Summary: Alphavirus E2 glycoprotein
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Alphavirus Edit Wikipedia article
|Group:||Group IV ((+)ssRNA)|
In biology and immunology, an alphavirus belongs to the group IV Togaviridae family of viruses, according to the system of classification based on viral genome composition introduced by David Baltimore in 1971. Alphaviruses, like all other group IV viruses, have a positive sense, single-stranded RNA genome. There are thirty alphaviruses able to infect various vertebrates such as humans, rodents, fish, birds, and larger mammals such as horses as well as invertebrates. Transmission between species and individuals occurs mainly via mosquitoes making the alphaviruses a contributor to the collection of Arboviruses – or Arthropod-Borne Viruses. Alphavirus particles are enveloped, have a 70 nm diameter, tend to be spherical (although slightly pleomorphic), and have a 40 nm isometric nucleocapsid.
crystal structure of the homotrimer of fusion glycoprotein e1 from semliki forest virus.
mapping the e2 glycoprotein of alphaviruses
The alphaviruses are small, spherical, enveloped viruses with a genome of a single positive sense strand RNA. The total genome length ranges between 11,000 and 12,000 nucleotides, and has a 5’ cap, and 3’ poly-A tail. The four non-structural protein genes are encoded in the 5′ two-thirds of the genome, while the three structural proteins are translated from a subgenomic mRNA colinear with the 3′ one-third of the genome.
There are two open reading frames (ORF’s) in the genome, non-structural and structural. The first is non structural and encodes proteins (nsP1–nsP4) necessary for transcription and replication of viral RNA. The second encodes three structural proteins: the core nucleocapsid protein C, and the envelope proteins P62 and E1 that associate as a heterodimer. The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are responsible for receptor recognition and entry into target cells through membrane fusion.
The proteolytic maturation of P62 into E2 and E3 causes a change in the viral surface. Together the E1, E2, and sometimes E3, glycoprotein "spikes" form an E1/E2 dimer or an E1/E2/E3 trimer, where E2 extends from the centre to the vertices, E1 fills the space between the vertices, and E3, if present, is at the distal end of the spike. Upon exposure of the virus to the acidity of the endosome, E1 dissociates from E2 to form an E1 homotrimer, which is necessary for the fusion step to drive the cellular and viral membranes together. The alphaviral glycoprotein E1 is a class II viral fusion protein, which is structurally different from the class I fusion proteins found in influenza virus and HIV. The structure of the Semliki Forest virus revealed a structure that is similar to that of flaviviral glycoprotein E, with three structural domains in the same primary sequence arrangement. The E2 glycoprotein functions to interact with the nucleocapsid through its cytoplasmic domain, while its ectodomain is responsible for binding a cellular receptor. Most alphaviruses lose the peripheral protein E3, but in Semliki viruses it remains associated with the viral surface.
Non structural proteins
Four nonstructural proteins (nsP1–4) which are produced as a single polyprotein constitute the virus' replication machinery. The processing of the polyprotein occurs in a highly regulated manner, with cleavage at the P2/3 junction influencing RNA template use during genome replication. This site is located at the base of a narrow cleft and is not readily accessible. Once cleaved nsP3 creates a ring structure that encircles nsP2. These two proteins have an extensive interface.
Mutations in nsP2 that produce noncytopathic viruses or a temperature sensitive phenotypes cluster at the P2/P3 interface region. P3 mutations opposite the location of the nsP2 noncytopathic mutations prevent efficient cleavage of P2/3. This in turn affects RNA infectivity altering viral RNA production levels.
The nucleocapsid, 40 nanometers in diameter, contains 240 copies of the capsid protein and has a T = 4 icosahedral symmetry. The E1 and E2 viral glycoproteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer. Single E1 and E2 molecules associate to form heterodimers. The E1–E2 heterodimers form one-to-one contacts between the E2 protein and the nucleocapsid monomers.
Replication occurs within the cytoplasm, and virions mature by budding through the plasma membrane, where virus-encoded surface glycoproteins E2 and E1 are assimilated.
