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Osteopontin Edit Wikipedia article
|, BNSP, BSPI, ETA-1, OPN, secreted phosphoprotein 1, Osteopontin|
Osteopontin (OPN), also known as bone sialoprotein I (BSP-1 or BNSP), early T-lymphocyte activation (ETA-1), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), 2ar and Rickettsia resistance (Ric), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPP1 gene (secreted phosphoprotein 1). The murine ortholog is Spp1. Osteopontin is a SIBLING (glycoprotein) that was first identified in 1986 in osteoblasts.
The prefix osteo- indicates that the protein is expressed in bone, although it is also expressed in other tissues. The suffix -pontin is derived from "pons," the Latin word for bridge, and signifies osteopontin's role as a linking protein. Osteopontin is an extracellular structural protein and therefore an organic component of bone. Synonyms for this protein include sialoprotein I and 44K BPP (bone phosphoprotein).
The gene has 7 exons, spans 5 kilobases in length and in humans it is located on the long arm of chromosome 4 region 22 (4q1322.1). The protein is composed of ~300 amino acids residues and has ~30 carbohydrate residues attached including 10 sialic acid residues, which are attached to the protein during post-translational modification in the Golgi apparatus. The protein is rich in acidic residues: 30-36% are either aspartic or glutamic acid.
- 1 Structure
- 2 Biosynthesis
- 3 Biological function
- 4 Potential clinical application
- 5 Role in implantation
- 6 References
- 7 Additional images
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
OPN is a highly negatively charged, extracellular matrix protein that lacks an extensive secondary structure. It is composed of about 300 amino acids (297 in mouse; 314 in human) and is expressed as a 33-kDa nascent protein; there are also functionally important cleavage sites. OPN can go through posttranslational modifications, which increase its apparent molecular weight to about 44 kDa. The OPN gene is composed of 7 exons, 6 of which containing coding sequence. The first two exons contain the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). Exons 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 code for 17, 13, 27, 14, 108 and 134 amino acids, respectively. All intron-exon boundaries are of the phase 0 type, thus alternative exon splicing maintains the reading frame of the OPN gene.
Full-length OPN (OPN-FL) can be modified by thrombin cleavage, which exposes a cryptic sequence, SVVYGLR on the cleaved form of the protein known as OPN-R (Fig. 1). This thrombin-cleaved OPN (OPN-R) exposes an epitope for integrin receptors of α4β1, α9β1, and α9β4. These integrin receptors are present on a number of immune cells such as mast cells, neutrophils, and T cells. It is also expressed by monocytes and macrophages. Upon binding these receptors, cells use several signal transduction pathways to elicit immune responses in these cells (See Section 3 for more detail). OPN-R can be further cleaved by Carboxypeptidase B (CPB) by removal of C-terminal arginine and become OPN-L (Fig. 2). The function of OPN-L is largely unknown.
It appears an intracellular variant of OPN (iOPN) is involved in a number of cellular processes including migration, fusion and motility. Intracellular OPN is generated using an alternative translation start site on the same mRNA species used to generate the extracellular isoform. This alternative translation start site is downstream of the N-terminal endoplasmic reticulum-targeting signal sequence, thus allowing cytoplasmic translation of OPN.
Various human cancers, including breast cancer, have been observed to express splice variants of OPN. The cancer-specific splice variants are osteopontin-a, osteopontin-b, and osteopontin-c. Exon 5 is lacking from osteopontin-b, whereas osteopontin-c lacks exon 4. Osteopontin-c has been suggested to facilitate the anchorage-independent phenotype of some human breast cancer cells due to its inability to associate with the extracellular matrix.
Osteopontin is biosynthesized by a variety of tissue types including cardiac fibroblasts, preosteoblasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, odontoblasts, some bone marrow cells, hypertrophic chondrocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle myoblasts, endothelial cells, and extraosseous (non-bone) cells in the inner ear, brain, kidney, deciduum, and placenta. Synthesis of osteopontin is stimulated by calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3).
