Summary: ATP synthase protein 8
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MT-ATP8 Edit Wikipedia article
|, ATPase8, MTMT-ATP synthase F0 subunit 8|
|ATP synthase protein 8 (metazoa)|
|Plant ATP synthase F0 subunit 8|
|Fungal ATP synthase protein 8 (A6L)|
ATP synthase protein 8 is a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase.
This protein subunit appears to be an integral component of the stator stalk in yeast mitochondrial F-ATPases. The stator stalk is anchored in the membrane, and acts to prevent futile rotation of the ATPase subunits relative to the rotor during coupled ATP synthesis/hydrolysis. This subunit may have an analogous function in Metazoa.
The ATP synthase protein 8 of human and other mammals is encoded in the mitochondrial genome by the MT-ATP8 gene. When the complete human mitochondrial genome was first published, the MT-ATP8 gene was described as the unidentified reading frame URF A6L.
An unusual feature of the MT-ATP8 gene is its 46-nucleotide overlap with the MT-ATP6 gene. With respect to the reading frame (+1) of MT-ATP8, the MT-ATP6 gene starts on the +3 reading frame.
- "Human PubMed Reference:".
- Stephens AN, Khan MA, Roucou X, Nagley P, Devenish RJ (May 2003). "The molecular neighborhood of subunit 8 of yeast mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase probed by cysteine scanning mutagenesis and chemical modification". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (20): 17867–75. doi:10.1074/jbc.M300967200. PMID 12626501.
- Anderson S, Bankier AT, Barrell BG, de Bruijn MH, Coulson AR, Drouin J, Eperon IC, Nierlich DP, Roe BA, Sanger F, Schreier PH, Smith AJ, Staden R, Young IG (April 1981). "Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome". Nature. 290 (5806): 457–65. doi:10.1038/290457a0. PMID 7219534.
- Torroni A, Achilli A, Macaulay V, et al. (2006). "Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree.". Trends Genet. 22 (6): 339–45. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2006.04.001. PMID 16678300.
- Bodenteich A, Mitchell LG, Polymeropoulos MH, Merril CR (1993). "Dinucleotide repeat in the human mitochondrial D-loop.". Hum. Mol. Genet. 1 (2): 140. doi:10.1093/hmg/1.2.140-a. PMID 1301157.
- Lu X, Walker T, MacManus JP, Seligy VL (1992). "Differentiation of HT-29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells correlates with increased expression of mitochondrial RNA: effects of trehalose on cell growth and maturation.". Cancer Res. 52 (13): 3718–25. PMID 1377597.
- Marzuki S, Noer AS, Lertrit P, et al. (1992). "Normal variants of human mitochondrial DNA and translation products: the building of a reference data base.". Hum. Genet. 88 (2): 139–45. doi:10.1007/bf00206061. PMID 1757091.
- Moraes CT, Andreetta F, Bonilla E, et al. (1991). "Replication-competent human mitochondrial DNA lacking the heavy-strand promoter region.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 11 (3): 1631–7. PMC . PMID 1996112.
- Attardi G, Chomyn A, Doolittle RF, et al. (1987). "Seven unidentified reading frames of human mitochondrial DNA encode subunits of the respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase.". Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 51 (1): 103–14. doi:10.1101/sqb.1986.051.01.013. PMID 3472707.
- Chomyn A, Cleeter MW, Ragan CI, et al. (1986). "URF6, last unidentified reading frame of human mtDNA, codes for an NADH dehydrogenase subunit.". Science. 234 (4776): 614–8. doi:10.1126/science.3764430. PMID 3764430.
- Chomyn A, Mariottini P, Cleeter MW, et al. (1985). "Six unidentified reading frames of human mitochondrial DNA encode components of the respiratory-chain NADH dehydrogenase.". Nature. 314 (6012): 592–7. doi:10.1038/314592a0. PMID 3921850.
- Anderson S, Bankier AT, Barrell BG, et al. (1981). "Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome.". Nature. 290 (5806): 457–65. doi:10.1038/290457a0. PMID 7219534.
- Montoya J, Ojala D, Attardi G (1981). "Distinctive features of the 5'-terminal sequences of the human mitochondrial mRNAs.". Nature. 290 (5806): 465–70. doi:10.1038/290465a0. PMID 7219535.
- Horai S, Hayasaka K, Kondo R, et al. (1995). "Recent African origin of modern humans revealed by complete sequences of hominoid mitochondrial DNAs.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (2): 532–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.2.532. PMC . PMID 7530363.
- Rieder MJ, Taylor SL, Tobe VO, Nickerson DA (1998). "Automating the identification of DNA variations using quality-based fluorescence re-sequencing: analysis of the human mitochondrial genome.". Nucleic Acids Res. 26 (4): 967–73. doi:10.1093/nar/26.4.967. PMC . PMID 9461455.
- Andrews RM, Kubacka I, Chinnery PF, et al. (1999). "Reanalysis and revision of the Cambridge reference sequence for human mitochondrial DNA.". Nat. Genet. 23 (2): 147. doi:10.1038/13779. PMID 10508508.
- Ingman M, Kaessmann H, Pääbo S, Gyllensten U (2001). "Mitochondrial genome variation and the origin of modern humans.". Nature. 408 (6813): 708–13. doi:10.1038/35047064. PMID 11130070.
