoxin SCO1-SenC SelP_N Sep15_SelM SH3BGR T4_deiodinase Thioredox_DsbH Thioredoxin Thioredoxin_11 Thioredoxin_12 Thioredoxin_13 Thioredoxin_14 Thioredoxin_15 Thioredoxin_16 Thioredoxin_2 Thioredoxin_3 Thioredoxin_4 Thioredoxin_5 Thioredoxin_6 Thioredoxin_7 Thioredoxin_8 Thioredoxin_9 Tom37 TraF YtfJ_HI0045


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Curation and family details

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Seed source: Prosite & Pfam-B_3081 (Release 8.0)
Previous IDs: glutaredoxin;
Type: Domain
Sequence Ontology: SO:0000417
Author: Finn RD , Bateman A
Number in seed: 236
Number in full: 24496
Average length of the domain: 62.80 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 24 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 36.43 %

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HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 47079205 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 22.9 22.9
Trusted cut-off 22.9 22.9
Noise cut-off 22.8 22.8
Model length: 60
Family (HMM) version: 25
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Species distribution

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Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence


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There are 5 interactions for this family. More...

Pyr_redox_2 Redoxin GST_C_3 GST_C_3 Glutaredoxin


For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Glutaredoxin domain has been found. There are 146 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.

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