Summary: FAD binding domain
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Succinate dehydrogenase Edit Wikipedia article
|succinate dehydrogenase (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase)|
The structure of SQR in a phospholipid membrane. SdhA, SdhB, SdhC and SdhD
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Gene Ontology||AmiGO / EGO|
Succinate dehydrogenase or succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) or respiratory Complex II is an enzyme complex, found in many bacterial cells and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of mammalian mitochondria. It is the only enzyme that participates in both the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain.
In step 6 of the citric acid cycle, SQR catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate with the reduction of ubiquinone to ubiquinol. This occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane by coupling the two reactions together.
- 1 Structure
- 2 Mechanism
- 3 Inhibitors
- 4 Role in disease
- 5 See also
- 6 References
Mammalian, mitochondrial, and many bacterial monomer SQRs are composed of four subunits: two hydrophilic and two hydrophobic. The first two subunits, a flavoprotein (SdhA) and an iron-sulfur protein (SdhB), are hydrophilic. SdhA contains a covalently attached flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor and the succinate binding site and SdhB contains three iron-sulfur clusters: [2Fe-2S], [4Fe-4S], and [3Fe-4S]. The second two subunits are hydrophobic membrane anchor subunits, SdhC and SdhD. Human mitochondria contain two distinct isoforms of SdhA (Fp subunits type I and type II), these isoforms are also found in Ascaris suum and Caenorhabditis elegans. The subunits form a membrane-bound cytochrome b complex with six transmembrane helices containing one heme b group and a ubiquinone-binding site, which can be seen in Image 4. Two phospholipid molecules, one cardiolipin and one phosphatidylethanolamine, are also found in the SdhC and SdhD subunits (not shown in the image). They serve to occupy the hydrophobic space below the heme b. These subunits are displayed in image 3. SdhA is green, SdhB is teal, SdhC is fuchsia, and SdhD is yellow. Around SdhC and SdhD is a phospholipid membrane with the intermembrane space at the top of the image.
Table of subunit composition
|No.||Subunit name||Human protein||Protein description from UniProt||Pfam family with Human protein|
|1||SdhA||SDHA_HUMAN||Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, mitochondrial||Pfam PF00890, Pfam PF02910|
|2||SdhB||SDHB_HUMAN||Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrial||Pfam PF13085, Pfam PF13183|
|3||SdhC||C560_HUMAN||Succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome b560 subunit, mitochondrial||Pfam PF01127|
|4||SdhD||DHSD_HUMAN||Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] cytochrome b small subunit, mitochondrial||Pfam PF05328|
Ubiquinone binding site
Ubiquinone’s binding site, image 4, is located in a gap composed of SdhB, SdhC, and SdhD. Ubiquinone is stabilized by the side chains of His207 of subunit B, Ser27 and Arg31 of subunit C, and Tyr83 of subunit D. The quinone ring is surrounded by Ile28 of subunit C and Pro160 of subunit B. These residues, along with Il209, Trp163, and Trp164 of subunit B, and Ser27 (C atom) of subunit C, form the hydrophobic environment of the quinone-binding pocket (not shown in the image).
Succinate binding site
SdhA provides the binding site for the oxidation of succinate. The side chains Thr254, His354, and Arg399 of subunit A stabilize the molecule while FAD oxidizes and carries the electrons to the first of the iron-sulfur clusters, [2Fe-2S]. This can be seen in image 5.
The succinate-binding site and ubiquinone-binding site are connected by a chain of redox centers including FAD and the iron-sulfur clusters. This chain extends over 40 Å through the enzyme monomer. All edge-to-edge distances between the centers are less than the suggested 14 Å limit for physiological electron transfer. This electron transfer is demonstrated in image 8.
Little is known about the exact succinate oxidation mechanism. However, the crystal structure shows that FAD, Glu255, Arg286, and His242 of subunit A (not shown) are good candidates for the initial deprotonation step. Thereafter, there are two possible elimination mechanisms: E2 or E1cb. In the E2 elimination, the mechanism is concerted. The basic residue or cofactor deprotonates the alpha carbon, and FAD accepts the hydride from the beta carbon, oxidizing the bound succinate to fumarate—refer to image 6. In E1cb, an enolate intermediate is formed, shown in image 7, before FAD accepts the hydride. Further research is required to determine which elimination mechanism succinate undergoes in Succinate Dehydrogenase. Oxidized fumarate, now loosely bound to the active site, is free to exit the protein.
