Summary: P53 DNA-binding domain
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|, BCC7, LFS1, P53, TRP53, tumor protein p53, BMFS5, Genes, p53|
Tumor protein P53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), the Guardian of the Genome, phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice). This homolog (originally thought to be, and often spoken of as, a single protein) is crucial in multicellular vertebrates, where it prevents cancer formation. As such, p53 has been described as "the guardian of the genome" because of its role in conserving stability by preventing genome mutation. Hence TP53[note 1] is classified as a tumor suppressor gene.
The name p53 was given in 1979 describing the apparent molecular mass; SDS-PAGE analysis indicates that it is a 53-kilodalton (kDa) protein. However, the actual mass of the full-length p53 protein (p53Î±) based on the sum of masses of the amino acid residues is only 43.7 kDa. This difference is due to the high number of proline residues in the protein, which slow its migration on SDS-PAGE, thus making it appear heavier than it actually is. In addition to the full-length protein, the human TP53 gene encodes at least 15 protein isoforms, ranging in size from 3.5 to 43.7 kDa. All these p53 proteins are called the p53 isoforms. The TP53 gene is the most frequently mutated gene (>50%) in human cancer, indicating that the TP53 gene plays a crucial role in preventing cancer formation. TP53 gene encodes proteins that bind to DNA and regulate gene expression to prevent mutations of the genome.
In humans, the TP53 gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 17 (17p13.1). The gene spans 20 kb, with a non-coding exon 1 and a very long first intron of 10 kb. The coding sequence contains five regions showing a high degree of conservation in vertebrates, predominantly in exons 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8, but the sequences found in invertebrates show only distant resemblance to mammalian TP53. TP53 orthologs have been identified in most mammals for which complete genome data are available.
Human TP53 gene
In humans, a common polymorphism involves the substitution of an arginine for a proline at codon position 72. Many studies have investigated a genetic link between this variation and cancer susceptibility; however, the results have been controversial. For instance, a meta-analysis from 2009 failed to show a link for cervical cancer. A 2011 study found that the TP53 proline mutation did have a profound effect on pancreatic cancer risk among males. A study of Arab women found that proline homozygosity at TP53 codon 72 is associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. One study suggested that TP53 codon 72 polymorphisms, MDM2 SNP309, and A2164G may collectively be associated with non-oropharyngeal cancer susceptibility and that MDM2 SNP309 in combination with TP53 codon 72 may accelerate the development of non-oropharyngeal cancer in women. A 2011 study found that TP53 codon 72 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.
Meta-analyses from 2011 found no significant associations between TP53 codon 72 polymorphisms and both colorectal cancer risk and endometrial cancer risk. A 2011 study of a Brazilian birth cohort found an association between the non-mutant arginine TP53 and individuals without a family history of cancer. Another 2011 study found that the p53 homozygous (Pro/Pro) genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk for renal cell carcinoma.
p53 has seven domains:
- an acidic N-terminus transcription-activation domain (TAD), also known as activation domain 1 (AD1), which activates transcription factors. The N-terminus contains two complementary transcriptional activation domains, with a major one at residues 1â€“42 and a minor one at residues 55â€“75, specifically involved in the regulation of several pro-apoptotic genes.
- activation domain 2 (AD2) important for apoptotic activity: residues 43â€“63.
- proline rich domain important for the apoptotic activity of p53 by nuclear exportation via MAPK: residues 64â€“92.
- central DNA-binding core domain (DBD). Contains one zinc atom and several arginine amino acids: residues 102â€“292. This region is responsible for binding the p53 co-repressor LMO3.
- Nuclear Localization Signaling (NLS) domain, residues 316â€“325.
- homo-oligomerisation domain (OD): residues 307â€“355. Tetramerization is essential for the activity of p53 in vivo.
- C-terminal involved in downregulation of DNA binding of the central domain: residues 356â€“393.
Mutations that deactivate p53 in cancer usually occur in the DBD. Most of these mutations destroy the ability of the protein to bind to its target DNA sequences, and thus prevents transcriptional activation of these genes. As such, mutations in the DBD are recessive loss-of-function mutations. Molecules of p53 with mutations in the OD dimerise with wild-type p53, and prevent them from activating transcription. Therefore, OD mutations have a dominant negative effect on the function of p53.
