Summary: ATP synthase protein 8
Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "MT-ATP8". More...
The Wikipedia text that you see displayed here is a download from Wikipedia. This means that the information we display is a copy of the information from the Wikipedia database. The button next to the article title ("Edit Wikipedia article") takes you to the edit page for the article directly within Wikipedia. You should be aware you are not editing our local copy of this information. Any changes that you make to the Wikipedia article will not be displayed here until we next download the article from Wikipedia. We currently download new content on a nightly basis.
Does Pfam agree with the content of the Wikipedia entry ?
Pfam has chosen to link families to Wikipedia articles. In some case we have created or edited these articles but in many other cases we have not made any direct contribution to the content of the article. The Wikipedia community does monitor edits to try to ensure that (a) the quality of article annotation increases, and (b) vandalism is very quickly dealt with. However, we would like to emphasise that Pfam does not curate the Wikipedia entries and we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information on the Wikipedia page.
Editing Wikipedia articles
Before you edit for the first time
Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopedia. Although anyone can edit or contribute to an article, Wikipedia has some strong editing guidelines and policies, which promote the Wikipedia standard of style and etiquette. Your edits and contributions are more likely to be accepted (and remain) if they are in accordance with this policy.
You should take a few minutes to view the following pages:
How your contribution will be recorded
Anyone can edit a Wikipedia entry. You can do this either as a new user or you can register with Wikipedia and log on. When you click on the "Edit Wikipedia article" button, your browser will direct you to the edit page for this entry in Wikipedia. If you are a registered user and currently logged in, your changes will be recorded under your Wikipedia user name. However, if you are not a registered user or are not logged on, your changes will be logged under your computer's IP address. This has two main implications. Firstly, as a registered Wikipedia user your edits are more likely seen as valuable contribution (although all edits are open to community scrutiny regardless). Secondly, if you edit under an IP address you may be sharing this IP address with other users. If your IP address has previously been blocked (due to being flagged as a source of 'vandalism') your edits will also be blocked. You can find more information on this and creating a user account at Wikipedia.
If you have problems editing a particular page, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org and we will try to help.
The community annotation is a new facility of the Pfam web site. If you have problems editing or experience problems with these pages please contact us.
MT-ATP8 Edit Wikipedia article
|, ATPase8, MTMT-ATP synthase F0 subunit 8|
|ATP synthase protein 8 (metazoa)|
|Plant ATP synthase F0 subunit 8|
|Fungal ATP synthase protein 8 (A6L)|
MT-ATP8 (or ATP8) is a mitochondrial gene with the full name 'mitochondrially encoded ATP synthase membrane subunit 8' that encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase, ATP synthase Fo subunit 8 (or subunit A6L). This subunit belongs to the Fo complex of the large, transmembrane F-type ATP synthase. This enzyme, which is also known as complex V, is responsible for the final step of oxidative phosphorylation in the electron transport chain. Specifically, one segment of ATP synthase allows positively charged ions, called protons, to flow across a specialized membrane inside mitochondria. Another segment of the enzyme uses the energy created by this proton flow to convert a molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to ATP. Subunit 8 differs in sequence between Metazoa, plants and Fungi.
The ATP synthase protein 8 of human and other mammals is encoded in the mitochondrial genome by the MT-ATP8 gene. When the complete human mitochondrial genome was first published, the MT-ATP8 gene was described as the unidentified reading frame URF A6L. An unusual feature of the MT-ATP8 gene is its 46-nucleotide overlap with the MT-ATP6 gene. With respect to the reading frame (+1) of MT-ATP8, the MT-ATP6 gene starts on the +3 reading frame.
The MT-ATP8 protein weighs 8 kDa and is composed of 68 amino acids. The protein is a subunit of the F1Fo ATPase, also known as Complex V, which consists of 14 nuclear- and 2 mitochondrial-encoded subunits. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F1 containing the extramembraneous catalytic core and Fo containing the membrane proton channel, linked together by a central stalk and a peripheral stalk. As an A subunit, MT-ATP8 is contained within the non-catalytic, transmembrane Fo portion of the complex, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the delta subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same isoform have been identified.
The MT-ATP8 gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase, located within the thylakoid membrane and the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. The Fo region causes rotation of F1, which has a water-soluble component that hydrolyzes ATP and together, the F1Fo creates a pathway for movement of protons across the membrane.
This protein subunit appears to be an integral component of the stator stalk in yeast mitochondrial F-ATPases. The stator stalk is anchored in the membrane, and acts to prevent futile rotation of the ATPase subunits relative to the rotor during coupled ATP synthesis/hydrolysis. This subunit may have an analogous function in Metazoa.