These two glycoproteins are the targets of numerous serologic reactions and tests including neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition. The alphaviruses show various degrees of antigenic cross-reactivity in these reactions and this forms the basis for the seven antigenic complexes, 30 species and many subtypes and varieties. The E2 protein is the site of most neutralizing epitopes, while the E1 protein contains more conserved, cross-reactive epitopes.
A study of this taxon suggests that this group of viruses had a marine origin—specifically the Southern Ocean—and that they have subsequently spread to both the Old and New World.
There are three subgroups in this genus: the Semliki Forest virus subgroup (Semliki Forest, O'nyong-nyong and Ross River viruses); the eastern equine encephalitis virus subgroup (eastern equine encephalitis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses) and the Sindbis virus subgroup. Sindbis virus, geographically restricted to the Old World, is more closely related to the eastern equine encephalitis subgroup, which are New World viruses, than it is to the Semliki Forest virus subgroup which is also found in the Old World.
The seven complexes are:
- Barmah Forest virus complex
- Barmah Forest virus
- Eastern equine encephalitis complex
- Eastern equine encephalitis virus (seven antigenic types)
- Middelburg virus complex
- Middelburg virus
- Ndumu virus complex
- Ndumu virus
- Semliki Forest virus complex
- Bebaru virus
- Chikungunya virus
- Mayaro virus
- Subtype: Una virus
- O’Nyong Nyong virus
- Subtype: Igbo-Ora virus
- Ross River virus
- Subtype: Bebaru virus
- Subtype: Getah virus
- Subtype: Sagiyama virus
- Semliki Forest virus
- Subtype: Me Tri virus
- Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex
- Cabassou virus
- Everglades virus
- Mosso das Pedras virus
- Mucambo virus
- Paramana virus
- Pixuna virus
- Rio Negro virus
- Trocara virus
- Subtype: Bijou Bridge virus
- Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
- Western equine encephalitis complex
- Aura virus
- Babanki virus
- Kyzylagach virus
- Sindbis virus
- Ockelbo virus
- Whataroa virus
- Recombinants within this complex
- Buggy Creek virus
- Fort Morgan virus
- Highlands J virus
- Western equine encephalitis virus
- Eilat virus
- Mwinilunga alphavirus
- Salmon pancreatic disease virus
- Sleeping Disease virus
- Southern elephant seal virus
- Taï Forest virus
- Tonate virus
Barmah Forest virus is related to the Semliki Forest virus. Middelburg virus, although classified as a separate complex, may be a member of the Semliki Forest virus group.
It seems likely that the genus evolved in the Old World from an insect-borne plant virus.
Sindbis virus may have originated in South America. The equine encephalitis viruses and Sindbis viruses are related.
The Old World and New World viruses appears to have diverged between 2000 and 3000 years ago. Divergence between the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and the eastern equine virus appears to have been ~1400 years ago.
The fish infecting clade appears to be basal to the other species.
The southern elephant seal virus appears to be related to the Sinbis clade.
Pathogenesis and immune response
|Virus||Human Disease||Vertebrate Reservoir||Distribution|
|Barmah Forest virus||Fever, malaise, rash, joint pain, muscle tenderness||Humans||Australia|
|Chikungunya virus||Rash, arthritis||Primates, humans||Africa, Latin America, India, SE Asia|
|Mayaro virus||Rash, arthritis||Primates, humans||South America|
|O'nyong'nyong virus||Rash, arthritis||Primates, Humans||Africa|
|Ross River virus||Rash, arthritis||Mammals, humans||Australia, South Pacific|
|Semliki Forest virus||Rash, arthritis||Birds||Africa|
|Sindbis virus||Rash, arthritis||Birds||Europe, Africa, Australia|
|Una virus||Rash, arthritis||Primates, humans||South America|
|Eastern equine encephalitis virus||Encephalitis||Birds||Americas|
|Tonate virus||Encephalitis||Humans||South America|
|Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus||Encephalitis||Rodents, horses||Americas|
|Western equine encephalitis virus||Encephalitis||Birds, mammals||North America|
There are many alphaviruses distributed around the world with the ability to cause human disease. Infectious arthritis, encephalitis, rashes and fever are the most commonly observed symptoms. Larger mammals such as humans and horses are usually dead-end hosts or play a minor role in viral transmission; however, in the case of Venezuelan equine encephalitis the virus is mainly amplified in horses. In most other cases the virus is maintained in nature in mosquitoes, rodents and birds.
