Summary: Protein-L-isoaspartate(D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (PCMT)
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L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase Edit Wikipedia article
|Protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (PIMT, PCMT)|
Crystallographic structure of Human L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase.
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Gene Ontology||AmiGO / EGO|
Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT, PCMT), also called S-adenosyl-L-methionine:protein-L-isoaspartate O-methyltransferase, is an enzyme which recognizes and catalyzes the repair of damaged L-isoaspartyl and D-aspartatyl groups in proteins. It is a highly conserved enzyme which is present in nearly all eukaryotes, archaebacteria, and Gram-negative eubacteria.
PIMT acts to transfer methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the alpha side chain carboxyl groups of damaged L-isoaspartyl and D-aspartatyl amino acids. The enzyme takes the end methyl residue from the methionine side chain and adds it to the side chain carboxyl group of L-isoaspartate or D-aspartate to create a methyl ester. Subsequent nonenzymatic reactions result in a rapid transformation to L-succinimide, which is a precursor to aspartate and isoaspartate. The L-succinimide can then undergo nonenzymatic hydrolysis, which generates some repaired L-aspartyl residues as well as some L-isoaspartyl residues, which can then enter the cycle again for eventual conversion to the normal peptide linkage.
PIMT tends to act on proteins that have been non-enzymatically damaged due to age. By performing this repair mechanism, the enzyme helps to maintain overall protein integrity. This mechanism has been observed by several groups, and has been confirmed through experimental testing. In one report, PIMT was inhibited by adenosine dialdehyde. The results supported the proposed function of the enzyme, as the amount of abnormal L-aspartate residues increased when cells were treated with the indirect inhibitor, adenosine dialdehyde. Additionally, S-adenosylhomocysteine is known to be a competitive inhibitor of PIMT. When PIMT is not present in cells, the abnormal aspartyl residues accumulate, creating abnormal proteins that have been known to cause fatal progressive epilepsy in mice. It has been suggested that calmodulin may play a role in stimulating the function of PIMT, although the relationship between these two molecules has not been thoroughly explored. In addition to calmodulin, guanosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTPgammaS) has been found to stimulate PIMT activity.
The enzyme is present in human cytosol in two forms due to alternative splicing and differs among individuals in the population due to a single polymorphism at protein 119, either valine or isoleucine. The enzyme structure is described as a “doubly wound alpha/beta/alpha sandwich structure” which is quite consistent in all species analyzed thus far. If there is any difference in the sequences between different organisms it occurs in the regions connecting the three motifs in the sandwich structure, but the sequence of the individual motifs tends to be highly conserved. Researchers have found the active site to be in the loop between the beta structure and the second alpha helix and have determined it to be highly specific for isoaspartyl residues. For example, the residues found at the C-terminus of drosophila PIMT (dPIMT) are rotated 90 degrees so as to allow more space for a substrate to interact with the enzyme. In fact, dPIMT appears to alternate between this unique open conformation and the less open conformation common of PIMT in other organisms. Although possibly unrelated to this, increased levels of dPIMT in drosophila have been correlated with increase life expectancy in these organisms due to their importance in protein repair.
- doi:10.1074/jbc.M200229200. PMID 11792715.; Ryttersgaard C, Griffith SC, Sawaya MR, MacLaren DC, Clarke S, Yeates TO (March 2002). "Crystal structure of human L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (12): 10642–6.
- Johnson BA, Najbauer J, Aswad DW (March 1993). "Accumulation of substrates for protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase in adenosine dialdehyde-treated PC12 cells". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (9): 6174–81. PMID 8454593.
- Yamamoto A, Takagi H, Kitamura D, Tatsuoka H, Nakano H, Kawano H, Kuroyanagi H, Yahagi Y, Kobayashi S, Koizumi K, Sakai T, Saito K, Chiba T, Kawamura K, Suzuki K, Watanabe T, Mori H, Shirasawa T (March 1998). "Deficiency in protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase results in a fatal progressive epilepsy". J. Neurosci. 18 (6): 2063–74. PMID 9482793.
- O'Connor MB, O'Connor CM (May 1998). "Complex interactions of the protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase and calmodulin revealed with the yeast two-hybrid system". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (21): 12909–13. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.21.12909. PMID 9582322.
- Bilodeau D, Béliveau R (January 1999). "Inhibition of GTPgammaS-dependent L-isoaspartyl protein methylation by tyrosine kinase inhibitors in kidney". Cell. Signal. 11 (1): 45–52. doi:10.1016/S0898-6568(98)00030-8. PMID 10206344.
- Bennett EJ, Bjerregaard J, Knapp JE, Chavous DA, Friedman AM, Royer WE, O'Connor CM (November 2003). "Catalytic implications from the Drosophila protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase structure and site-directed mutagenesis". Biochemistry. 42 (44): 12844–53. doi:10.1021/bi034891+. PMID 14596598.
