Summary: CheB methylesterase
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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Protein-glutamate methylesterase". More...
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Protein-glutamate methylesterase Edit Wikipedia article
||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (September 2009)|
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Gene Ontology||AmiGO / EGO|
structural basis for methylesterase cheb regulation by a phosphorylation-activated domain
- protein L-glutamate O5-methyl ester + H2O protein L-glutamate + methanol
This enzyme is a demethylase, and more specifically it belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is protein-L-glutamate-O5-methyl-ester acylhydrolase. Other names in common use include chemotaxis-specific methylesterase, methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein methyl-esterase, CheB methylesterase, methylesterase CheB, protein methyl-esterase, protein carboxyl methylesterase, PME, protein methylesterase, and protein-L-glutamate-5-O-methyl-ester acylhydrolase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: two-component system - general, bacterial chemotaxis - general, and bacterial chemotaxis - organism-specific.
CheB is part of a two-component signal transduction system. These systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to a wide range of environments, stressors, and growth conditions. Two-component systems are composed of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and its cognate response regulator (RR). The HK catalyses its own autophosphorylation followed by the transfer of the phosphoryl group to the receiver domain on RR; phosphorylation of the RR usually activates an attached output domain, in this case a methyltransferase domain.
CheB is involved in chemotaxis. CheB methylesterase is responsible for removing the methyl group from the gamma-glutamyl methyl ester residues in the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP). CheB is regulated through phosphorylation by CheA. The N-terminal region of the protein is similar to that of other regulatory components of sensory transduction systems.
- Skerker JM, Prasol MS, Perchuk BS, Biondi EG, Laub MT (October 2005). "Two-component signal transduction pathways regulating growth and cell cycle progression in a bacterium: a system-level analysis". PLoS Biol. 3 (10): e334. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030334. PMC 1233412. PMID 16176121.
- Stock AM, Robinson VL, Goudreau PN (2000). "Two-component signal transduction". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 69: 183–215. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.69.1.183. PMID 10966457.
- Kehry MR, Doak TG, Dahlquist FW (1984). "Stimulus-induced changes in methylesterase activity during chemotaxis in Escherichia coli". J. Biol. Chem. 259 (19): 11828–35. PMID 6384215.
|This hydrolase article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
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External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000673
Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to a wide range of environments, stressors, and growth conditions [PUBMED:16176121]. Some bacteria can contain up to as many as 200 two-component systems that need tight regulation to prevent unwanted cross-talk [PUBMED:18076326]. These pathways have been adapted to response to a wide variety of stimuli, including nutrients, cellular redox state, changes in osmolarity, quorum signals, antibiotics, and more [PUBMED:12372152]. Two-component systems are comprised of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and its cognate response regulator (RR) [PUBMED:10966457]. The HK catalyses its own auto-phosphorylation followed by the transfer of the phosphoryl group to the receiver domain on RR; phosphorylation of the RR usually activates an attached output domain, which can then effect changes in cellular physiology, often by regulating gene expression. Some HK are bifunctional, catalysing both the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of their cognate RR. The input stimuli can regulate either the kinase or phosphatase activity of the bifunctional HK.
A variant of the two-component system is the phospho-relay system. Here a hybrid HK auto-phosphorylates and then transfers the phosphoryl group to an internal receiver domain, rather than to a separate RR protein. The phosphoryl group is then shuttled to histidine phosphotransferase (HPT) and subsequently to a terminal RR, which can evoke the desired response [PUBMED:11934609, PUBMED:11489844].
This entry represents the signal transduction response regulator CheB involved in chemotaxis. CheB methylesterase is responsible for removing the methyl group from the gamma-glutamyl methyl ester residues in the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP). The enzyme catalyses the reaction: protein L-glutamate O-methyl ester and water is converted to protein L-glutamate and methanol. CheB is regulated through phosphorylation by CheA. The N-terminal region of the protein is similar to that of other regulatory components of sensory transduction systems. The Myxococcus xanthus FrzG protein also belongs to this family, and is required for the normal aggregation of cells during fruiting body formation.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||cytoplasm (GO:0005737)|
|Molecular function||two-component response regulator activity (GO:0000156)|
|protein-glutamate methylesterase activity (GO:0008984)|
|Biological process||two-component signal transduction system (phosphorelay) (GO:0000160)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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|Seed source:||Sarah Teichmann|
|Author:||Finn RD, Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||180|
|Number in full:||3655|
|Average length of the domain:||180.30 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||37 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||42.15 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||12|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
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There are 2 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the CheB_methylest domain has been found. There are 4 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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