DNA damage and repair
- It can activate DNA repair proteins when DNA has sustained damage. Thus, it may be an important factor in aging.
- It can arrest growth by holding the cell cycle at the G1/S regulation point on DNA damage recognitionâ€”if it holds the cell here for long enough, the DNA repair proteins will have time to fix the damage and the cell will be allowed to continue the cell cycle.
- It can initiate apoptosis (i.e., programmed cell death) if DNA damage proves to be irreparable.
- It is essential for the senescence response to short telomeres.
WAF1/CIP1 encoding for p21 and hundreds of other down-stream genes. p21 (WAF1) binds to the G1-S/CDK (CDK4/CDK6, CDK2, and CDK1) complexes (molecules important for the G1/S transition in the cell cycle) inhibiting their activity.
When p21(WAF1) is complexed with CDK2, the cell cannot continue to the next stage of cell division. A mutant p53 will no longer bind DNA in an effective way, and, as a consequence, the p21 protein will not be available to act as the "stop signal" for cell division. Studies of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) commonly describe the nonfunctional p53-p21 axis of the G1/S checkpoint pathway with subsequent relevance for cell cycle regulation and the DNA damage response (DDR). Importantly, p21 mRNA is clearly present and upregulated after the DDR in hESCs, but p21 protein is not detectable. In this cell type, p53 activates numerous microRNAs (like miR-302a, miR-302b, miR-302c, and miR-302d) that directly inhibit the p21 expression in hESCs.
The p21 protein binds directly to cyclin-CDK complexes that drive forward the cell cycle and inhibits their kinase activity, thereby causing cell cycle arrest to allow repair to take place. p21 can also mediate growth arrest associated with differentiation and a more permanent growth arrest associated with cellular senescence. The p21 gene contains several p53 response elements that mediate direct binding of the p53 protein, resulting in transcriptional activation of the gene encoding the p21 protein.
Levels of p53 play an important role in the maintenance of stem cells throughout development and the rest of human life.
In human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)s, p53 is maintained at low inactive levels. This is because activation of p53 leads to rapid differentiation of hESCs. Studies have shown that knocking out p53 delays differentiation and that adding p53 causes spontaneous differentiation, showing how p53 promotes differentiation of hESCs and plays a key role in cell cycle as a differentiation regulator. When p53 becomes stabilized and activated in hESCs, it increases p21 to establish a longer G1. This typically leads to abolition of S-phase entry, which stops the cell cycle in G1, leading to differentiation. Work in mouse embryonic stem cells has recently shown however that the expression of P53 does not necessarily lead to differentiation. p53 also activates miR-34a and miR-145, which then repress the hESCs pluripotency factors, further instigating differentiation.
In adult stem cells, p53 regulation is important for maintenance of stemness in adult stem cell niches. Mechanical signals such as hypoxia affect levels of p53 in these niche cells through the hypoxia inducible factors, HIF-1Î± and HIF-2Î±. While HIF-1Î± stabilizes p53, HIF-2Î± suppresses it. Suppression of p53 plays important roles in cancer stem cell phenotype, induced pluripotent stem cells and other stem cell roles and behaviors, such as blastema formation. Cells with decreased levels of p53 have been shown to reprogram into stem cells with a much greater efficiency than normal cells. Papers suggest that the lack of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis gives more cells the chance to be reprogrammed. Decreased levels of p53 were also shown to be a crucial aspect of blastema formation in the legs of salamanders. p53 regulation is very important in acting as a barrier between stem cells and a differentiated stem cell state, as well as a barrier between stem cells being functional and being cancerous.
Apart from the cellular and molecular effects above, p53 has a tissue-level anticancer effect that works by inhibiting angiogenesis. As tumors grow they need to recruit new blood vessels to supply them, and p53 inhibits that by (i) interfering with regulators of tumor hypoxia that also affect angiogenesis, such as HIF1 and HIF2, (ii) inhibiting the production of angiogenic promoting factors, and (iii) directly increasing the production of angiogenesis inhibitors, such as arresten.
p53 becomes activated in response to myriad stressors, including but not limited to DNA damage (induced by either UV, IR, or chemical agents such as hydrogen peroxide), oxidative stress, osmotic shock, ribonucleotide depletion, and deregulated oncogene expression. This activation is marked by two major events. First, the half-life of the p53 protein is increased drastically, leading to a quick accumulation of p53 in stressed cells. Second, a conformational change forces p53 to be activated as a transcription regulator in these cells. The critical event leading to the activation of p53 is the phosphorylation of its N-terminal domain. The N-terminal transcriptional activation domain contains a large number of phosphorylation sites and can be considered as the primary target for protein kinases transducing stress signals.