The nomenclature of the enzyme has a long history. The F1 fraction derives its name from the term "Fraction 1" and Fo (written as a subscript letter "o", not "zero") derives its name from being the binding fraction for oligomycin, a type of naturally-derived antibiotic that is able to inhibit the Fo unit of ATP synthase. The Fo region of ATP synthase is a proton pore that is embedded in the mitochondrial membrane. It consists of three main subunits A, B, and C, and (in humans) six additional subunits, d, e, f, g, MT-ATP6 (or F6), and MT-ATP8 (or A6L). 3D structure of E. coli homologue of this subunit was modeled based on electron microscopy data (chain M of ). It forms a transmembrane 4-Î±-bundle.
Mutations to MT-ATP8 and other genes affecting oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria have been associated with a variety of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders, including mitochondrial complex V deficiency, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with stroke-like episodes (MELAS), Leigh syndrome, and NARP syndrome. Most of the body's cells contain thousands of mitochondria, each with one or more copies of mitochondrial DNA. The severity of some mitochondrial disorders is associated with the percentage of mitochondria in each cell that has a particular genetic change. People with Leigh syndrome due to a MT-ATP6 gene mutation tend to have a very high percentage of mitochondria with the mutation (from more than 90 percent to 95 percent). The less-severe features of NARP result from a lower percentage of mitochondria with the mutation, typically 70 percent to 90 percent. Because these two conditions result from the same genetic changes and can occur in different members of a single family, researchers believe that they may represent a spectrum of overlapping features instead of two distinct syndromes.
Mitochondrial complex V deficiency presents with heterogeneous clinical manifestations including neuropathy, ataxia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can present with negligible to extreme hypertrophy, minimal to extensive fibrosis and myocyte disarray, absent to severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and distinct septal contours/morphologies with extremely varying clinical course.
Mitochondrial complex V deficiency is a shortage (deficiency) or loss of function in complex V of the electron transport chain that can cause a wide variety of signs and symptoms affecting many organs and systems of the body, particularly the nervous system and the heart. The disorder can be life-threatening in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals may have feeding problems, slow growth, low muscle tone (hypotonia), extreme fatigue (lethargy), and developmental delay. They tend to develop elevated levels of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, vomiting, weakness, and rapid breathing. High levels of ammonia in the blood (hyperammonemia) can also occur in affected individuals, and in some cases result in abnormal brain function (encephalopathy) and damage to other organs. Ataxia, microcephaly, developmental delay and intellectual disability have been observed in patients with a frameshift mutation in MT-ATP6. This causes a C insertion at position 8612 that results in a truncated protein only 36 amino acids long, and two T > C single-nucleotide polymorphisms at positions 8610 and 8614 that result in a homopolymeric cytosine stretch.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a common feature of mitochondrial complex V deficiency, is characterized by thickening (hypertrophy) of the cardiac muscle that can lead to heart failure. The m.8528T>C mutation occurs in the overlapping region of the MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8 genes and has been described in multiple patients with infantile cardiomyopathy. This mutation changes the initiation codon in MT-ATP6 to threonine as well as a change from tryptophan to arginine at position 55 of MT-ATP8. Individuals with mitochondrial complex V deficiency may also have a characteristic pattern of facial features, including a high forehead, curved eyebrows, outside corners of the eyes that point downward (downslanting palpebral fissures), a prominent bridge of the nose, low-set ears, thin lips, and a small chin (micrognathia).
Infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CMHI) is also caused by mutations affecting distinct genetic loci, including MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8. An infantile form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a heart disorder characterized by ventricular hypertrophy, which is usually asymmetric and often involves the interventricular septum. The symptoms include dyspnea, syncope, collapse, palpitations, and chest pain. They can be readily provoked by exercise. The disorder has inter- and intrafamilial variability ranging from benign to malignant forms with high risk of cardiac failure and sudden cardiac death.
- GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000228253 - Ensembl, May 2017
- "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
- Anderson S, Bankier AT, Barrell BG, de Bruijn MH, Coulson AR, Drouin J, Eperon IC, Nierlich DP, Roe BA, Sanger F, Schreier PH, Smith AJ, Staden R, Young IG (April 1981). "Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome". Nature. 290 (5806): 457â€“65. doi:10.1038/290457a0. PMID 7219534.
- "MT-ATP8". Genetics Home Reference. NCBI.