Regulation of the osteopontin gene is incompletely understood. Different cell types may differ in their regulatory mechanisms of the OPN gene. OPN expression in bone predominantly occurs by osteoblasts and osteocyctes (bone-forming cells) as well as osteoclasts (bone-resorbing cells). Runx2 (aka Cbfa1) and osterix (Osx) transcription factors are required for the expression of OPN  Runx2 and Osx bind promoters of osteoblast-specific genes such as Col1α1, Bsp, and Opn and upregulate transcription.
Hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia (instances that stimulate kidney proximal tubule cells to produce calcitriol (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3)) lead to increases in OPN transcription, translation and secretion. This is due to the presence of a high-specificity vitamin D response element (VDRE) in the OPN gene promoter.
Extracellular inorganic phosphate (ePi) has also been identified as a modulator of OPN expression.
Stimulation of OPN expression also occurs upon exposure of cells to pro-inflammatory cytokines, classical mediators of acute inflammation (e.g. tumour necrosis factor α [TNFα], infterleukin-1β [IL-1β]), angiotensin II, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), although a detailed mechanistic understanding of these regulatory pathways are not yet known. Hyperglycemia and hypoxia are also known to increase OPN expression.
Role in biomineralization
OPN belongs to a family of secreted acidic proteins whose members have an abundance of negatively charged amino acids such as Asp and Glu. OPN also has a large number of consensus sequence sites for post-translational phosphorylation of Ser residues to form phosphoserine, providing additional negative charge. Contiguous stretches of high negative charge in OPN have been identified and named the polyAsp motif (poly-aspartic acid) and the ASARM motif (acidic serine- and asparate-rich motif), with the latter sequence having multiple phosphorylation sites. This overall negative charge of OPN, along with its specific acidic motifs and the fact that OPN is an intrinsically disordered protein allowing for open and flexible structures, permit OPN to bind strongly to calcium atoms available at crystal surfaces in various biominerals. Such binding of OPN to various types of calcium-based biominerals ‒ such as calcium-phosphate mineral in bones and teeth, calcium-carbonate mineral in inner ear otoconia and avian eggshells, and calcium-oxalate mineral in kidney stones – acts as a mineralization inhibitor to regulate crystal growth.
OPN is a substrate protein for a number of enzymes whose actions may modulate the mineralization-inhibiting function of OPN. PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome) is one such enzyme, which extensively degrades OPN, and whose inactivating gene mutations (in X-linked hypophosphatemia, XLH) lead to altered processing of OPN such that inhibitory OPN cannot be degraded and accumulates in the bone (and tooth) extracellular matrix, likely contributing locally to the osteomalacia (soft hypomineralized bones) characteristic of XLH.
Along with its role in the regulation of normal mineralization within the extracellular matrices of bones and teeth, OPN is also upregulated at sites of pathologic, ectopic calcification – such as for example, in urolithiasis and vascular calcification ‒ presumably at least in part to inhibit debilitating mineralization in these soft tissues.
Role in bone remodeling
Osteopontin has been implicated as an important factor in bone remodeling. Specifically, research suggests it plays a role in anchoring osteoclasts to the mineral matrix of bones. The organic part of bone is about 20% of the dry weight, and counts in, other than osteopontin, collagen type I, osteocalcin, osteonectin, bone sialo protein, and alkaline phosphatase. Collagen type I counts for 90% of the protein mass. The inorganic part of bone is the mineral hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Loss of this mineral may lead to osteoporosis, as the bone is depleted for calcium if this is not supplied in the diet.
Role in immune functions
As discussed, OPN binds to several integrin receptors including α4β1, α9β1, and α9β4 expressed by leukocytes. These receptors have been well-established to function in cell adhesion, migration, and survival in these cells. Therefore, recent research efforts have focused on the role of OPN in mediating such responses.
Osteopontin (OPN) is expressed in a range of immune cells, including macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and T and B cells, with varying kinetics. OPN is reported to act as an immune modulator in a variety of manners. Firstly, it has chemotactic properties, which promote cell recruitment to inflammatory sites. It also functions as an adhesion protein, involved in cell attachment and wound healing. In addition, OPN mediates cell activation and cytokine production, as well as promoting cell survival by regulating apoptosis. The following examples are found.