After the electrons are derived from succinate oxidation via FAD, they tunnel along the [Fe-S] relay until they reach the [3Fe-4S] cluster. These electrons are subsequently transferred to an awaiting ubiquinone molecule within the active site. The Iron-Sulfur electron tunneling system is shown in image 9.
The O1 carbonyl oxygen of ubiquinone is oriented at the active site (image 4) by hydrogen bond interactions with Tyr83 of subunit D. The presence of electrons in the [3Fe-4S] iron sulphur cluster induces the movement of ubiquinone into a second orientation. This facilitates a second hydrogen bond interaction between the O4 carbonyl group of ubiquinone and Ser27 of subunit C. Following the first single electron reduction step, a semiquinone radical species is formed. The second electron arrives from the [3Fe-4S] cluster to provide full reduction of the ubiquinone to ubiquinol. This mechanism of the ubiquinone reduction is shown in image 8.
Heme prosthetic group
Although the functionality of the heme in succinate dehydrogenase is still being researched, some studies have asserted that the first electron delivered to ubiquinone via [3Fe-4S] may tunnel back and forth between the heme and the ubiquinone intermediate. In this way, the heme cofactor acts as an electron sink. Its role is to prevent the interaction of the intermediate with molecular oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). The heme group, relative to ubiquinone, is shown in image 4.
It has also been proposed that a gating mechanism may be in place to prevent the electrons from tunneling directly to the heme from the [3Fe-4S] cluster. A potential candidate is residue His207, which lies directly between the cluster and the heme. His207 of subunit B is in direct proximity to the [3Fe-4S] cluster, the bound ubiquinone, and the heme; and could modulate electron flow between these redox centers.
To fully reduce the quinone in SQR, two electrons as well as two protons are needed. It has been argued that a water molecule (HOH39) arrives at the active site and is coordinated by His207 of subunit B, Arg31 of subunit C, and Asp82 of subunit D. The semiquinone species is protonated by protons delivered from HOH39, completing the ubiquinone reduction to ubiquinol. His207 and Asp82 most likely facilitate this process. Other studies claim that Tyr83 of subunit D is coordinated to a nearby histidine as well as the O1 carbonyl oxygen of ubiquinone. The histidine residue decreases the pKa of tyrosine, making it more suitable to donate its proton to the reduced ubiquinone intermediate.
There are two distinct classes of inhibitors of complex II: those that bind in the succinate pocket and those that bind in the ubiquinone pocket. Ubiquinone type inhibitors include carboxin and thenoyltrifluoroacetone. Succinate-analogue inhibitors include the synthetic compound malonate as well as the TCA cycle intermediates, malate and oxaloacetate. Indeed, oxaloacetate is one of the most potent inhibitors of Complex II. Why a common TCA cycle intermediate would inhibit Complex II is not entirely understood, though it may exert a protective role in minimizing reverse-electron transfer mediated production of superoxide by Complex I.
Ubiquinone type inhibitors have been used as fungicides in agriculture since the 1960s. Carboxin was mainly used to control disease caused by basidiomycetes such as stem rusts and Rhizoctonia diseases. More recently, other compounds with a broader spectrum against a range of plant pathogens have been developed including boscalid, penthiopyrad and fluopyram. Some agriculturally important fungi are not sensitive towards members of the new generation of ubiquinone type inhibitors 
Role in disease
The fundamental role of succinate-coenzyme Q reductase in the electron transfer chain of mitochondria makes it vital in most multicellular organisms, removal of this enzyme from the genome has also been shown to be lethal at the embryonic stage in mice.
- SdhA mutations can lead to Leigh syndrome, mitochondrial encephalopathy, and optic atrophy.
- SdhB mutations can lead to tumorogenesis in chromaffin cells, causing hereditary paraganglioma and hereditary pheochromocytoma. Tumors tend to be malignant. It can also lead to decreased life-span and increased production of superoxide ions.
- SdhC mutations can lead to decreased life-span, increased production of superoxide ions, hereditary paraganglioma and hereditary pheochromocytoma. Tumors tend to be benign. These mutations are uncommon.
- SdhD mutations can lead to hereditary paraganglioma and hereditary pheochromocytoma. Tumors tend to be benign, and occur often in the head and neck regions. These mutations can also decrease life-span and increase production of superoxide ions.
Mammalian succinate dehydrogenase functions not only in mitochondrial energy generation, but also has a role in oxygen sensing and tumor suppression; and, therefore, is the object of ongoing research.
Reduced levels of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), the main element of complex II, are observed post mortem in the brains of patients with Huntington's Disease, and energy metabolism defects have been identified in both presymptomatic and symptomatic HD patients.
