Summary: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase Edit Wikipedia article
|Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1|
PDB rendering based on 2d0t.
|Symbols||; IDO; IDO-1; INDO|
|External IDs||ChEMBL: GeneCards:|
|RNA expression pattern|
Indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO or INDO EC 18.104.22.168) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IDO1 gene. This enzyme catalyzes the degradation of the essential amino acid L-tryptophan to N-formylkynurenine.
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of tryptophan catabolism through kynurenine pathway, thus causing depletion of tryptophan which can cause halted growth of microbes as well as T cells.
IDO is an immunomodulatory enzyme produced by some alternatively activated macrophages and other immunoregulatory cells (also used as an immune subversion strategy by many tumors). Interferon-gamma has an antiproliferative effect on many tumor cells and inhibits intracellular pathogens such as Toxoplasma and chlamydia, at least partly because of the induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.
It has been shown that IDO permits tumor cells to escape the immune system by depletion of L-Trp in the microenvironment of cells. Indeed, wide range of human cancers such as prostatic, colorectal, pancreatic, cervical, gastric, ovarian, head, lung, etc. overexpress human IDO (hIDO).
Norharmane, via inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase exerts neuroprotective properties by suppressing kynurenine neurotoxic metabolites such as quinolinic acid, 3-hydroxy-kynurenine and nitric oxide synthase. Rosmarinic acid inhibits the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase via its cyclooxygenase-inhibiting properties. COX-2 inhibitors down-regulate indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, leading to a reduction in kynurenine levels as well as reducing proinflammatory cytokine activity. Alpha-Methyl-Tryptophan also inhibits indoleamine dioxygenase.
- Dai W, Gupta SL (April 1990). "Molecular cloning, sequencing and expression of human interferon-gamma-inducible indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase cDNA". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 168 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(90)91666-G. PMID 2109605.
- Najfeld V, Menninger J, Muhleman D, Comings DE, Gupta SL (1993). "Localization of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase gene (INDO) to chromosome 8p12-->p11 by fluorescent in situ hybridization". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 64 (3–4): 231–2. doi:10.1159/000133584. PMID 8404046.
- "Entrez Gene: INDO indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3 dioxygenase".
- Uyttenhove,C.; Pilotte, L.; Théate, I.; Stroobant, V.; Colau, D.; Parmentier,N.; Boon, T.; Van den Eynde, B. J. Naturemedicine 2003,9, 1269-74
- Chiarugi A, Dello Sbarba P, Paccagnini A, Donnini S, Filippi S, Moroni F (August 2000). "Combined inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and nitric oxide synthase modulates neurotoxin release by interferon-gamma-activated macrophages". J. Leukoc. Biol. 68 (2): 260–6. PMID 10947071.
- Lee HJ, Jeong YI, Lee TH, et al. (May 2007). "Rosmarinic acid inhibits indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in murine dendritic cells". Biochem. Pharmacol. 73 (9): 1412–21. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2006.12.018. PMID 17229401.
- Cesario A, Rocca B, Rutella S (2011). "The interplay between indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in chronic inflammation and cancer". Curr. Med. Chem. 18 (15): 2263–71. doi:10.2174/092986711795656063. PMID 21517752.
- Grohmann U, Fallarino F, Puccetti P (2004). "Tolerance, DCs and tryptophan: much ado about IDO". Trends Immunol. 24 (5): 242–8. doi:10.1016/S1471-4906(03)00072-3. PMID 12738417.
- Takikawa O (2005). "Biochemical and medical aspects of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-initiated L-tryptophan metabolism". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 338 (1): 12–9. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.09.032. PMID 16176799.
- Puccetti P (2007). "On watching the watchers: IDO and type I/II IFN". Eur. J. Immunol. 37 (4): 876–9. doi:10.1002/eji.200737184. PMID 17393386.
- Kadoya A, Tone S, Maeda H, et al. (1992). "Gene structure of human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 189 (1): 530–6. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(92)91590-M. PMID 1449503.
- Kamimura S, Eguchi K, Yonezawa M, Sekiba K (1991). "Localization and developmental change of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity in the human placenta". Acta Med. Okayama 45 (3): 135–9. PMID 1716396.
- Tone S, Takikawa O, Habara-Ohkubo A, et al. (1990). "Primary structure of human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase deduced from the nucleotide sequence of its cDNA". Nucleic Acids Res. 18 (2): 367. doi:10.1093/nar/18.2.367. PMC 330282. PMID 2326172.