The protein kinases that are known to target this transcriptional activation domain of p53 can be roughly divided into two groups. A first group of protein kinases belongs to the MAPK family (JNK1-3, ERK1-2, p38 MAPK), which is known to respond to several types of stress, such as membrane damage, oxidative stress, osmotic shock, heat shock, etc. A second group of protein kinases (ATR, ATM, CHK1 and CHK2, DNA-PK, CAK, TP53RK) is implicated in the genome integrity checkpoint, a molecular cascade that detects and responds to several forms of DNA damage caused by genotoxic stress. Oncogenes also stimulate p53 activation, mediated by the protein p14ARF.
In unstressed cells, p53 levels are kept low through a continuous degradation of p53. A protein called Mdm2 (also called HDM2 in humans), binds to p53, preventing its action and transports it from the nucleus to the cytosol. Mdm2 also acts as an ubiquitin ligase and covalently attaches ubiquitin to p53 and thus marks p53 for degradation by the proteasome. However, ubiquitylation of p53 is reversible. On activation of p53, Mdm2 is also activated, setting up a feedback loop. p53 levels can show oscillations (or repeated pulses) in response to certain stresses, and these pulses can be important in determining whether the cells survive the stress, or die.
MI-63 binds to MDM2, reactivating p53 in situations where p53's function has become inhibited.
A ubiquitin specific protease, USP7 (or HAUSP), can cleave ubiquitin off p53, thereby protecting it from proteasome-dependent degradation via the ubiquitin ligase pathway . This is one means by which p53 is stabilized in response to oncogenic insults. USP42 has also been shown to deubiquitinate p53 and may be required for the ability of p53 to respond to stress.
Recent research has shown that HAUSP is mainly localized in the nucleus, though a fraction of it can be found in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Overexpression of HAUSP results in p53 stabilization. However, depletion of HAUSP does not result to a decrease in p53 levels but rather increases p53 levels due to the fact that HAUSP binds and deubiquitinates Mdm2. It has been shown that HAUSP is a better binding partner to Mdm2 than p53 in unstressed cells.
USP10 however has been shown to be located in the cytoplasm in unstressed cells and deubiquitinates cytoplasmic p53, reversing Mdm2 ubiquitination. Following DNA damage, USP10 translocates to the nucleus and contributes to p53 stability. Also USP10 does not interact with Mdm2.
Phosphorylation of the N-terminal end of p53 by the above-mentioned protein kinases disrupts Mdm2-binding. Other proteins, such as Pin1, are then recruited to p53 and induce a conformational change in p53, which prevents Mdm2-binding even more. Phosphorylation also allows for binding of transcriptional coactivators, like p300 and PCAF, which then acetylate the carboxy-terminal end of p53, exposing the DNA binding domain of p53, allowing it to activate or repress specific genes. Deacetylase enzymes, such as Sirt1 and Sirt7, can deacetylate p53, leading to an inhibition of apoptosis. Some oncogenes can also stimulate the transcription of proteins that bind to MDM2 and inhibit its activity.
Role in disease
If the TP53 gene is damaged, tumor suppression is severely compromised. People who inherit only one functional copy of the TP53 gene will most likely develop tumors in early adulthood, a disorder known as Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
The TP53 gene can also be modified by mutagens (chemicals, radiation, or viruses), increasing the likelihood for uncontrolled cell division. More than 50 percent of human tumors contain a mutation or deletion of the TP53 gene. Loss of p53 creates genomic instability that most often results in an aneuploidy phenotype.
