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120  structures 7274  species 0  interactions 15570  sequences 57  architectures

Family: Asp_Glu_race (PF01177)

Summary: Asp/Glu/Hydantoin racemase

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Asp/Glu/Hydantoin racemase Provide feedback

This family contains aspartate racemase, maleate isomerases EC: [1] glutamate racemase, hydantoin racemase and arylmalonate decarboxylase EC: [2].

Literature references

  1. Fisch F, Fleites CM, Delenne M, Baudendistel N, Hauer B, Turkenburg JP, Hart S, Bruce NC, Grogan G;, J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:11455-11457.: A Covalent Succinylcysteine-like Intermediate in the Enzyme-Catalyzed Transformation of Maleate to Fumarate by Maleate Isomerase. PUBMED:20677745 EPMC:20677745

  2. Okrasa K, Levy C, Hauer B, Baudendistel N, Leys D, Micklefield J;, Chemistry. 2008;14:6609-6613.: Structure and mechanism of an unusual malonate decarboxylase and related racemases. PUBMED:18576402 EPMC:18576402

Internal database links

External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR015942

This entry represents a group of related proteins that includes aspartate racemase, glutamate racemase, hydantoin racemase and arylmalonate decarboxylase. Two conserved cysteines are present in the sequence of these enzymes. They play a role in catalytic activity by acting as bases in proton abstraction from the substrate [ PUBMED:17132860 , PUBMED:21616082 , PUBMED:26555188 ].

Aspartate racemase ( EC ) and glutamate racemase ( EC ) are two evolutionary related bacterial enzymes that do not seem to require a cofactor for their activity [ PUBMED:8385993 ]. Glutamate racemase, which interconverts L-glutamate into D-glutamate, is required for the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan and some peptide-based antibiotics such as gramicidin S. The E.coli L-aspartate/glutamate specific racemase Ygea, which was previously an hypothetical protein, has been shown to have racemase activity for both L-glutamate and L-aspartate with higher preference for L-glutamate [ PUBMED:26555188 ].

Hydantoin racemases catalyse the racemization of various 5-substituted hydantoins. The structure of the allantoin racemase from Klebsiella pneumoniae has been solved [ PUBMED:21616082 ].

Gene Ontology

The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan Asp-glut_race (CL0399), which has the following description:

Superfamily contains aspartate racemase, glutamate racemase, hydantoin racemase and arylmalonate decarboxylase families from fungi, plants, bacteria and archaeal species.

The clan contains the following 5 members:

Amdase AroM Asp_Glu_race Asp_Glu_race_2 OTCace


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You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

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Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Prosite
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Sequence Ontology: SO:0100021
Author: Finn RD , Bateman A
Number in seed: 102
Number in full: 15570
Average length of the domain: 209.50 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 18 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 80.77 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 61295632 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 31.0 31.0
Trusted cut-off 31.0 31.0
Noise cut-off 30.9 30.9
Model length: 211
Family (HMM) version: 25
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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Colour assignments

Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence


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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the adjacent tab. More...

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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Asp_Glu_race domain has been found. There are 120 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.

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