- Zong NC, Li H, Li H, Lam MP, Jimenez RC, Kim CS, Deng N, Kim AK, Choi JH, Zelaya I, Liem D, Meyer D, Odeberg J, Fang C, Lu HJ, Xu T, Weiss J, Duan H, Uhlen M, Yates JR, Apweiler R, Ge J, Hermjakob H, Ping P (Oct 2013). "Integration of cardiac proteome biology and medicine by a specialized knowledgebase". Circulation Research. 113 (9): 1043â€“53. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.301151. PMC 4076475. PMID 23965338.
- "ATP synthase protein 8". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB).
- "MT-ATP8 mitochondrially encoded ATP synthase 8 [Homo sapiens (human)]". Gene. NCBI.
- Velours J, Paumard P, Soubannier V, Spannagel C, Vaillier J, Arselin G, Graves PV (May 2000). "Organisation of the yeast ATP synthase F(0):a study based on cysteine mutants, thiol modification and cross-linking reagents". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1458 (2â€“3): 443â€“56. doi:10.1016/S0005-2728(00)00093-1. PMID 10838057.
- Stephens AN, Khan MA, Roucou X, Nagley P, Devenish RJ (May 2003). "The molecular neighborhood of subunit 8 of yeast mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase probed by cysteine scanning mutagenesis and chemical modification". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (20): 17867â€“75. doi:10.1074/jbc.M300967200. PMID 12626501.
- Kagawa Y, Racker E (May 1966). "Partial resolution of the enzymes catalyzing oxidative phosphorylation. 8. Properties of a factor conferring oligomycin sensitivity on mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 241 (10): 2461â€“6. PMID 4223640.
- Mccarty RE (November 1992). "A PLANT BIOCHEMIST'S VIEW OF H+-ATPases AND ATP SYNTHASES". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 172 (Pt 1): 431â€“441. PMID 9874753.
- "MT-ATP8 - ATP synthase protein 8 - Homo sapiens (Human)". www.uniprot.org. UniProt. Retrieved 3 August 2018. This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
- Ware SM, El-Hassan N, Kahler SG, Zhang Q, Ma YW, Miller E, Wong B, Spicer RL, Craigen WJ, Kozel BA, Grange DK, Wong LJ (May 2009). "Infantile cardiomyopathy caused by a mutation in the overlapping region of mitochondrial ATPase 6 and 8 genes". Journal of Medical Genetics. 46 (5): 308â€“14. doi:10.1136/jmg.2008.063149. PMID 19188198.
- "Mitochondrial complex V deficiency". Genetics Home Reference. NCBI. Retrieved 3 August 2018. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Jackson CB, Hahn D, SchrÃ¶ter B, Richter U, Battersby BJ, Schmitt-Mechelke T, Marttinen P, Nuoffer JM, Schaller A (June 2017). "A novel mitochondrial ATP6 frameshift mutation causing isolated complex V deficiency, ataxia and encephalomyopathy". European Journal of Medical Genetics. 60 (6): 345â€“351. doi:10.1016/j.ejmg.2017.04.006. hdl:10138/237062. PMID 28412374.
- Imai A, Fujita S, Kishita Y, Kohda M, Tokuzawa Y, Hirata T, Mizuno Y, Harashima H, Nakaya A, Sakata Y, Takeda A, Mori M, Murayama K, Ohtake A, Okazaki Y (March 2016). "Rapidly progressive infantile cardiomyopathy with mitochondrial respiratory chain complex V deficiency due to loss of ATPase 6 and 8 protein". International Journal of Cardiology. 207: 203â€“5. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.01.026. PMID 26803244.
- Torroni A, Achilli A, Macaulay V, Richards M, Bandelt HJ (June 2006). "Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree". Trends in Genetics. 22 (6): 339â€“45. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2006.04.001. PMID 16678300.
- Bodenteich A, Mitchell LG, Polymeropoulos MH, Merril CR (May 1992). "Dinucleotide repeat in the human mitochondrial D-loop". Human Molecular Genetics. 1 (2): 140. doi:10.1093/hmg/1.2.140-a. PMID 1301157.
- Lu X, Walker T, MacManus JP, Seligy VL (July 1992). "Differentiation of HT-29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells correlates with increased expression of mitochondrial RNA: effects of trehalose on cell growth and maturation". Cancer Research. 52 (13): 3718â€“25. PMID 1377597.
- Marzuki S, Noer AS, Lertrit P, Thyagarajan D, Kapsa R, Utthanaphol P, Byrne E (December 1991). "Normal variants of human mitochondrial DNA and translation products: the building of a reference data base". Human Genetics. 88 (2): 139â€“45. doi:10.1007/bf00206061. PMID 1757091.