Increasing the amount of p53 may seem a solution for treatment of tumors or prevention of their spreading. This, however, is not a usable method of treatment, since it can cause premature aging. Restoring endogenous normal p53 function holds some promise. Research has shown that this restoration can lead to regression of certain cancer cells without damaging other cells in the process. The ways by which tumor regression occurs depends mainly on the tumor type. For example, restoration of endogenous p53 function in lymphomas may induce apoptosis, while cell growth may be reduced to normal levels. Thus, pharmacological reactivation of p53 presents itself as a viable cancer treatment option. The first commercial gene therapy, Gendicine, was approved in China in 2003 for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. It delivers a functional copy of the p53 gene using an engineered adenovirus.
Certain pathogens can also affect the p53 protein that the TP53 gene expresses. One such example, human papillomavirus (HPV), encodes a protein, E6, which binds to the p53 protein and inactivates it. This mechanism, in synergy with the inactivation of the cell cycle regulator pRb by the HPV protein E7, allows for repeated cell division manifested clinically as warts. Certain HPV types, in particular types 16 and 18, can also lead to progression from a benign wart to low or high-grade cervical dysplasia, which are reversible forms of precancerous lesions. Persistent infection of the cervix over the years can cause irreversible changes leading to carcinoma in situ and eventually invasive cervical cancer. This results from the effects of HPV genes, particularly those encoding E6 and E7, which are the two viral oncoproteins that are preferentially retained and expressed in cervical cancers by integration of the viral DNA into the host genome.
The p53 protein is continually produced and degraded in cells of healthy people, resulting in damped oscillation. The degradation of the p53 protein is associated with binding of MDM2. In a negative feedback loop, MDM2 itself is induced by the p53 protein. Mutant p53 proteins often fail to induce MDM2, causing p53 to accumulate at very high levels. Moreover, the mutant p53 protein itself can inhibit normal p53 protein levels. In some cases, single missense mutations in p53 have been shown to disrupt p53 stability and function.
Experimental analysis of p53 mutations
Most p53 mutations are detected by DNA sequencing. However, it is known that single missense mutations can have a large spectrum from rather mild to very severe functional affects.
The large spectrum of cancer phenotypes due to mutations in the TP53 gene is also supported by the fact that different isoforms of p53 proteins have different cellular mechanisms for prevention against cancer. Mutations in TP53 can give rise to different isoforms, preventing their overall functionality in different cellular mechanisms and thereby extending the cancer phenotype from mild to severe. Recents studies show that p53 isoforms are differentially expressed in different human tissues, and the loss-of-function or gain-of-function mutations within the isoforms can cause tissue-specific cancer or provides cancer stem cell potential in different tissues. TP53 mutation also hits energy metabolism and increases glycolysis in breast cancer cells.
The dynamics of p53 proteins, along with its antagonist Mdm2, indicate that the levels of p53, in units of concentration, oscillate as a function of time. This "damped" oscillation is both clinically documented  and mathematically modelled. Mathematical models also indicate that the p53 concentration oscillates much faster once teratogens, such as double-stranded breaks (DSB) or UV radiation, are introduced to the system. This supports and models the current understanding of p53 dynamics, where DNA damage induces p53 activation (see p53 regulation for more information). Current models can also be useful for modelling the mutations in p53 isoforms and their effects on p53 oscillation, thereby promoting de novo tissue-specific pharmacological drug discovery.
p53 was identified in 1979 by Lionel Crawford, David P. Lane, Arnold Levine, and Lloyd Old, working at Imperial Cancer Research Fund (UK) Princeton University/UMDNJ (Cancer Institute of New Jersey), and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, respectively. It had been hypothesized to exist before as the target of the SV40 virus, a strain that induced development of tumors. The TP53 gene from the mouse was first cloned by Peter Chumakov of The Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1982, and independently in 1983 by Moshe Oren in collaboration with David Givol (Weizmann Institute of Science). The human TP53 gene was cloned in 1984 and the full length clone in 1985.