Alphavirus infections are spread by insect vectors such as mosquitoes. Once a human is bitten by the infected mosquito, the virus can gain entry into the bloodstream, causing viremia. The alphavirus can also get into the CNS where it is able to grow and multiply within the neurones. This can lead to encephalitis, which can be fatal.
When an individual is infected with this particular virus, its immune system can play a role in clearing away the virus particles. Alphaviruses are able to cause the production of interferons. Antibodies and T cells are also involved. The neutralizing antibodies also play an important role to prevent further infection and spread.
Diagnosis, prevention, and control
Diagnoses is based on clinical samples from which the virus can be easily isolated and identified. There are no alphavirus vaccines currently available. Vector control with repellents, protective clothing, breeding site destruction, and spraying are the preventive measures of choice.
Alphaviruses are of interest to gene therapy researchers, in particular the Ross River virus, Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus have all been used to develop viral vectors for gene delivery. Of particular interest are the chimeric viruses that may be formed with alphaviral envelopes and retroviral capsids. Such chimeras are termed pseudotyped viruses. Alphaviral envelope pseudotypes of retroviruses or lentiviruses are able to integrate the genes that they carry into the expansive range of potential host cells that are recognized and infected by the alphaviral envelope proteins E2 and E1. The stable integration of viral genes is mediated by the retroviral interiors of these vectors. There are limitations to the use of alphaviruses in the field of gene therapy due to their lack of targeting, however, through the introduction of variable antibody domains in a non-conserved loop in the structure of E2, specific populations of cells have been targeted. Furthermore, the use of whole alphaviruses for gene therapy is of limited efficacy both because several internal alphaviral proteins are involved in the induction of apoptosis upon infection and also because the alphaviral capsid mediates only the transient introduction of mRNA into host cells. Neither of these limitations extend to alphaviral envelope pseudotypes of retroviruses or lentiviruses. However, the expression of Sindbis virus envelopes may lead to apoptosis, and their introduction into host cells upon infection by Sindbis virus envelope pseudotyped retroviruses may also lead to cell death. The toxicity of Sindbis viral envelopes may be the cause of the very low production titers realized from packaging cells constructed to produce Sindbis pseudotypes. Another branch of research involving alphaviruses is in vaccination. Alphaviruses are apt to be engineered to create replicon vectors which efficiently induce humoral and T-cell immune responses. They could therefore be used to vaccinate against viral, bacterial, protozoan, and tumor antigens.
- Alphavirus vectors: from protein production to gene therapy, C Smerdou & P Liljestrom, Gene Therapy and Regulation Vol 1 No 1 2000 pp. 33–63
- Alphavirus vectors and vaccination, J O Rayner et al., Reviews in Medical Virology vol 12 issue 5 pp 279–296
- Vénien-Bryan C, Fuller SD (February 1994). "The organization of the spike complex of Semliki Forest virus". J. Mol. Biol. 236 (2): 572–83. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1994.1166. PMID 8107141.
- Lescar J, Roussel A, Wien MW, Navaza J, Fuller SD, Wengler G, Wengler G, Rey FA (April 2001). "The Fusion glycoprotein shell of Semliki Forest virus: an icosahedral assembly primed for fusogenic activation at endosomal pH". Cell. 105 (1): 137–48. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00303-8. PMID 11301009.