- Oyedotun KS, Lemire BD (March 2004). "The quaternary structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate dehydrogenase. Homology modeling, cofactor docking, and molecular dynamics simulation studies". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (10): 9424–31. doi:10.1074/jbc.M311876200. PMID 14672929.
- Tomitsuka E, Hirawake H, Goto Y, Taniwaki M, Harada S, Kita K (August 2003). "Direct evidence for two distinct forms of the flavoprotein subunit of human mitochondrial complex II (succinate-ubiquinone reductase)". Journal of Biochemistry. 134 (2): 191–5. doi:10.1093/jb/mvg144. PMID 12966066.
- Yankovskaya V, Horsefield R, Törnroth S, Luna-Chavez C, Miyoshi H, Léger C, Byrne B, Cecchini G, Iwata S (January 2003). "Architecture of succinate dehydrogenase and reactive oxygen species generation". Science. 299 (5607): 700–4. doi:10.1126/science.1079605. PMID 12560550.
- Sun F, Huo X, Zhai Y, Wang A, Xu J, Su D, Bartlam M, Rao Z (July 2005). "Crystal structure of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complex II". Cell. 121 (7): 1043–57. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.05.025. PMID 15989954.
- Horsefield R, Yankovskaya V, Sexton G, Whittingham W, Shiomi K, Omura S, Byrne B, Cecchini G, Iwata S (March 2006). "Structural and computational analysis of the quinone-binding site of complex II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase): a mechanism of electron transfer and proton conduction during ubiquinone reduction". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (11): 7309–16. doi:10.1074/jbc.M508173200. PMID 16407191.
- Kenney WC (April 1975). "The reaction of N-ethylmaleimide at the active site of succinate dehydrogenase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 250 (8): 3089–94. PMID 235539.
- Tran QM, Rothery RA, Maklashina E, Cecchini G, Weiner JH (October 2006). "The quinone binding site in Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase is required for electron transfer to the heme b". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (43): 32310–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M607476200. PMID 16950775.
- Muller FL, Liu Y, Abdul-Ghani MA, Lustgarten MS, Bhattacharya A, Jang YC, Van Remmen H (January 2008). "High rates of superoxide production in skeletal-muscle mitochondria respiring on both complex I- and complex II-linked substrates". The Biochemical Journal. 409 (2): 491–9. doi:10.1042/BJ20071162. PMID 17916065.
- Avenot HF, Michailides TJ (2010). "Progress in understanding molecular mechanisms and evolution of resistance to succinate dehydrogenase inhibiting (SDHI) fungicides in phytopathogenic fungi". Crop Protection. 29 (7): 643. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2010.02.019.
- Dubos T, Pasquali M, Pogoda F, Casanova A, Hoffmann L, Beyer M (January 2013). "Differences between the succinate dehydrogenase sequences of isopyrazam sensitive Zymoseptoria tritici and insensitive Fusarium graminearum strains". Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 105 (1): 28–35. doi:10.1016/j.pestbp.2012.11.004.
- Skillings EA, Morton AJ (2016). "Delayed Onset and Reduced Cognitive Deficits through Pre-Conditioning with 3-Nitropropionic Acid is Dependent on Sex and CAG Repeat Length in the R6/2 Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease". Journal of Huntington's Disease. 5 (1): 19–32. doi:10.3233/JHD-160189. PMID 27031731.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
FAD binding domain Provide feedback
This family includes members that bind FAD. This family includes the flavoprotein subunits from succinate and fumarate dehydrogenase, aspartate oxidase and the alpha subunit of adenylylsulphate reductase.
Mittl PR, Schulz GE , Protein Sci 1994;3:799-809.: Structure of glutathione reductase from Escherichia coli at 1.86 A resolution: comparison with the enzyme from human erythrocytes. PUBMED:8061609 EPMC:8061609
Internal database links
|SCOOP:||GIDA AlaDh_PNT_C DAO FAD_binding_3 Amino_oxidase Thi4 HI0933_like Trp_halogenase Lycopene_cycl Pyr_redox_2 FAD_oxidored NAD_binding_8 NAD_binding_9 Pyr_redox_3|
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||GIDA DAO FAD_binding_3 Thi4 HI0933_like Lycopene_cycl Pyr_redox_2 FAD_oxidored NAD_binding_8 Pyr_redox_3|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR003953
This domain is found in proteins that bind FAD, mainly in FAD-dependent oxidoreductase family 2 proteins, such as the flavoprotein subunits from succinate and fumarate dehydrogenase, and aspartate oxidase [PUBMED:8061609].