It was initially presumed to be an oncogene due to the use of mutated cDNA following purification of tumor cell mRNA. Its role as a tumor suppressor gene was revealed in 1985 by Sam Benchimol at the University of Toronto Nature . 1985 Apr 18-24;314(6012):633-6. doi: 10.1038/314633a0. Rearrangements of the cellular p53 gene in erythroleukaemic cells transformed by Friend virus M Mowat, A Cheng, N Kimura, A Bernstein, S Benchimol PMID: 3990796 DOI: 10.1038/314633a0 https://www.nature.com/articles/314633a0.pdf "The high frequency of p53 gene inactivation and rearrangement observed in Friend erythroleukaemic cells is intriguing and unexpected. Moreover, it suggests that inactivation of the p53 gene is not a random event, but is closely associated with the induction of erythroleukaemia by Friend virus complex or its helper virus." EMBO Rep. 2010 Nov; 11(11): 822â€“826. Published online 2010 Oct 8. doi: 10.1038/embor.2010.159 "studies of p53 began to encounter difficulties and the 131 articles published on the topic during this period did not integrate p53 into the family of oncogenes. Among these studies was the finding that both p53 alleles were inactivated in murine erythroleukaemia induced by the Friend virus (Mowat et al, 1985)."
Warren Maltzman, of the Waksman Institute of Rutgers University first demonstrated that TP53 was responsive to DNA damage in the form of ultraviolet radiation. In a series of publications in 1991â€“92, Michael Kastan of Johns Hopkins University, reported that TP53 was a critical part of a signal transduction pathway that helped cells respond to DNA damage.
As with 95% of human genes, TP53 encodes more than one protein. Several isoforms were discovered in 2005, and so far 12 human p53 isoforms have been identified (p53Î±, p53Î², p53Î³, âˆ†40p53Î±, âˆ†40p53Î², âˆ†40p53Î³, âˆ†133p53Î±, âˆ†133p53Î², âˆ†133p53Î³, âˆ†160p53Î±, âˆ†160p53Î², âˆ†160p53Î³). Furthermore, p53 isoforms are expressed in a tissue dependent manner and p53Î± is never expressed alone.
The full length p53 isoform proteins can be subdivided into different protein domains. Starting from the N-terminus, there are first the amino-terminal transactivation domains (TAD 1, TAD 2), which are needed to induce a subset of p53 target genes. This domain is followed by the proline rich domain (PXXP), whereby the motif PXXP is repeated (P is a proline and X can be any amino acid). It is required among others for p53 mediated apoptosis. Some isoforms lack the proline rich domain, such as Î”133p53Î²,Î³ and Î”160p53Î±,Î²,Î³; hence some isoforms of p53 are not mediating apoptosis, emphasizing the diversifying roles of the TP53 gene. Afterwards there is the DNA binding domain (DBD), which enables the proteins to sequence specific binding. The carboxyl terminal domain completes the protein. It includes the nuclear localization signal (NLS), the nuclear export signal (NES) and the oligomerisation domain (OD). The NLS and NES are responsible for the subcellular regulation of p53. Through the OD, p53 can form a tetramer and then bind to DNA. Among the isoforms, some domains can be missing, but all of them share most of the highly conserved DNA-binding domain.
The isoforms are formed by different mechanisms. The beta and the gamma isoforms are generated by multiple splicing of intron 9, which leads to a different C-terminus. Furthermore, the usage of an internal promoter in intron 4 causes the âˆ†133 and âˆ†160 isoforms, which lack the TAD domain and a part of the DBD. Moreover, alternative initiation of translation at codon 40 or 160 bear the âˆ†40p53 and âˆ†160p53 isoforms.
Due to the isoformic nature of p53 proteins, there have been several sources of evidence showing that mutations within the TP53 gene giving rise to mutated isoforms are causative agents of various cancer phenotypes, from mild to severe, due to single mutation in the TP53 gene (refer to section Experimental analysis of p53 mutations for more details).
p53 has been shown to interact with:
- Cyclin H,
- Reprimo
- Pifithrin, an inhibitor of P53
- italics are used to denote the TP53 gene name and distinguish it from the protein it encodes
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- Cowell IG, Okorokov AL, Cutts SA, Padget K, Bell M, Milner J, Austin CA (February 2000). "Human topoisomerase IIalpha and IIbeta interact with the C-terminal region of p53". Experimental Cell Research. 255 (1): 86â€“94. doi:10.1006/excr.1999.4772. PMIDÂ 10666337.