- Shin G, Yost SA, Miller MT, Elrod EJ, Grakoui A, Marcotrigiano J (2012) Structural and functional insights into alphavirus polyprotein processing and pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
- Forrester NL, Palacios G, Tesh RB, Savji N, Guzman H, Sherman M, Weaver SC, Lipkin WI (December 2011). "Genome scale phylogeny of the Alphavirus genus suggests a marine origin". J Virol. 86 (5): 2729–38. doi:10.1128/JVI.05591-11. PMC . PMID 22190718.
- Levinson RS, Strauss JH, Strauss EG (1990). "Complete sequence of the genomic RNA of O'nyong-nyong virus and its use in the construction of alphavirus phylogenetic trees". Virology. 175 (1): 110–123. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(90)90191-s.
- ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- Powers AM, Brault AC, Shirako Y, Strauss EG, Kang W, Strauss JH, Weaver SC (November 2001). "Evolutionary relationships and systematics of the alphaviruses". J. Virol. 75 (21): 10118–31. doi:10.1128/JVI.75.21.10118-10131.2001. PMC . PMID 11581380.
- Lundström JO, Pfeffer M (November 2010). "Phylogeographic structure and evolutionary history of Sindbis virus". Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 10 (9): 889–907. doi:10.1089/vbz.2009.0069. PMID 20420530.
- Weaver SC, Hagenbaugh A, Bellew LA, Netesov SV, Volchkov VE, Chang GJ, Clarke DK, Gousset L, Scott TW, Trent DW (November 1993). "A comparison of the nucleotide sequences of eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses with those of other alphaviruses and related RNA viruses". Virology. 197 (1): 375–90. doi:10.1006/viro.1993.1599. PMID 8105605.
- Weaver SC, Rico-Hesse R, Scott TW (1992). "Genetic diversity and slow rates of evolution in New World alphaviruses". Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 176: 99–117. PMID 1318187.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Alphavirus E2 glycoprotein Provide feedback
E2 forms a heterodimer with E1. The virus spikes are made up of 80 trimers of these heterodimers (sindbis virus) .
Barth BU, Garoff H; , J Virol 1997;71:7857-7865.: The nucleocapsid-binding spike subunit E2 of Semliki Forest virus requires complex formation with the E1 subunit for activity. PUBMED:9311874 EPMC:9311874
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000936
Alphaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that use arthropods such as mosquitoes for transmission to their vertebrate hosts, and include Semliki Forest and Sindbis viruses [PUBMED:15378043]. Alphaviruses consist of three structural proteins: the core nucleocapsid protein C, and the envelope proteins P62 and E1 (INTERPRO) that associate as a heterodimer. The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are responsible for receptor recognition and entry into target cells through membrane fusion. The proteolytic maturation of P62 into E2 and E3 (INTERPRO) causes a change in the viral surface. Together the E1, E2, and sometimes E3 glycoprotein "spikes" form an E1/E2 dimer or an E1/E2/E3 trimer, where E2 extends from the centre to the vertices, E1 fills the space between the vertices, and E3, if present, is at the distal end of the spike [PUBMED:8107141, PUBMED:9445057]. Upon exposure of the virus to the acidity of the endosome, E1 dissociates from E2 to form an E1 homotrimer, which is necessary for the fusion step to drive the cellular and viral membranes together [PUBMED:11301009]. This entry represents the alphaviral E2 glycoprotein. The E2 glycoprotein functions to interact with the nucleocapsid through its cytoplasmic domain, while its ectodomain is responsible for binding a cellular receptor.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||viral capsid (GO:0019028)|
|Molecular function||structural molecule activity (GO:0005198)|
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This clan includes a diverse range of domains that have an Ig-like fold and appear to be distantly related to each other. The clan includes: PKD domains, cadherins and several families of bacterial Ig-like domains as well as viral tail fibre proteins. it also includes several Fibronectin type III domain-containing families.