Role in Heart
OPN expression increases under a variety of conditions of the heart, and is associated with increased myocyte apoptosis and myocardial dysfunction.
OPN plays an important role in neutrophil recruitment in alcoholic liver disease. OPN is important for the migration of neutrophil in vitro. In addition, OPN recruits inflammatory cells to arthritis joints in the collagen-induced arthritis model of rheumatoid arthritis. A recent in vitro study in 2008 has found that OPN plays a role in mast cell migration. Here OPN knock-out mast cells were cultured and they observed a decreased level of chemotaxis in these cells compared to wildtype mast cells. OPN was also found to act as a macrophage chemotactic factor. In this study, researchers looked at the accumulation of macrophages in the brain of rhesus monkeys and found that OPN prevented macrophages from leaving the accumulation site, indicating an increased level of chemotaxis.
Activated T cells are promoted by IL-12 to differentiate towards the Th1 type, producing cytokines including IL-12 and IFNγ. OPN inhibits production of the Th2 cytokine IL-10, which leads to enhanced Th1 response. OPN influences cell-mediated immunity and has Th1 cytokine functions. It enhances B cell immunoglobulin production and proliferation. Recent studies in 2008 suggest that OPN also induces mast cell degranulation. The researchers here observed that IgE-mediated anaphylaxis was significantly reduced in OPN knock-out mice compared to wild-type mice. The role of OPN in activation of macrophages has also been implicated in a cancer study, when researchers discovered that OPN-producing tumors were able to induce macrophage activation compared to OPN-deficient tumors.
OPN is an important anti-apoptotic factor in many circumstances. OPN blocks the activation-induced cell death of macrophages and T cells as well as fibroblasts and endothelial cells exposed to harmful stimuli. OPN prevents non-programmed cell death in inflammatory colitis.
Potential clinical application
The fact that OPN interacts with multiple cell surface receptors that are ubiquitously expressed makes it an active player in many physiological and pathological processes including wound healing, bone turnover, tumorigenesis, inflammation, ischemia, and immune responses1. Therefore, manipulation of plasma (or local) OPN levels may be useful in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, cancer metastasis, bone (and tooth) mineralization diseases, osteoporosis, and some forms of stress.
Role in autoimmune diseases
OPN has been implicated in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. For instance, researchers found that OPN-R, the thrombin-cleaved form of OPN, was elevated in the rheumatoid arthritis joint. However, the role of OPN in rheumatoid arthritis is still unclear. One group found that OPN knock-out mice were protected against arthritis. while others were not able to reproduce this observation. OPN has been found to play a role in other autoimmune diseases including autoimmune hepatitis, allergic airway disease, and multiple sclerosis.
Role in cancers and inflammatory diseases
It has been shown that OPN drives IL-17 production; OPN is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, ovarian cancer, papillary thyroid carcinoma, melanoma and pleural mesothelioma; OPN contributes both glomerulonephritis and tubulointerstitial nephritis; and OPN is found in atheromatous plaques within arteries. Thus, manipulation of plasma OPN levels may be useful in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, cancer metastasis, osteoporosis and some forms of stress.
Research has implicated osteopontin in excessive scar-forming and a gel has been developed to inhibit its effect.
Role in colitis
Opn is up-regulated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Opn expression is highly up-regulated in intestinal immune and non-immune cells and in the plasma of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), as well as in the colon and plasma of mice with experimental colitis. Increased plasma Opn levels are related to the severity of CD inflammation, and certain Opn gene (Spp1) haplotypes are modifiers of CD susceptibility. Opn has also a proinflammatory role in TNBS- and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, which are mouse models for IBD. Opn was found highly expressed by a specific dendritic cell (DC) subset derived from murine mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs)and is highly proinflammatory for colitis. Dendritic cells are important for the development of intestinal inflammation in humans with IBD and in mice with experimental colitis. Opn expression by this inflammatory MLN DC subset is crucial for their pathogenic action during colitis.