- Derbyshire DJ, Basu BP, Serpell LC, Joo WS, Date T, Iwabuchi K, Doherty AJ (July 2002). "Crystal structure of human 53BP1 BRCT domains bound to p53 tumour suppressor". The EMBO Journal. 21 (14): 3863â€“72. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdf383. PMCÂ 126127. PMIDÂ 12110597.
- Ekblad CM, Friedler A, Veprintsev D, Weinberg RL, Itzhaki LS (March 2004). "Comparison of BRCT domains of BRCA1 and 53BP1: a biophysical analysis". Protein Science. 13 (3): 617â€“25. doi:10.1110/ps.03461404. PMCÂ 2286730. PMIDÂ 14978302.
- Lo KW, Kan HM, Chan LN, Xu WG, Wang KP, Wu Z, Sheng M, Zhang M (March 2005). "The 8-kDa dynein light chain binds to p53-binding protein 1 and mediates DNA damage-induced p53 nuclear accumulation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (9): 8172â€“9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M411408200. PMIDÂ 15611139.
- Joo WS, Jeffrey PD, Cantor SB, Finnin MS, Livingston DM, Pavletich NP (March 2002). "Structure of the 53BP1 BRCT region bound to p53 and its comparison to the Brca1 BRCT structure". Genes & Development. 16 (5): 583â€“93. doi:10.1101/gad.959202. PMCÂ 155350. PMIDÂ 11877378.
- Derbyshire DJ, Basu BP, Date T, Iwabuchi K, Doherty AJ (October 2002). "Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the BRCT domains of human 53BP1 bound to the p53 tumour suppressor". Acta Crystallographica D. 58 (Pt 10 Pt 2): 1826â€“9. doi:10.1107/S0907444902010910. PMIDÂ 12351827.
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- Naumovski L, Cleary ML (July 1996). "The p53-binding protein 53BP2 also interacts with Bc12 and impedes cell cycle progression at G2/M". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 16 (7): 3884â€“92. doi:10.1128/MCB.16.7.3884. PMCÂ 231385. PMIDÂ 8668206.
- Tomasini R, Samir AA, Carrier A, Isnardon D, Cecchinelli B, Soddu S, Malissen B, Dagorn JC, Iovanna JL, Dusetti NJ (September 2003). "TP53INP1s and homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) are partners in regulating p53 activity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (39): 37722â€“9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M301979200. PMIDÂ 12851404.
- Okamura S, Arakawa H, Tanaka T, Nakanishi H, Ng CC, Taya Y, Monden M, Nakamura Y (July 2001). "p53DINP1, a p53-inducible gene, regulates p53-dependent apoptosis". Molecular Cell. 8 (1): 85â€“94. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(01)00284-2. PMIDÂ 11511362.
- Li L, Liao J, Ruland J, Mak TW, Cohen SN (February 2001). "A TSG101/MDM2 regulatory loop modulates MDM2 degradation and MDM2/p53 feedback control". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 (4): 1619â€“24. Bibcode:2001PNAS...98.1619L. doi:10.1073/pnas.98.4.1619. PMCÂ 29306. PMIDÂ 11172000.
- Lyakhovich A, Shekhar MP (April 2003). "Supramolecular complex formation between Rad6 and proteins of the p53 pathway during DNA damage-induced response". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 23 (7): 2463â€“75. doi:10.1128/MCB.23.7.2463-2475.2003. PMCÂ 150718. PMIDÂ 12640129.
- Shen Z, Pardington-Purtymun PE, Comeaux JC, Moyzis RK, Chen DJ (October 1996). "Associations of UBE2I with RAD52, UBL1, p53, and RAD51 proteins in a yeast two-hybrid system". Genomics. 37 (2): 183â€“6. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0540. PMIDÂ 8921390.
- Bernier-Villamor V, Sampson DA, Matunis MJ, Lima CD (February 2002). "Structural basis for E2-mediated SUMO conjugation revealed by a complex between ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 and RanGAP1". Cell. 108 (3): 345â€“56. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00630-X. PMIDÂ 11853669.
- Sehat B, Andersson S, Girnita L, Larsson O (July 2008). "Identification of c-Cbl as a new ligase for insulin-like growth factor-I receptor with distinct roles from Mdm2 in receptor ubiquitination and endocytosis". Cancer Research. 68 (14): 5669â€“77. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-6364. PMIDÂ 18632619.