- Moraes CT, Andreetta F, Bonilla E, Shanske S, DiMauro S, Schon EA (March 1991). "Replication-competent human mitochondrial DNA lacking the heavy-strand promoter region". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 11 (3): 1631â€“7. doi:10.1128/MCB.11.3.1631. PMC 369459. PMID 1996112.
- Attardi G, Chomyn A, Doolittle RF, Mariottini P, Ragan CI (1987). "Seven unidentified reading frames of human mitochondrial DNA encode subunits of the respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase". Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. 51 Pt 1 (1): 103â€“14. doi:10.1101/sqb.1986.051.01.013. PMID 3472707.
- Chomyn A, Cleeter MW, Ragan CI, Riley M, Doolittle RF, Attardi G (October 1986). "URF6, last unidentified reading frame of human mtDNA, codes for an NADH dehydrogenase subunit". Science. 234 (4776): 614â€“8. doi:10.1126/science.3764430. PMID 3764430.
- Chomyn A, Mariottini P, Cleeter MW, Ragan CI, Matsuno-Yagi A, Hatefi Y, Doolittle RF, Attardi G (1985). "Six unidentified reading frames of human mitochondrial DNA encode components of the respiratory-chain NADH dehydrogenase". Nature. 314 (6012): 592â€“7. doi:10.1038/314592a0. PMID 3921850.
- Anderson S, Bankier AT, Barrell BG, de Bruijn MH, Coulson AR, Drouin J, Eperon IC, Nierlich DP, Roe BA, Sanger F, Schreier PH, Smith AJ, Staden R, Young IG (April 1981). "Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome". Nature. 290 (5806): 457â€“65. doi:10.1038/290457a0. PMID 7219534.
- Montoya J, Ojala D, Attardi G (April 1981). "Distinctive features of the 5'-terminal sequences of the human mitochondrial mRNAs". Nature. 290 (5806): 465â€“70. doi:10.1038/290465a0. PMID 7219535.
- Horai S, Hayasaka K, Kondo R, Tsugane K, Takahata N (January 1995). "Recent African origin of modern humans revealed by complete sequences of hominoid mitochondrial DNAs". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 92 (2): 532â€“6. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.2.532. PMC 42775. PMID 7530363.
- Rieder MJ, Taylor SL, Tobe VO, Nickerson DA (February 1998). "Automating the identification of DNA variations using quality-based fluorescence re-sequencing: analysis of the human mitochondrial genome". Nucleic Acids Research. 26 (4): 967â€“73. doi:10.1093/nar/26.4.967. PMC 147367. PMID 9461455.
- Andrews RM, Kubacka I, Chinnery PF, Lightowlers RN, Turnbull DM, Howell N (October 1999). "Reanalysis and revision of the Cambridge reference sequence for human mitochondrial DNA". Nature Genetics. 23 (2): 147. doi:10.1038/13779. PMID 10508508.
- Ingman M, Kaessmann H, PÃ¤Ã¤bo S, Gyllensten U (December 2000). "Mitochondrial genome variation and the origin of modern humans". Nature. 408 (6813): 708â€“13. doi:10.1038/35047064. PMID 11130070.
- FinnilÃ¤ S, Lehtonen MS, Majamaa K (June 2001). "Phylogenetic network for European mtDNA". American Journal of Human Genetics. 68 (6): 1475â€“84. doi:10.1086/320591. PMC 1226134. PMID 11349229.
- Maca-Meyer N, GonzÃ¡lez AM, Larruga JM, Flores C, Cabrera VM (2003). "Major genomic mitochondrial lineages delineate early human expansions". BMC Genetics. 2: 13. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-2-13. PMC 55343. PMID 11553319.
- Herrnstadt C, Elson JL, Fahy E, Preston G, Turnbull DM, Anderson C, Ghosh SS, Olefsky JM, Beal MF, Davis RE, Howell N (May 2002). "Reduced-median-network analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA coding-region sequences for the major African, Asian, and European haplogroups". American Journal of Human Genetics. 70 (5): 1152â€“71. doi:10.1086/339933. PMC 447592. PMID 11938495.
- Silva WA, Bonatto SL, Holanda AJ, Ribeiro-Dos-Santos AK, PaixÃ£o BM, Goldman GH, Abe-Sandes K, Rodriguez-Delfin L, Barbosa M, PaÃ§Ã³-Larson ML, Petzl-Erler ML, Valente V, Santos SE, Zago MA (July 2002). "Mitochondrial genome diversity of Native Americans supports a single early entry of founder populations into America". American Journal of Human Genetics. 71 (1): 187â€“92. doi:10.1086/341358. PMC 384978. PMID 12022039.