Role in allergy and asthma
Osteopontin has recently been associated with allergic inflammation and asthma. Expression of Opn is significantly increased in lung epithelial and subepithelial cells of asthmatic patients in comparison to healthy subjects. Opn expression is also upregulated in lungs of mice with allergic airway inflammation. The secreted form of Opn (Opn-s) plays a proinflammatory role during allergen sensitization (OVA/Alum), as neutralization of Opn-s during that phase results in significantly milder allergic airway inflammation. In contrast, neutralization of Opn-s during antigenic challenge exacerbates allergic airway disease. These effects of Opn-s are mainly mediated by the regulation of Th2-suppressing plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) during primary sensitization and Th2-promoting conventional DCs during secondary antigenic challenge. OPN deficiency was also reported to protect against remodeling and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), again using a chronic allergen-challenge model of airway remodeling. Furthermore, it was recently demonstrated that OPN expression is upregulated in human asthma, is associated with remodeling changes and its subepithelial expression correlates to disease severity. OPN has also been reported to be increased in the sputum supernatant of smoking asthmatics, as well as the BALF and bronchial tissue of smoking controls and asthmatics.
Role in muscle disease and injury
Evidence is accumulating that suggests that osteopontin plays a number of roles in diseases of skeletal muscle, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Osteopontin has been described as a component of the inflammatory environment of dystrophic and injured muscles, and has also been shown to increase scarring of diaphragm muscles of aged dystrophic mice. A recent study has identified osteopontin as a determinant of disease severity in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This study found that a mutation in the osteopontin gene promoter, known to cause low levels of osteopontin expression, is associated with a decrease in age to loss of ambulation and muscle strength in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Role in hip osteoarthritis
An increase in Plasma OPN levels has been observed in patients with idiopathic hip OA. Furthermore, a correlation between OPN plasma levels and the severity of the disease has been noted.
Role in implantation
OPN is expressed in endometrial cells during implantation. Due to the production of progesterone by the ovaries, OPN is up-regulated immensely to aid in this process. The endometrium must undergo decidualization, the process in which the endometrium undergoes changes to prepare for implantation, which will lead to the attachment of the embryo. The endometrium houses stromal cells that will differentiate to produce an optimal environment for the embryo to attach (decidualization). OPN is a vital protein for stromal cell proliferation and differentiation as well as it binds to the receptor αvβ3 to assist with adhesion. OPN along with decidualization ultimately encourages the successful implantation of the early embryo. A OPN gene knock-out results in attachment instability at the maternal-fetal interface.
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- Hunter GK, O'Young J, Grohe B, Karttunen M, Goldberg HA (December 2010). "The flexible polyelectrolyte hypothesis of protein-biomineral interaction". Langmuir. 26 (24): 18639–46. doi:10.1021/la100401r. PMID 20527831.
- McKee MD, Nanci A (May 1995). "Postembedding colloidal-gold immunocytochemistry of noncollagenous extracellular matrix proteins in mineralized tissues". Microsc. Res. Tech. 31 (1): 44–62. doi:10.1002/jemt.1070310105. PMID 7626799.
- Takemura T, Sakagami M, Nakase T, Kubo T, Kitamura Y, Nomura S (September 1994). "Localization of osteopontin in the otoconial organs of adult rats". Hear. Res. 79 (1–2): 99–104. doi:10.1016/0378-5955(94)90131-7. PMID 7806488.
- Hincke MT, Nys Y, Gautron J, Mann K, Rodriguez-Navarro AB, McKee MD (2012). "The eggshell: structure, composition and mineralization". Front. Biosci. 17: 1266–80. doi:10.2741/3985. PMID 22201802.
- McKee MD, Nanci A, Khan SR (December 1995). "Ultrastructural immunodetection of osteopontin and osteocalcin as major matrix components of renal calculi". J. Bone Miner. Res. 10 (12): 1913–29. doi:10.1002/jbmr.5650101211. PMID 8619372.
- O'Young J, Chirico S, Al Tarhuni N, Grohe B, Karttunen M, Goldberg HA, Hunter GK (2009). "Phosphorylation of osteopontin peptides mediates adsorption to and incorporation into calcium oxalate crystals". Cells Tissues Organs (Print). 189 (1–4): 51–5. doi:10.1159/000151724. PMID 18728346.