- Song MS, Song SJ, Kim SY, Oh HJ, Lim DS (July 2008). "The tumour suppressor RASSF1A promotes MDM2 self-ubiquitination by disrupting the MDM2-DAXX-HAUSP complex". The EMBO Journal. 27 (13): 1863â€“74. doi:10.1038/emboj.2008.115. PMCÂ 2486425. PMIDÂ 18566590.
- Yang W, Dicker DT, Chen J, El-Deiry WS (March 2008). "CARPs enhance p53 turnover by degrading 14-3-3sigma and stabilizing MDM2". Cell Cycle. 7 (5): 670â€“82. doi:10.4161/cc.7.5.5701. PMIDÂ 18382127.
- Abe Y, Oda-Sato E, Tobiume K, Kawauchi K, Taya Y, Okamoto K, Oren M, Tanaka N (March 2008). "Hedgehog signaling overrides p53-mediated tumor suppression by activating Mdm2". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105 (12): 4838â€“43. Bibcode:2008PNAS..105.4838A. doi:10.1073/pnas.0712216105. PMCÂ 2290789. PMIDÂ 18359851.
- Dohmesen C, Koeppel M, Dobbelstein M (January 2008). "Specific inhibition of Mdm2-mediated neddylation by Tip60". Cell Cycle. 7 (2): 222â€“31. doi:10.4161/cc.7.2.5185. PMIDÂ 18264029.
- Li M, Chen D, Shiloh A, Luo J, Nikolaev AY, Qin J, Gu W (April 2002). "Deubiquitination of p53 by HAUSP is an important pathway for p53 stabilization". Nature. 416 (6881): 648â€“53. Bibcode:2002Natur.416..648L. doi:10.1038/nature737. PMIDÂ 11923872. S2CIDÂ 4389394.
- Brosh RM, Karmakar P, Sommers JA, Yang Q, Wang XW, Spillare EA, Harris CC, Bohr VA (September 2001). "p53 Modulates the exonuclease activity of Werner syndrome protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (37): 35093â€“102. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103332200. PMIDÂ 11427532.
- Chang NS, Pratt N, Heath J, Schultz L, Sleve D, Carey GB, Zevotek N (February 2001). "Hyaluronidase induction of a WW domain-containing oxidoreductase that enhances tumor necrosis factor cytotoxicity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (5): 3361â€“70. doi:10.1074/jbc.M007140200. PMIDÂ 11058590.
- Okamoto T, Izumi H, Imamura T, Takano H, Ise T, Uchiumi T, Kuwano M, Kohno K (December 2000). "Direct interaction of p53 with the Y-box binding protein, YB-1: a mechanism for regulation of human gene expression". Oncogene. 19 (54): 6194â€“202. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204029. PMIDÂ 11175333.
- Kelley KD, Miller KR, Todd A, Kelley AR, Tuttle R, Berberich SJ (May 2010). "YPEL3, a p53-regulated gene that induces cellular senescence". Cancer Research. 70 (9): 3566â€“75. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-3219. PMCÂ 2862112. PMIDÂ 20388804.
- Waterman MJ, Stavridi ES, Waterman JL, Halazonetis TD (June 1998). "ATM-dependent activation of p53 involves dephosphorylation and association with 14-3-3 proteins". Nature Genetics. 19 (2): 175â€“8. doi:10.1038/542. PMIDÂ 9620776. S2CIDÂ 26600934.
- Liu J, Grogan L, Nau MM, Allegra CJ, Chu E, Wright JJ (April 2001). "Physical interaction between p53 and primary response gene Egr-1". International Journal of Oncology. 18 (4): 863â€“70. doi:10.3892/ijo.18.4.863. PMIDÂ 11251186.
- Bai L, Merchant JL (July 2001). "ZBP-89 promotes growth arrest through stabilization of p53". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (14): 4670â€“83. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.14.4670-4683.2001. PMCÂ 87140. PMIDÂ 11416144.
- Yamakuchi M, Lowenstein CJ (March 2009). "MiR-34, SIRT1 and p53: the feedback loop". Cell Cycle. 8 (5): 712â€“5. doi:10.4161/cc.8.5.7753. PMIDÂ 19221490.