- Finnilä S, Lehtonen MS, Majamaa K (2001). "Phylogenetic network for European mtDNA.". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68 (6): 1475–84. doi:10.1086/320591. PMC . PMID 11349229.
- Maca-Meyer N, González AM, Larruga JM, et al. (2003). "Major genomic mitochondrial lineages delineate early human expansions.". BMC Genet. 2: 13. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-2-13. PMC . PMID 11553319.
- Herrnstadt C, Elson JL, Fahy E, et al. (2002). "Reduced-median-network analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA coding-region sequences for the major African, Asian, and European haplogroups.". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 70 (5): 1152–71. doi:10.1086/339933. PMC . PMID 11938495.
- Silva WA, Bonatto SL, Holanda AJ, et al. (2002). "Mitochondrial genome diversity of Native Americans supports a single early entry of founder populations into America.". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 71 (1): 187–92. doi:10.1086/341358. PMC . PMID 12022039.
- Mishmar D, Ruiz-Pesini E, Golik P, et al. (2003). "Natural selection shaped regional mtDNA variation in humans.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (1): 171–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.0136972100. PMC . PMID 12509511.
- Ingman M, Gyllensten U (2003). "Mitochondrial genome variation and evolutionary history of Australian and New Guinean aborigines.". Genome Res. 13 (7): 1600–6. doi:10.1101/gr.686603. PMC . PMID 12840039.
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ATP synthase protein 8 Provide feedback
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Internal database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001421
Transmembrane ATPases are membrane-bound enzyme complexes/ion transporters that use ATP hydrolysis to drive the transport of protons across a membrane. Some transmembrane ATPases also work in reverse, harnessing the energy from a proton gradient, using the flux of ions across the membrane via the ATPase proton channel to drive the synthesis of ATP.
There are several different types of transmembrane ATPases, which can differ in function (ATP hydrolysis and/or synthesis), structure (e.g., F-, V- and A-ATPases, which contain rotary motors) and in the type of ions they transport [PUBMED:15473999, PUBMED:15078220]. The different types include:
- F-ATPases (F1F0-ATPases), which are found in mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacterial plasma membranes where they are the prime producers of ATP, using the proton gradient generated by oxidative phosphorylation (mitochondria) or photosynthesis (chloroplasts).
- V-ATPases (V1V0-ATPases), which are primarily found in eukaryotic and they function as proton pumps that acidify intracellular compartments and, in some cases, transport protons across the plasma membrane [PUBMED:20450191]. They are also found in bacteria [PUBMED:9741106].
- A-ATPases (A1A0-ATPases), which are found in Archaea and function like F-ATPases, though with respect to their structure and some inhibitor responses, A-ATPases are more closely related to the V-ATPases [PUBMED:18937357, PUBMED:1385979].
- P-ATPases (E1E2-ATPases), which are found in bacteria and in eukaryotic plasma membranes and organelles, and function to transport a variety of different ions across membranes.
- E-ATPases, which are cell-surface enzymes that hydrolyse a range of NTPs, including extracellular ATP.
F-ATPases (also known as F1F0-ATPase, or H(+)-transporting two-sector ATPase) (EC) are composed of two linked complexes: the F1 ATPase complex is the catalytic core and is composed of 5 subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon), while the F0 ATPase complex is the membrane-embedded proton channel that is composed of at least 3 subunits (A-C), nine in mitochondria (A-G, F6, F8). Both the F1 and F0 complexes are rotary motors that are coupled back-to-back. In the F1 complex, the central gamma subunit forms the rotor inside the cylinder made of the alpha(3)beta(3) subunits, while in the F0 complex, the ring-shaped C subunits forms the rotor. The two rotors rotate in opposite directions, but the F0 rotor is usually stronger, using the force from the proton gradient to push the F1 rotor in reverse in order to drive ATP synthesis [PUBMED:11309608]. These ATPases can also work in reverse in bacteria, hydrolysing ATP to create a proton gradient.
This entry represents subunit 8 found in the F0 complex of mitochondrial F-ATPases from Metazoa. This subunit appears to be an integral component of the stator stalk in yeast mitochondrial F-ATPases [PUBMED:12626501]. The stator stalk is anchored in the membrane, and acts to prevent futile rotation of the ATPase subunits relative to the rotor during coupled ATP synthesis/hydrolysis. This subunit may have an analogous function in Metazoa. Subunit 8 differs in sequence between Metazoa, plants (INTERPRO) and fungi (INTERPRO).
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, coupling factor F(o) (GO:0000276)|
|Molecular function||hydrogen ion transmembrane transporter activity (GO:0015078)|
|Biological process||ATP synthesis coupled proton transport (GO:0015986)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
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This clan contains subunits of the F0 complex of ATP-synthase. The F0 complex is the non-catalytic unit of ATPase and is involved in proton translocation across membranes.
The clan contains the following 13 members:ATP-synt_8 ATP-synt_B FliH Fun_ATP-synt_8 HrpE Mt_ATP-synt_B NolV OSCP V-ATPase_G V-ATPase_G_2 vATP-synt_E Yae1_N YMF19
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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|Seed source:||Pfam-B_446 (release 3.0)|
|Number in seed:||19|
|Number in full:||73|
|Average length of the domain:||53.90 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||33 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||89.74 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 17690987 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||18|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
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How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
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There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
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Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
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Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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