Summary: Dynein light chain type 1
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Dynein Edit Wikipedia article
Dynein is a motor protein (also called molecular motor or motor molecule) in cells which converts the chemical energy contained in ATP into the mechanical energy of movement. Dynein transports various cellular cargo by "walking" along cytoskeletal microtubules towards the minus-end of the microtubule, which is usually oriented towards the cell center. Thus, they are called "minus-end directed motors." This form of transport is known as retrograde transport. In contrast, kinesins, which are motor proteins that move toward the microtubules' plus end, are called plus-end directed motors.
|Dynein heavy chain, N-terminal region 1|
|Dynein heavy chain, N-terminal region 2|
|Dynein heavy chain and region D6 of dynein motor|
|Dynein light intermediate chain (DLIC)|
|Dynein light chain type 1|
structure of the human pin/lc8 dimer with a bound peptide
Cytoplasmic dynein, found in all animal cells and possibly plant cells as well, performs functions necessary for cell survival such as organelle transport and centrosome assembly. Cytoplasmic dynein moves processively along the microtubule; that is, one or the other of its stalks is always attached to the microtubule so that the dynein can "walk" a considerable distance along a microtubule without detaching.
Cytoplasmic dynein probably helps to position the Golgi complex and other organelles in the cell. It also helps transport cargo needed for cell function such as vesicles made by the endoplasmic reticulum, endosomes, and lysosomes (Karp, 2005). Dynein is involved in the movement of chromosomes and positioning the mitotic spindles for cell division. Dynein carries organelles, vesicles and possibly microtubule fragments along the axons of neurons toward the cell body in a process called retrograde axoplasmic transport.
Each molecule of the dynein motor is a complex protein assembly composed of many smaller polypeptide subunits. Cytoplasmic and axonemal dynein contain some of the same components, but they also contain some unique subunits
Cytoplasmic dynein, which has a molecular mass of about 1.5 megadaltons (MDa), contains approximately twelve polypeptide subunits: two identical "heavy chains", 520 kDa in mass, which contain the ATPase activity and are thus responsible for generating movement along the microtubule; two 74 kDa intermediate chains which are believed to anchor the dynein to its cargo; four 53–59 kDa intermediate chains; and several light chains which are less understood.
The force-generating ATPase activity of each dynein heavy chain is located in its large doughnut-shaped "head", which is related to other AAA proteins, while two projections from the head connect it to other cytoplasmic structures. One projection, the coiled-coil stalk, binds to and "walks" along the surface of the microtubule via a repeated cycle of detachment and reattachment. The other projection, the extended tail (also called "stem"), binds to the intermediate and light chain subunits which attach the dynein to its cargo. The alternating activity of the paired heavy chains in the complete cytoplasmic dynein motor enables a single dynein molecule to transport its cargo by "walking" a considerable distance along a microtubule without becoming completely detached.
In eukaryotes, cytoplasmic dynein must be activated by binding of dynactin, another multisubunit protein that is essential for mitosis. Dynactin may regulate the activity of dynein, and possibly facilitates the attachment of dynein to its cargo.
Axonemal dyneins come in multiple forms that contain either one, two or three non-identical heavy chains (depending upon the organism and location in the cilium). Each heavy chain has a globular motor domain with a doughnut-shaped structure believed to resemble that of other AAA proteins, a coiled coil "stalk" that binds to the microtubule, and an extended tail (or "stem") that attaches to a neighboring microtubule of the same axoneme. Each dynein molecule thus forms a cross-bridge between two adjacent microtubules of the ciliary axoneme. During the "power stroke", which causes movement, the AAA ATPase motor domain undergoes a conformational change that causes the microtubule-binding stalk to pivot relative to the cargo-binding tail with the result that one microtubule slides relative to the other (Karp, 2005). This sliding produces the bending movement needed for cilia to beat and propel the cell or other particles. Groups of dynein molecules responsible for movement in opposite directions are probably activated and inactivated in a coordinated fashion so that the cilia or flagella can move back and forth. The radial spoke has been proposed as the (or one of the) structures that synchronizes this movement.
The protein responsible for movement of cilia and flagella was first discovered and named dynein in 1963 (Karp, 2005). 20 years later, cytoplasmic dynein, which had been suspected to exist since the discovery of flagellar dynein, was isolated and identified (Karp, 2005).
- Gerald Karp, Kurt Beginnen, Sebastian Vogel, Susanne Kuhlmann-Krieg (2005). Molekulare Zellbiologie (in French). Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-23857-7.
- Samora, CP; Mogessie, B; Conway, L; Ross, JL; Straube, A; McAinsh, AD (Aug 7, 2011). "MAP4 and CLASP1 operate as a safety mechanism to maintain a stable spindle position in mitosis.". Nature Cell Biology 13 (9): 1040–50. doi:10.1038/ncb2297. PMID 21822276.
- Kiyomitsu, Tomomi; Iain M. Cheeseman (2012-02-12). "Chromosome- and spindle-pole-derived signals generate an intrinsic code for spindle position and orientation". Nature Cell Biology. doi:10.1038/ncb2440. ISSN 1465-7392. Retrieved 2012-02-14.
- Karp G. (2005). Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. pp. 346–358. ISBN 0-471-19279-1.
- Schroer TA (2004). "Dynactin". Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 20: 759–79. doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.20.012103.094623. PMID 15473859.
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_Dynein_DLC8_1
- The Dynein Homepage
- Ron Vale's seminar: Cytoskeletal Motor Proteins
- Dynein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- EC 22.214.171.124
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Dynein light chain type 1 Provide feedback
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Internal database links
|SCOOP:||Nop Ground-like Ectatomin DUF3109|
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||Ground-like|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001372
Dynein is a multisubunit microtubule-dependent motor enzyme that acts as the force generating protein of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. The cytoplasmic isoform of dynein acts as a motor for the intracellular retrograde motility of vesicles and organelles along microtubules.
Dynein is composed of a number of ATP-binding large subunits (see INTERPRO), intermediate size subunits and small subunits. Among the small subunits, there is a family of highly conserved proteins which make up this family [PUBMED:7744782, PUBMED:8628263].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||microtubule associated complex (GO:0005875)|
|Biological process||microtubule-based process (GO:0007017)|
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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|Author:||Finn RD, Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||344|
|Number in full:||1350|
|Average length of the domain:||82.90 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||37 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||67.57 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 11927849 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||15|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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There are 5 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Dynein_light domain has been found. There are 73 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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