- Wang Y, Zhang J, Li J, Gui R, Nie X, Huang R. CircRNA_014511 affects the radiosensitivity of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by binding to miR-29b-2-5p. Bosn J of Basic Med Sci [Internet]. 2019May20 [cited 2020Apr.7];19(2):155-63. Available from: https://www.bjbms.org/ojs/index.php/bjbms/article/view/3935
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tumor suppressor protein p53.|
- "p53 Knowledgebase". Lane Group at the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB), Singapore. Archived from the original on 2006-01-03. Retrieved 2008-04-06.
- GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
- TUMOR PROTEIN p53 @ OMIM
- p53 restoration of function
- p53 @ The Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
- TP53 Gene @ GeneCards
- p53 News provided by insciences organisation
- David S. Goodsel l (2002-07-01). "p53 Tumor Suppressor". Molecule of the Month. RCSB Protein Data Bank. Retrieved 2008-04-06.
- Thierry Soussi. "p53 Web Site". Retrieved 2008-04-06.
- Living LFS A non-profit Li-Fraumeni Syndrome patient support organization
- The George Pantziarka TP53 Trust A support group from the UK for sufferers of Li-Fraumeni Syndrome or other TP53-related disorders
- IARC TP53 Somatic Mutations database maintained at IARC, Lyon, by Magali Olivier
- PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human P53.
- scientific animation conformational changes of p53 upon binding to DNA
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
P53 DNA-binding domain Provide feedback
This family contains one anomalous member, viz: Zea mays (Q6JAD8). This sequence is identical to human P53 and would appear to be a a human contaminant within the Zea mays sampling effort.
Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||CEP1-DNA_bind|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR011615
This domain is found in p53 transcription factors, where it is responsible for DNA-binding. The DNA-binding domain acts to clamp, or in the case of TonEBP, encircle the DNA target in order to stabilise the protein-DNA complex [ PUBMED:11780147 ]. Protein interactions may also serve to stabilise the protein-DNA complex, for example in the STAT-1 dimer the SH2 (Src homology 2) domain in each monomer is coupled to the DNA-binding domain to increase stability [ PUBMED:9630226 ]. The DNA-binding domain consists of a beta-sandwich formed of 9 strands in 2 sheets with a Greek-key topology. This structure is found in many transcription factors, often within the DNA-binding domain.
P53 is a tumor suppressor gene product; mutations in p53 or lack of expression are found associated with a large fraction of all human cancers. P53 is activated by DNA damage and acts as a regulator of gene expression that ultimatively blocks progression through the cell cycle. P53 binds to DNA as a tetrameric transcription factor. In its inactive form, p53 is bound to the ring finger protein Mdm2, which promotes its ubiquitinylation and subsequent proteosomal degradation. Phosphorylation of p53 disrupts the Mdm2-p53 complex, while the stable and active p53 binds to regulatory regions of its target genes, such as the cyclin-kinase inhibitor p21, which complexes and inactivates cdk2 and other cyclin complexes [ PUBMED:20066118 , PUBMED:12629332 , PUBMED:1397838 , PUBMED:6544917 , PUBMED:19826090 , PUBMED:19776744 , PUBMED:6278740 , PUBMED:221923 , PUBMED:6318442 , PUBMED:20030809 ].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||transcription cis-regulatory region binding (GO:0000976)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
Loading domain graphics...
This clan contains a variety of DNA-binding domains that contain an immunoglobulin-like fold. It includes the DNA-binding domains of NF-kappaB, NFAT, p53, STAT-1, the T-domain and the Runt domain .
The clan contains the following 10 members:Calmodulin_bind CEP1-DNA_bind LAG1-DNAbind NDT80_PhoG P53 PAD_M RHD_DNA_bind Runt STAT_bind T-box
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_782 (release 3.0)|
|Number in seed:||40|
|Number in full:||2294|
|Average length of the domain:||183.80 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||62 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||36.82 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 61295632 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||21|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the P53 domain has been found. There are 393 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
Loading structure mapping...
AlphaFold Structure Predictions
The list of proteins below match this family and have AlphaFold predicted structures. Click on the protein accession to view the predicted structure.