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Protein-L-isoaspartate(D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (PCMT) Provide feedback
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Internal database links
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This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000682
Protein-L-isoaspartate(D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (EC) (PCMT) [PUBMED:9253175] (which is also known as L-isoaspartyl protein carboxyl methyltransferase) is an enzyme that catalyses the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the free carboxyl groups of D-aspartyl or L-isoaspartyl residues in a variety of peptides and proteins. The enzyme does not act on normal L-aspartyl residues L-isoaspartyl and D-aspartyl are the products of the spontaneous deamidation and/or isomerisation of normal L-aspartyl and L-asparaginyl residues in proteins. PCMT plays a role in the repair and/or degradation of these damaged proteins; the enzymatic methyl esterification of the abnormal residues can lead to their conversion to normal L-aspartyl residues. The SAM domain is present in most of these proteins.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase activity (GO:0004719)|
|Biological process||cellular protein modification process (GO:0006464)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
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A class of redox enzymes are two domain proteins. One domain, termed the catalytic domain, confers substrate specificity and the precise reaction of the enzyme. The other domain, which is common to this class of redox enzymes, is a Rossmann-fold domain. The Rossmann domain binds nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and it is this cofactor that reversibly accepts a hydride ion, which is lost or gained by the substrate in the redox reaction. Rossmann domains have an alpha/beta fold, which has a central beta sheet, with approximately five alpha helices found surrounding the beta sheet.The strands forming the beta sheet are found in the following characteristic order 654123. The inter sheet crossover of the stands in the sheet form the NAD+ binding site . In some more distantly relate Rossmann domains the NAD+ cofactor is replaced by the functionally similar cofactor FAD.
The clan contains the following 184 members:2-Hacid_dh_C 3Beta_HSD 3HCDH_N adh_short adh_short_C2 ADH_zinc_N ADH_zinc_N_2 AdoHcyase_NAD AdoMet_MTase AlaDh_PNT_C Amino_oxidase ApbA AviRa B12-binding Bac_GDH Bin3 Bmt2 CheR CMAS CmcI CoA_binding CoA_binding_2 CoA_binding_3 Cons_hypoth95 DAO DapB_N DFP DNA_methylase DOT1 DREV DUF1442 DUF166 DUF1776 DUF2431 DUF268 DUF364 DUF43 DUF5129 DUF5130 DUF938 DXP_redisom_C DXP_reductoisom Eco57I ELFV_dehydrog Eno-Rase_FAD_bd Eno-Rase_NADH_b Enoyl_reductase Epimerase F420_oxidored FAD_binding_2 FAD_binding_3 FAD_oxidored Fibrillarin FMO-like FmrO FtsJ G6PD_N GCD14 GDI GDP_Man_Dehyd GFO_IDH_MocA GIDA GidB GLF Glu_dehyd_C Glyco_hydro_4 GMC_oxred_N Gp_dh_N GRAS GRDA HI0933_like HIM1 IlvN K_oxygenase KR LCM Ldh_1_N Lycopene_cycl Malic_M Mannitol_dh MCRA Met_10 Methyltr_RsmB-F Methyltrans_Mon Methyltrans_SAM Methyltransf_10 Methyltransf_11 Methyltransf_12 Methyltransf_15 Methyltransf_16 Methyltransf_17 Methyltransf_18 Methyltransf_19 Methyltransf_2 Methyltransf_20 Methyltransf_21 Methyltransf_22 Methyltransf_23 Methyltransf_24 Methyltransf_25 Methyltransf_28 Methyltransf_29 Methyltransf_3 Methyltransf_30 Methyltransf_31 Methyltransf_32 Methyltransf_34 Methyltransf_4 Methyltransf_5 Methyltransf_7 Methyltransf_8 Methyltransf_9 Methyltransf_PK MethyltransfD12 MetW Mg-por_mtran_C MOLO1 Mqo MT-A70 MTS Mur_ligase N2227 N6-adenineMlase N6_Mtase N6_N4_Mtase NAD_binding_10 NAD_binding_2 NAD_binding_3 NAD_binding_4 NAD_binding_5 NAD_binding_7 NAD_binding_8 NAD_binding_9 NAD_Gly3P_dh_N NAS NmrA NNMT_PNMT_TEMT NodS NSP13 OCD_Mu_crystall PARP_regulatory PCMT PDH Polysacc_synt_2 Pox_MCEL Prenylcys_lyase PrmA PRMT5 Pyr_redox Pyr_redox_2 Pyr_redox_3 RmlD_sub_bind Rossmann-like rRNA_methylase RrnaAD Rsm22 RsmJ Sacchrp_dh_NADP SAM_MT SAMBD SE Semialdhyde_dh Shikimate_DH Spermine_synth TehB THF_DHG_CYH_C Thi4 ThiF TPM_phosphatase TPMT TrkA_N TRM TRM13 TrmK tRNA_U5-meth_tr Trp_halogenase TylF Ubie_methyltran UDPG_MGDP_dh_N UPF0020 UPF0146 V_cholerae_RfbT XdhC_C YjeF_N
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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|Author:||Finn RD, Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||9|
|Number in full:||3296|
|Average length of the domain:||192.20 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||27 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||68.39 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 17690987 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||17|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
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Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
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Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
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We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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There is 1 interaction for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the PCMT domain has been found. There are 24 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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