- Werner-Felmayer G, Werner ER, Fuchs D, et al. (1990). "Tumour necrosis factor-alpha and lipopolysaccharide enhance interferon-induced tryptophan degradation and pteridine synthesis in human cells". Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 370 (9): 1063–9. doi:10.1515/bchm3.1989.370.2.1063. PMID 2482041.
- Carlin JM, Borden EC, Byrne GI (1989). "Interferon-induced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity inhibits Chlamydia psittaci replication in human macrophages". J. Interferon Res. 9 (3): 329–37. doi:10.1089/jir.1989.9.329. PMID 2501398.
- Kobayashi K, Hayashi K, Sono M (1989). "Effects of tryptophan and pH on the kinetics of superoxide radical binding to indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase studied by pulse radiolysis". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (26): 15280–3. PMID 2549057.
- Daley-Yates PT, Powell AP, Smith LL (1989). "Pulmonary indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity and its significance in the response of rats, mice, and rabbits to oxidative stress". Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 96 (2): 222–32. doi:10.1016/0041-008X(88)90082-8. PMID 2848333.
- Burkin DJ, Kimbro KS, Barr BL, et al. (1993). "Localization of the human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) gene to the pericentromeric region of human chromosome 8". Genomics 17 (1): 262–3. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1319. PMID 8406467.
- Malina HZ, Martin XD (1996). "Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: antioxidant enzyme in the human eye". Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234 (7): 457–62. doi:10.1007/BF02539413. PMID 8817290.
- Munn DH, Zhou M, Attwood JT, et al. (1998). "Prevention of allogeneic fetal rejection by tryptophan catabolism". Science 281 (5380): 1191–3. doi:10.1126/science.281.5380.1191. PMID 9712583.
- Takikawa O, Littlejohn TK, Truscott RJ (2001). "Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in the human lens, the first enzyme in the synthesis of UV filters". Exp. Eye Res. 72 (3): 271–7. doi:10.1006/exer.2000.0951. PMID 11180976.
- Kudo Y, Boyd CA (2001). "The role of l-tryptophan transport in l-tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in human placental explants". J. Physiol. (Lond.) 531 (Pt 2): 417–23. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.0417i.x. PMC 2278460. PMID 11230514.
- Terentis AC, Thomas SR, Takikawa O, et al. (2002). "The heme environment of recombinant human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Structural properties and substrate-ligand interactions". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (18): 15788–94. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200457200. PMID 11867636.
- Kvirkvelia N, Vojnovic I, Warner TD, et al. (2002). "Placentally derived prostaglandin E2 acts via the EP4 receptor to inhibit IL-2-dependent proliferation of CTLL-2 T cells". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 127 (2): 263–9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2249.2002.01718.x. PMC 1906325. PMID 11876748.
- Sedlmayr P, Blaschitz A, Wintersteiger R, et al. (2002). "Localization of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in human female reproductive organs and the placenta". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 8 (4): 385–91. doi:10.1093/molehr/8.4.385. PMID 11912287.
- Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
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Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||DUF1864|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000898
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxgyenase (IDO, EC) [PUBMED:1907934] is a cytosolic haem protein which, together with the hepatic enzyme tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan and other indole derivatives to kynurenines. The physiological role of IDO is not fully understood but is of great interest, because IDO is widely distributed in human tissues, can be up-regulated via cytokines such as interferon-gamma, and can thereby modulate the levels of tryptophan, which is vital for cell growth. The degradative action of IDO on tryptophan leads to cell death by starvation of this essential and relatively scarce amino acid. IDO is a haem-containing enzyme of about 400 amino acids. Site-directed mutagenesis showed His346 (SWISSPROT) to be essential for haem binding, indicating that this histidine residue may be the proximal ligand. Mutation of Asp274 also compromised the ability of IDO to bind haem, suggesting that Asp274 may coordinate to haem directly as the distal ligand or is essential in maintaining the conformation of the haem pocket [PUBMED:12766158].
Other proteins that are evolutionarily related to IDO include yeast hypothetical protein YJR078w; and myoglobin from the red muscle of the archaeogastropodic molluscs, Nordotis madaka (Giant abalone) and Sulculus diversicolor [PUBMED:8011076, PUBMED:12711393]. These unusual globins lack enzymatic activity but have kept the haem group.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||heme binding (GO:0020037)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
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Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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|Author:||Finn RD, Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||39|
|Number in full:||516|
|Average length of the domain:||358.10 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||28 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||79.96 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||13|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
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There is 1 interaction for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the IDO domain has been found. There are 4 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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