- Chien YC, Masica DL, Gray JJ, Nguyen S, Vali H, McKee MD (August 2009). "Modulation of calcium oxalate dihydrate growth by selective crystal-face binding of phosphorylated osteopontin and polyaspartate peptide showing occlusion by sectoral (compositional) zoning". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (35): 23491–501. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.021899. PMC . PMID 19581305.
- Sodek J, Ganss B, McKee MD (2000). "Osteopontin". Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 11 (3): 279–303. doi:10.1177/10454411000110030101. PMID 11021631.
- McKee, MD; Hoac, B; Addison, WN; Barros, NM; Millán, JL; Chaussain, C (October 2013). "Extracellular matrix mineralization in periodontal tissues: Noncollagenous matrix proteins, enzymes, and relationship to hypophosphatasia and X-linked hypophosphatemia". Periodontology 2000. 63 (1): 102–22. doi:10.1111/prd.12029. PMC . PMID 23931057.
- Boukpessi, T; Hoac, B; Coyac, BR; Leger, T; Garcia, C; Wicart, P; Whyte, MP; Glorieux, FH; Linglart, A; Chaussain, C; McKee, MD (21 November 2016). "Osteopontin and the dento-osseous pathobiology of X-linked hypophosphatemia". Bone. 95: 151–161. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2016.11.019. PMID 27884786.
- Barros, NM; Hoac, B; Neves, RL; Addison, WN; Assis, DM; Murshed, M; Carmona, AK; McKee, MD (March 2013). "Proteolytic processing of osteopontin by PHEX and accumulation of osteopontin fragments in Hyp mouse bone, the murine model of X-linked hypophosphatemia". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 28 (3): 688–99. doi:10.1002/jbmr.1766. PMID 22991293.
- McKee MD, Addison WN, Kaartinen MT (2005). "Hierarchies of extracellular matrix and mineral organization in bone of the craniofacial complex and skeleton". Cells Tissues Organs (Print). 181 (3–4): 176–88. doi:10.1159/000091379. PMID 16612083.
- Steitz SA, Speer MY, McKee MD, Liaw L, Almeida M, Yang H, Giachelli CM (December 2002). "Osteopontin inhibits mineral deposition and promotes regression of ectopic calcification". Am. J. Pathol. 161 (6): 2035–46. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64482-3. PMC . PMID 12466120.
- Giachelli CM (March 1999). "Ectopic calcification: gathering hard facts about soft tissue mineralization". Am. J. Pathol. 154 (3): 671–5. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65313-8. PMC . PMID 10079244.
- Choi ST, Kim JH, Kang EJ, Lee SW, Park MC, Park YB, Lee SK (December 2008). "Osteopontin might be involved in bone remodelling rather than in inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis". Rheumatology (Oxford). 47 (12): 1775–9. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ken385. PMID 18854347.
- Singh M, Dalal S, Singh K (2014). "Osteopontin: At the cross-roads of myocyte survival and myocardial function". Life Sci. 118: 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2014.09.014. PMC . PMID 25265596.
- Apte UM, Banerjee A, McRee R, Wellberg E, Ramaiah SK (August 2005). "Role of osteopontin in hepatic neutrophil infiltration during alcoholic steatohepatitis". Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 207 (1): 25–38. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2004.12.018. PMID 15885730.
- Koh A, da Silva AP, Bansal AK, Bansal M, Sun C, Lee H, Glogauer M, Sodek J, Zohar R (December 2007). "Role of osteopontin in neutrophil function". Immunology. 122 (4): 466–75. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2007.02682.x. PMC . PMID 17680800.
- Ohshima S, Kobayashi H, Yamaguchi N, Nishioka K, Umeshita-Sasai M, Mima T, Nomura S, Kon S, Inobe M, Uede T, Saeki Y (April 2002). "Expression of osteopontin at sites of bone erosion in a murine experimental arthritis model of collagen-induced arthritis: possible involvement of osteopontin in bone destruction in arthritis". Arthritis Rheum. 46 (4): 1094–101. doi:10.1002/art.10143. PMID 11953989.