- Mishmar D, Ruiz-Pesini E, Golik P, Macaulay V, Clark AG, Hosseini S, Brandon M, Easley K, Chen E, Brown MD, Sukernik RI, Olckers A, Wallace DC (January 2003). "Natural selection shaped regional mtDNA variation in humans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100 (1): 171â€“6. doi:10.1073/pnas.0136972100. PMC 140917. PMID 12509511.
- Ingman M, Gyllensten U (July 2003). "Mitochondrial genome variation and evolutionary history of Australian and New Guinean aborigines". Genome Research. 13 (7): 1600â€“6. doi:10.1101/gr.686603. PMC 403733. PMID 12840039.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
ATP synthase protein 8 Provide feedback
No Pfam abstract.
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001421
Transmembrane ATPases are membrane-bound enzyme complexes/ion transporters that use ATP hydrolysis to drive the transport of protons across a membrane. Some transmembrane ATPases also work in reverse, harnessing the energy from a proton gradient, using the flux of ions across the membrane via the ATPase proton channel to drive the synthesis of ATP.
There are several different types of transmembrane ATPases, which can differ in function (ATP hydrolysis and/or synthesis), structure (e.g., F-, V- and A-ATPases, which contain rotary motors) and in the type of ions they transport [PUBMED:15473999, PUBMED:15078220]. The different types include:
- F-ATPases (ATP synthases, F1F0-ATPases), which are found in mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacterial plasma membranes where they are the prime producers of ATP, using the proton gradient generated by oxidative phosphorylation (mitochondria) or photosynthesis (chloroplasts).
- V-ATPases (V1V0-ATPases), which are primarily found in eukaryotes and they function as proton pumps that acidify intracellular compartments and, in some cases, transport protons across the plasma membrane [PUBMED:20450191]. They are also found in bacteria [PUBMED:9741106].
- A-ATPases (A1A0-ATPases), which are found in Archaea and function like F-ATPases, though with respect to their structure and some inhibitor responses, A-ATPases are more closely related to the V-ATPases [PUBMED:18937357, PUBMED:1385979].
- P-ATPases (E1E2-ATPases), which are found in bacteria and in eukaryotic plasma membranes and organelles, and function to transport a variety of different ions across membranes.
- E-ATPases, which are cell-surface enzymes that hydrolyse a range of NTPs, including extracellular ATP.
F-ATPases (also known as ATP synthases, F1F0-ATPase, or H(+)-transporting two-sector ATPase) (EC) are composed of two linked complexes: the F1 ATPase complex is the catalytic core and is composed of 5 subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon), while the F0 ATPase complex is the membrane-embedded proton channel that is composed of at least 3 subunits (A-C), with additional subunits in mitochondria. Both the F1 and F0 complexes are rotary motors that are coupled back-to-back. In the F1 complex, the central gamma subunit forms the rotor inside the cylinder made of the alpha(3)beta(3) subunits, while in the F0 complex, the ring-shaped C subunits forms the rotor. The two rotors rotate in opposite directions, but the F0 rotor is usually stronger, using the force from the proton gradient to push the F1 rotor in reverse in order to drive ATP synthesis [PUBMED:11309608]. These ATPases can also work in reverse in bacteria, hydrolysing ATP to create a proton gradient.
This entry represents subunit 8 found in the F0 complex of mitochondrial F-ATPases from Metazoa. This subunit appears to be an integral component of the stator stalk in yeast mitochondrial F-ATPases [PUBMED:12626501]. The stator stalk is anchored in the membrane, and acts to prevent futile rotation of the ATPase subunits relative to the rotor during coupled ATP synthesis/hydrolysis. This subunit may have an analogous function in Metazoa. Subunit 8 differs in sequence between Metazoa, plants (INTERPRO) and fungi (INTERPRO).
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, coupling factor F(o) (GO:0000276)|
|Molecular function||proton transmembrane transporter activity (GO:0015078)|
|Biological process||ATP synthesis coupled proton transport (GO:0015986)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
Loading domain graphics...
This clan contains subunits of the F0 complex of ATP-synthase. The F0 complex is the non-catalytic unit of ATPase and is involved in proton translocation across membranes.
The clan contains the following 13 members:ATP-synt_8 ATP-synt_B FliH Fun_ATP-synt_8 HrpE Mt_ATP-synt_B NolV OSCP V-ATPase_G V-ATPase_G_2 vATP-synt_E Yae1_N YMF19
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_446 (release 3.0)|
|Number in seed:||19|
|Number in full:||72|
|Average length of the domain:||53.90 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||32 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||90.59 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||20|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.