The clan contains the following 218 members:A2M A2M_BRD A2M_recep Adeno_GP19K AlcCBM31 Alpha-amylase_N Alpha_adaptinC2 Alpha_E2_glycop Arch_flagellin Arylsulfotran_N ASF1_hist_chap ATG19_autophagy BACON Big_1 Big_10 Big_11 Big_2 Big_3 Big_3_2 Big_3_3 Big_3_5 Big_4 Big_5 Big_6 Big_7 Big_8 Big_9 Bile_Hydr_Trans BiPBP_C bMG1 bMG10 bMG3 bMG5 bMG6 BslA BsuPI Cadherin Cadherin-like Cadherin_2 Cadherin_3 Cadherin_4 Cadherin_5 Cadherin_pro CagX Calx-beta Candida_ALS_N CARDB CBM39 CBM_X2 CD45 CelD_N Ceramidse_alk_C CHB_HEX_C CHB_HEX_C_1 ChitinaseA_N ChiW_Ig_like CHU_C Coatamer_beta_C COP-gamma_platf CopC Cyc-maltodext_N Cytomega_US3 DsbC DUF11 DUF1410 DUF1425 DUF1929 DUF2271 DUF3244 DUF3327 DUF3416 DUF3458 DUF3501 DUF3823_C DUF3859 DUF3872 DUF4165 DUF4179 DUF4426 DUF4448 DUF4469 DUF4625 DUF4879 DUF4981 DUF4982 DUF5001 DUF5008 DUF5011 DUF5065 DUF5115 DUF525 DUF5643 DUF916 EB_dh ECD EpoR_lig-bind ERAP1_C EstA_Ig_like Filamin FixG_C Flavi_glycop_C FlgD_ig fn3 Fn3-like fn3_2 fn3_4 fn3_5 fn3_6 FN3_7 Fn3_assoc fn3_PAP GBS_Bsp-like Glucodextran_B Glyco_hydro2_C5 Glyco_hydro_2 Glyco_hydro_61 Gmad2 GMP_PDE_delta GPI-anchored Hanta_G1 He_PIG He_PIG_assoc HECW_N HemeBinding_Shp Hemocyanin_C Herpes_BLLF1 HYR IFNGR1 Ig_GlcNase Ig_mannosidase IL12p40_C Il13Ra_Ig IL17R_fnIII_D1 IL17R_fnIII_D2 IL2RB_N1 IL3Ra_N IL4Ra_N IL6Ra-bind Inhibitor_I42 Inhibitor_I71 Integrin_alpha2 Interfer-bind Invasin_D3 IRK_C IrmA Iron_transport LEA_2 Lep_receptor_Ig LIFR_N Lipase_bact_N LPMO_10 LRR_adjacent LTD Mannosidase_ig MG1 MG2 MG3 MG4 Mo-co_dimer N_BRCA1_IG Na_K-ATPase NEAT Neocarzinostat Neurexophilin NPCBM_assoc PapD_C PBP-Tp47_c Peptidase_C25_C Phlebovirus_G2 PhoD_N PKD PKD_2 PKD_3 Pollen_allerg_1 Pox_vIL-18BP Pur_ac_phosph_N Qn_am_d_aII Qn_am_d_aIII RabGGT_insert Reeler REJ RET_CLD1 RET_CLD3 RET_CLD4 RGI_lyase RHD_dimer Rho_GDI Rib SCAB-Ig SKICH SLAM SoxZ SprB SusE SVA SWM_repeat T2SS-T3SS_pil_N Tafi-CsgC TarS_C1 TcA_RBD TcfC TIG TIG_2 TIG_plexin Tissue_fac Top6b_C Transglut_C Transglut_N TRAP_beta Tuberculin UL16 Velvet WIF Wzt_C Y_Y_Y YBD ZirS_C Zona_pellucida
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
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You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_308 (release 3.0)|
|Author:||Finn RD , Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||3|
|Number in full:||5|
|Average length of the domain:||405.00 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||54 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||37.56 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||19|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
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Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 6 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Alpha_E2_glycop domain has been found. There are 59 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
Loading structure mapping...