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
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A class of redox enzymes are two domain proteins. One domain, termed the catalytic domain, confers substrate specificity and the precise reaction of the enzyme. The other domain, which is common to this class of redox enzymes, is a Rossmann-fold domain. The Rossmann domain binds nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and it is this cofactor that reversibly accepts a hydride ion, which is lost or gained by the substrate in the redox reaction. Rossmann domains have an alpha/beta fold, which has a central beta sheet, with approximately five alpha helices found surrounding the beta sheet.The strands forming the beta sheet are found in the following characteristic order 654123. The inter sheet crossover of the stands in the sheet form the NAD+ binding site . In some more distantly relate Rossmann domains the NAD+ cofactor is replaced by the functionally similar cofactor FAD.
The clan contains the following 184 members:2-Hacid_dh_C 3Beta_HSD 3HCDH_N adh_short adh_short_C2 ADH_zinc_N ADH_zinc_N_2 AdoHcyase_NAD AdoMet_MTase AlaDh_PNT_C Amino_oxidase ApbA AviRa B12-binding Bac_GDH Bin3 Bmt2 CheR CMAS CmcI CoA_binding CoA_binding_2 CoA_binding_3 Cons_hypoth95 DAO DapB_N DFP DNA_methylase DOT1 DREV DUF1442 DUF166 DUF1776 DUF2431 DUF268 DUF364 DUF43 DUF5129 DUF5130 DUF938 DXP_redisom_C DXP_reductoisom Eco57I ELFV_dehydrog Eno-Rase_FAD_bd Eno-Rase_NADH_b Enoyl_reductase Epimerase F420_oxidored FAD_binding_2 FAD_binding_3 FAD_oxidored Fibrillarin FMO-like FmrO FtsJ G6PD_N GCD14 GDI GDP_Man_Dehyd GFO_IDH_MocA GIDA GidB GLF Glu_dehyd_C Glyco_hydro_4 GMC_oxred_N Gp_dh_N GRAS GRDA HI0933_like HIM1 IlvN K_oxygenase KR LCM Ldh_1_N Lycopene_cycl Malic_M Mannitol_dh MCRA Met_10 Methyltr_RsmB-F Methyltrans_Mon Methyltrans_SAM Methyltransf_10 Methyltransf_11 Methyltransf_12 Methyltransf_15 Methyltransf_16 Methyltransf_17 Methyltransf_18 Methyltransf_19 Methyltransf_2 Methyltransf_20 Methyltransf_21 Methyltransf_22 Methyltransf_23 Methyltransf_24 Methyltransf_25 Methyltransf_28 Methyltransf_29 Methyltransf_3 Methyltransf_30 Methyltransf_31 Methyltransf_32 Methyltransf_34 Methyltransf_4 Methyltransf_5 Methyltransf_7 Methyltransf_8 Methyltransf_9 Methyltransf_PK MethyltransfD12 MetW Mg-por_mtran_C MOLO1 Mqo MT-A70 MTS Mur_ligase N2227 N6-adenineMlase N6_Mtase N6_N4_Mtase NAD_binding_10 NAD_binding_2 NAD_binding_3 NAD_binding_4 NAD_binding_5 NAD_binding_7 NAD_binding_8 NAD_binding_9 NAD_Gly3P_dh_N NAS NmrA NNMT_PNMT_TEMT NodS NSP13 OCD_Mu_crystall PARP_regulatory PCMT PDH Polysacc_synt_2 Pox_MCEL Prenylcys_lyase PrmA PRMT5 Pyr_redox Pyr_redox_2 Pyr_redox_3 RmlD_sub_bind Rossmann-like rRNA_methylase RrnaAD Rsm22 RsmJ Sacchrp_dh_NADP SAM_MT SAMBD SE Semialdhyde_dh Shikimate_DH Spermine_synth TehB THF_DHG_CYH_C Thi4 ThiF TPM_phosphatase TPMT TrkA_N TRM TRM13 TrmK tRNA_U5-meth_tr Trp_halogenase TylF Ubie_methyltran UDPG_MGDP_dh_N UPF0020 UPF0146 V_cholerae_RfbT XdhC_C YjeF_N
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
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You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_255 (release 3.0)|
|Number in seed:||62|
|Number in full:||9863|
|Average length of the domain:||367.70 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||25 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||67.07 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 17690987 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||22|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
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Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
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There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
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Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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There are 13 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the FAD_binding_2 domain has been found. There are 216 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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