- Sakata M, Tsuruha JI, Masuko-Hongo K, Nakamura H, Matsui T, Sudo A, Nishioka K, Kato T (July 2001). "Autoantibodies to osteopontin in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis". J. Rheumatol. 28 (7): 1492–5. PMID 11469452.
- Nagasaka A, Matsue H, Matsushima H, Aoki R, Nakamura Y, Kambe N, Kon S, Uede T, Shimada S (February 2008). "Osteopontin is produced by mast cells and affects IgE-mediated degranulation and migration of mast cells". Eur. J. Immunol. 38 (2): 489–99. doi:10.1002/eji.200737057. PMID 18200503.
- Burdo TH, Wood MR, Fox HS (June 2007). "Osteopontin prevents monocyte recirculation and apoptosis". J. Leukoc. Biol. 81 (6): 1504–11. doi:10.1189/jlb.1106711. PMC . PMID 17369493.
- Crawford HC, Matrisian LM, Liaw L (November 1998). "Distinct roles of osteopontin in host defense activity and tumor survival during squamous cell carcinoma progression in vivo". Cancer Res. 58 (22): 5206–15. PMID 9823334.
- Denhardt DT, Noda M, O'Regan AW, Pavlin D, Berman JS (May 2001). "Osteopontin as a means to cope with environmental insults: regulation of inflammation, tissue remodeling, and cell survival". J. Clin. Invest. 107 (9): 1055–61. doi:10.1172/JCI12980. PMC . PMID 11342566.
- Standal T, Borset M, Sundan A (September 2004). "Role of osteopontin in adhesion, migration, cell survival and bone remodeling". Exp. Oncol. 26 (3): 179–84. PMID 15494684.
- Da Silva AP, Pollett A, Rittling SR, Denhardt DT, Sodek J, Zohar R (September 2006). "Exacerbated tissue destruction in DSS-induced acute colitis of OPN-null mice is associated with downregulation of TNF-alpha expression and non-programmed cell death". J. Cell. Physiol. 208 (3): 629–39. doi:10.1002/jcp.20701. PMID 16741956.
- Yumoto K, Ishijima M, Rittling SR, Tsuji K, Tsuchiya Y, Kon S, Nifuji A, Uede T, Denhardt DT, Noda M (April 2002). "Osteopontin deficiency protects joints against destruction in anti-type II collagen antibody-induced arthritis in mice". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (7): 4556–61. doi:10.1073/pnas.052523599. PMC . PMID 11930008.
- Jacobs JP, Pettit AR, Shinohara ML, Jansson M, Cantor H, Gravallese EM, Mathis D, Benoist C (August 2004). "Lack of requirement of osteopontin for inflammation, bone erosion, and cartilage damage in the K/BxN model of autoantibody-mediated arthritis". Arthritis Rheum. 50 (8): 2685–94. doi:10.1002/art.20381. PMID 15334485.
- Chabas D, Baranzini SE, Mitchell D, Bernard CC, Rittling SR, Denhardt DT, Sobel RA, Lock C, Karpuj M, Pedotti R, Heller R, Oksenberg JR, Steinman L (November 2001). "The influence of the proinflammatory cytokine, osteopontin, on autoimmune demyelinating disease". Science. 294 (5547): 1731–5. doi:10.1126/science.1062960. PMID 11721059.
- Steinman L (February 2007). "A brief history of T(H)17, the first major revision in the T(H)1/T(H)2 hypothesis of T cell-mediated tissue damage". Nat. Med. 13 (2): 139–45. doi:10.1038/nm1551. PMID 17290272.
- "Gel 'to speed up wound healing'". Health. BBC NEWS. 2008-01-22. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- Gassler N, Autschbach F, Gauer S, Bohn J, Sido B, Otto HF, Geiger H, Obermüller N (November 2002). "Expression of osteopontin (Eta-1) in Crohn disease of the terminal ileum". Scand J Gastroenterol. 37 (11): 1286–95. doi:10.1080/003655202761020560. PMID 12465727.
