Summary: STAT protein, all-alpha domain
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|STAT protein, all-alpha domain|
|STAT protein, DNA binding domain|
|STAT protein, protein interaction domain|
|Dictyostelium STAT, coiled coil|
structure of an activated dictyostelium stat in its DNA-unbound form
Members of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) protein family are intracellular transcription factors that mediate many aspects of cellular immunity, proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. They are primarily activated by membrane receptor-associated Janus kinases (JAK). Dysregulation of this pathway is frequently observed in primary tumors and leads to increased angiogenesis which enhances the survival of tumors and immunosuppression. Gene knockout studies have provided evidence that STAT proteins are involved in the development and function of the immune system and play a role in maintaining immune tolerance and tumor surveillance.
The first two STAT proteins were identified in the interferon system. There are seven mammalian STAT family members that have been identified: STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5 (STAT5A and STAT5B), and STAT6. STAT1 homodimers are involved in type II interferon signalling, and bind to the GAS (Interferon-Gamma Activated Sequence) promoter to induce expression of ISG (Interferon Stimulated Genes). In type I interferon signaling, STAT1-STAT2 heterodimer combines with IRF9 (Interferon Response Factor) to form ISGF3 (Interferon Stimulated Gene Factor), which binds to the ISRE (Interferon-Stimulated Response Element) promoter to induce ISG expression.
All seven STAT proteins share a common structural motif consisting of an N-terminal domain followed by a coiled-coil, DNA-binding, linker, Src homology 2 (SH2), and a C-terminal transactivation domain. Much research has focused on elucidating the roles each of these domains play in regulating different STAT isoforms. Both the N-terminal and SH2 domains mediate homo or heterodimer formation, while the coiled-coil domain functions partially as a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Transcriptional activity and DNA association are determined by the transactivation and DNA-binding domains, respectively.
Extracellular binding of cytokines or growth factors induce activation of receptor-associated Janus kinases, which phosphorylate a specific tyrosine residue within the STAT protein promoting dimerization via their SH2 domains. The phosphorylated dimer is then actively transported to the nucleus via an importin α/β ternary complex. Originally, STAT proteins were described as latent cytoplasmic transcription factors as phosphorylation was thought to be required for nuclear retention. However, unphosphorylated STAT proteins also shuttle between the cytosol and nucleus, and play a role in gene expression. Once STAT reaches the nucleus, it binds to a consensus DNA-recognition motif called gamma-activated sites (GAS) in the promoter region of cytokine-inducible genes and activates transcription. The STAT protein can be dephosphorylated by nuclear phosphatases, which leads to inactivation of STAT and subsequent transport out of the nucleus by a exportin-RanGTP complex.
Key steps of the JAK-STAT pathway
Structure of the amino-terminal protein interaction domain of STAT-4.
- STAT Transcription Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Drosophila Signal-transducer and activator of transcription protein at 92E - The Interactive Fly
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
STAT protein, all-alpha domain Provide feedback
STAT proteins (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) are a family of transcription factors that are specifically activated to regulate gene transcription when cells encounter cytokines and growth factors. STAT proteins also include an SH2 domain PF00017.
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR013800
The STAT protein (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) family contains transcription factors that are specifically activated to regulate gene transcription when cells encounter cytokines and growth factors, hence they act as signal transducers in the cytoplasm and transcription activators in the nucleus [PUBMED:12039028]. Binding of these factors to cell-surface receptors leads to receptor autophosphorylation at a tyrosine, the phosphotyrosine being recognised by the STAT SH2 domain, which mediates the recruitment of STAT proteins from the cytosol and their association with the activated receptor. The STAT proteins are then activated by phosphorylation via members of the JAK family of protein kinases, causing them to dimerise and translocated to the nucleus, where they bind to specific promoter sequences in target genes. In mammals, STATs comprise a family of seven structurally and functionally related proteins: Stat1, Stat2, Stat3, Stat4, Stat5a and Stat5b, Stat6. STAT proteins play a critical role in regulating innate and acquired host immune responses. Dysregulation of at least two STAT signalling cascades (i.e. Stat3 and Stat5) is associated with cellular transformation.
Signalling through the JAK/STAT pathway is initiated when a cytokine binds to its corresponding receptor. This leads to conformational changes in the cytoplasmic portion of the receptor, initiating activation of receptor associated members of the JAK family of kinases. The JAKs, in turn, mediate phosphorylation at the specific receptor tyrosine residues, which then serve as docking sites for STATs and other signalling molecules. Once recruited to the receptor, STATs also become phosphorylated by JAKs, on a single tyrosine residue. Activated STATs dissociate from the receptor, dimerise, translocate to the nucleus and bind to members of the GAS (gamma activated site) family of enhancers.
The seven STAT proteins identified in mammals range in size from 750 and 850 amino acids. The chromosomal distribution of these STATs, as well as the identification of STATs in more primitive eukaryotes, suggest that this family arose from a single primordial gene. STATs share structurally and functionally conserved domains including: an N-terminal domain that strengthens interactions between STAT dimers on adjacent DNA-binding sites; a coiled-coil STAT domain that is implicated in protein-protein interactions; a DNA-binding domain with an immunoglobulin-like fold similar to p53 tumour suppressor protein; an EF-hand-like linker domain connecting the DNA-binding and SH2 domains; an SH2 domain (INTERPRO) that acts as a phosphorylation-dependent switch to control receptor recognition and DNA-binding; and a C-terminal transactivation domain [PUBMED:9630226]. The crystal structure of the N terminus of Stat4 reveals a dimer. The interface of this dimer is formed by a ring-shaped element consisting of five short helices. Several studies suggest that this N-terminal dimerisation promotes cooperativity of binding to tandem GAS elements and with the transcriptional coactivator CBP/p300.
This entry represents the all-alpha helical domain, which consists of four long helices arranged in a bundle with a left-handed twist (coiled-coil), which in turn forms a right-handed superhelix.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Biological process||signal transduction (GO:0007165)|
|regulation of transcription, DNA-templated (GO:0006355)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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|Seed source:||Pfam-B_856 (release 3.0)|
|Author:||Bateman A , Griffiths-Jones SR|
|Number in seed:||65|
|Number in full:||1085|
|Average length of the domain:||165.30 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||28 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||22.87 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||20|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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There are 2 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the STAT_alpha domain has been found. There are 21 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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