- Sato T, Nakai T, Tamura N, Okamoto S, Matsuoka K, Sakuraba A, Fukushima T, Uede T, Hibi T (September 2005). "Osteopontin/Eta-1 upregulated in Crohn's disease regulates the Th1 immune response". Gut. 54 (9): 1254–62. doi:10.1136/gut.2004.048298. PMC . PMID 16099792.
- Mishima R, Takeshima F, Sawai T, Ohba K, Ohnita K, Isomoto H, Omagari K, Mizuta Y, Ozono Y, Kohno S (February 2007). "High plasma osteopontin levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease". J Clin Gastroenterol. 41 (2): 167–72. doi:10.1097/MCG.0b013e31802d6268. PMID 17245215.
- Kourepini E, Aggelakopoulou M, Alissafi T, Paschalidis N, Simoes DC, Panoutsakopoulou V (March 2014). "Osteopontin expression by CD103- dendritic cells drives intestinal inflammation". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 111 (9): E856–E865. doi:10.1073/pnas.1316447111. PMC . PMID 24550510.
- Xanthou G, Alissafi T, Semitekolou M, Simoes DC, Economidou E, Gaga M, Lambrecht BN, Lloyd CM, Panoutsakopoulou V (May 2007). "Osteopontin has a crucial role in allergic airway disease through regulation of dendritic cell subsets". Nat. Med. 13 (5): 570–9. doi:10.1038/nm1580. PMID 17435770.
- Simoes DC, Xanthou G, Petrochilou K, Panoutsakopoulou V, Roussos C, Gratziou C (May 2009). "deficiency". Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 179 (10): 894–902. doi:10.1164/rccm.200807-1081OC. PMID 19234104.
- Samitas K, Zervas E, Vittorakis S, Semitekolou M, Alissafi T, Bossios A, Gogos H, Economidou E, Lötvall J, Xanthou G, Panoutsakopoulou V, Gaga M (2010). "Osteopontin expression and relation to disease severity in human asthma". Eur. Respir. J. 37 (2): 331–41. doi:10.1183/09031936.00017810. PMID 20562127.
- Hillas G, Loukides S, Kostikas K, Simoes D, Petta V, Konstantellou E, Emmanouil P, Papiris S, Koulouris N, Bakakos P (Jan 2013). "Increased levels of osteopontin in sputum supernatant of smoking asthmatics". Cytokine. 61 (1): 251–5. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2012.10.002. PMID 23098767.
- Samitas K, Zervas E, Xanthou G, Panoutsakopoulou V, Gaga M (Feb 2013). "Osteopontin is increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial tissue of smoking asthmatics". Cytokine. 61 (3): 713–5. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2012.12.028. PMID 23384656.
- Porter JD, Khanna S, Kaminski HJ, Rao JS, Merriam AP, Richmonds CR, Leahy P, Li J, Guo W, Andrade FH (May 2002). "A chronic inflammatory response dominates the skeletal muscle molecular signature in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice". Hum Mol Genet. 11 (3): 263–72. doi:10.1093/hmg/11.3.263. PMID 11823445.
- Haslett JN, Sanoudou D, Kho AT, Bennett RR, Greenberg SA, Kohane IS, Beggs AH, Kunkel LM (2002). "Gene expression comparison of biopsies from Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and normal skeletal muscle". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 99 (23): 15000–15005. doi:10.1073/pnas.192571199. PMC . PMID 12415109.
- Hirata A, Masuda S, Tamura T, Kai K, Ojima K, Fukase A, Motoyoshi K, Kamakura K, Miyagoe-Suzuki Y, Takeda S (2003). "Expression profiling of cytokines and related genes in regenerating skeletal muscle after cardiotoxin injection: a role for osteopontin". Am J Pathol. 163 (1): 203–215. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63644-9. PMC . PMID 12819025.
- Vetrone SA, Montecino-Rodriguez E, Kudryashova E, Kramerova I, Hoffman EP, Liu SD, Miceli MC, Spencer MJ (2009). "Osteopontin promotes fibrosis in dystrophic mouse muscle by modulating immune cell subsets and intramuscular TGF-beta". J Clin Invest. 119 (6): 1583–1594. doi:10.1172/JCI37662. PMC . PMID 19451692.
- Pegoraro E, Hoffman EP, Piva L, Gavassini BF, Cagnin S, Ermani M, Bello L, Soraru G, Pacchioni B, Bonifati MD, Lanfranchi G, Angelini C, Kesari A, Lee I, Gordish-Dressman H, Devaney JM, McDonald CM (2011). "SPP1 genotype is a determinant of disease severity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy". Neurology. 76 (3): 219–226. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318207afeb. PMC . PMID 21178099.
- El Deeb S, Abdelnaby R, Khachab A, Bläsius K, Tingart M, Rath B (July 2016). "Osteopontin as a biochemical marker and severity indicator for idiopathic hip osteoarthritis". PMID 27229171.
- Kang YJ, Forbes K, Carver J, Aplin JD (2014). "The role of the osteopontin-integrin αvβ3 interaction at implantation: functional analysis using three different in vitro models". Human Reproduction (Oxford, England). 29 (4): 739–49. doi:10.1093/humrep/det433. PMID 24442579.
- Johnson GA, Burghardt RC, Bazer FW, Spencer TE (2003). "Osteopontin: roles in implantation and placentation". Biology of Reproduction. 69 (5): 1458–71. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.103.020651. PMID 12890718.
- Fujisawa R (2002). "[Recent advances in research on bone matrix proteins]". Nippon Rinsho. 60. Suppl 3: 72–8. PMID 11979972.
- Denhardt DT, Mistretta D, Chambers AF, Krishna S, Porter JF, Raghuram S, Rittling SR (2003). "Transcriptional regulation of osteopontin and the metastatic phenotype: evidence for a Ras-activated enhancer in the human OPN promoter". Clin. Exp. Metastasis. 20 (1): 77–84. doi:10.1023/A:1022550721404. PMID 12650610.
- Yeatman TJ, Chambers AF (2003). "Osteopontin and colon cancer progression". Clin. Exp. Metastasis. 20 (1): 85–90. doi:10.1023/A:1022502805474. PMID 12650611.
- O'Regan A (2004). "The role of osteopontin in lung disease". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 14 (6): 479–88. doi:10.1016/S1359-6101(03)00055-8. PMID 14563350.
- Wai PY, Kuo PC (2004). "The role of Osteopontin in tumor metastasis". J. Surg. Res. 121 (2): 228–41. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2004.03.028. PMID 15501463.
- Konno S, Hizawa N, Nishimura M, Huang SK (2007). "Osteopontin: a potential biomarker for successful bee venom immunotherapy and a potential molecule for inhibiting IgE-mediated allergic responses". Allergology International. 55 (4): 355–9. doi:10.2332/allergolint.55.355. PMID 17130676.
- Rodrigues LR, Teixeira JA, Schmitt FL, Paulsson M, Lindmark-Mänsson H (2007). "The role of osteopontin in tumor progression and metastasis in breast cancer". Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 16 (6): 1087–97. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-1008. PMID 17548669.
- Ramaiah SK, Rittling S (2007). "Role of osteopontin in regulating hepatic inflammatory responses and toxic liver injury". Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 3 (4): 519–26. doi:10.1517/1742522.214.171.1249. PMID 17696803.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Osteopontin Provide feedback
No Pfam abstract.
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR002038The major event of endochondrial ossification is the proteolytic degradation of calcified cartilage and the extracellular matrix, and their substitution with bone-specific extracellular matrix produced and organised by osteoblasts [PUBMED:2033080]. One of the most abundant products of osteoblasts is osteopontin, a glycosylated phosphoprotein with a high acidic amino acid content and one copy of the cell attachment sequence RGD [PUBMED:2033080]. It is thought that osteopontin may act as a bridge between osteoblasts and the apatite mineral of the bone [PUBMED:2033080]. Osteopontin-K is a kidney protein, similar to osteopontin and probably also involved in cell adhesion [PUBMED:1414488].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Biological process||cell adhesion (GO:0007155)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
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We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_1593 (release 2.1)|
|Number in seed:||13|
|Number in full:||106|
|Average length of the domain:||183.60 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||46 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||77.57 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild --amino -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||17|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Osteopontin domain has been found. There are 2 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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