Summary: SAND domain
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SAND DNA-binding protein domain Edit Wikipedia article
Solution structure of the SAND domain of the putative nuclear protein homolog (5830484a20rik)
In molecular biology, the protein domain SAND is named after a range of proteins in the protein family: Sp100, AIRE-1, NucP41/75, DEAF-1. It is localised in the cell nucleus and has an important function in chromatin-dependent transcriptional control. It is found solely in eukaryotes.
The precise function of the protein domain SAND remains to be determined. Nevertheless, it is thought to be a DNA binding domain despite its beta structure. This function can be inferred by studying the DEAF-1 transcription factor. Here, the conserved positively charged residues in the SAND domains suggest the existence of negatively charged ligands. DNA is a negatively charged molecule due to the phosphate found in its backbone. Henceforth, this suggests that the SAND domain is the DNA-binding region of DEAF-1.
The structure of this protein domain contains a globular fold. It is thought to have an alpha/beta secondary structure that consists of five beta strands. This structure is made up of a five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet with four alpha-helices. Further, the SAND domain is thought to have a modular structure; it can be associated with the bromodomain, the PHD finger and the MYND finger.
This protein domain has a conserved region of around 80 residues. Mutations in this region lead to various human diseases, particularly in these proteins: Sp100 (Speckled protein 100 kDa), NUDR (Nuclear DEAF-1 related), GMEB (Glucocorticoid Modulatory Element Binding) proteins and AIRE-1 (Autoimmune regulator 1) proteins.
Some proteins with SAND domain
- Wojciak JM, Clubb RT (2001). "Finding the function buried in SAND". Nat Struct Biol. 8 (7): 568–70. doi:10.1038/89582. PMID 11427878.
- Bottomley MJ, Collard MW, Huggenvik JI, Liu Z, Gibson TJ, Sattler M (2001). "The SAND domain structure defines a novel DNA-binding fold in transcriptional regulation". Nat Struct Biol. 8 (7): 626–33. doi:10.1038/89675. PMID 11427895.
- Gibson TJ, Ramu C, Gemünd C, Aasland R (July 1998). "The APECED polyglandular autoimmune syndrome protein, AIRE-1, contains the SAND domain and is probably a transcription factor". Trends Biochem. Sci. 23 (7): 242–4. doi:10.1016/s0968-0004(98)01231-6. PMID 9697411.
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The DNA binding activity of two proteins has been mapped to the SAND domain. The conserved KDWK motif is necessary for DNA binding, and it appears to be important for dimerisation . This region is also found in the putative transcription factor RegA from the multicellular green alga Volvox cateri. This region of RegA is known as the VARL domain .
Gibson TJ, Ramu C, Gemund C, Aasland R; , Trends Biochem Sci 1998;23:242-244.: The APECED polyglandular autoimmune syndrome protein, AIRE-1, contains the SAND domain and is probably a transcription factor. PUBMED:9697411 EPMC:9697411
Bottomley MJ, Collard MW, Huggenvik JI, Liu Z, Gibson TJ, Sattler M; , Nat Struct Biol 2001;8:626-633.: The SAND domain structure defines a novel DNA-binding fold in transcriptional regulation. PUBMED:11427895 EPMC:11427895
Duncan L, Nishii I, Harryman A, Buckley S, Howard A, Friedman NR, Miller SM; , J Mol Evol. 2007;65:1-11.: The VARL gene family and the evolutionary origins of the master cell-type regulatory gene, regA, in Volvox carteri. PUBMED:17646893 EPMC:17646893
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000770
The SAND domain (named after Sp100, AIRE-1, NucP41/75, DEAF-1) is a conserved ~80 residue region found in a number of nuclear proteins, many of which function in chromatin-dependent transcriptional control. These include proteins linked to various human diseases, such as the Sp100 (Speckled protein 100 kDa), NUDR (Nuclear DEAF-1 related), GMEB (Glucocorticoid Modulatory Element Binding) proteins and AIRE-1 (Autoimmune regulator 1) proteins.
Proteins containing the SAND domain have a modular structure; the SAND domain can be associated with a number of other modules, including the bromodomain, the PHD finger and the MYND finger. Because no SAND domain has been found in yeast, it is thought that the SAND domain could be restricted to animal phyla. Many SAND domain-containing proteins, including NUDR, DEAF-1 (Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1) and GMEB, have been shown to bind DNA sequences specifically. The SAND domain has been proposed to mediate the DNA binding activity of these proteins [PUBMED:9697411, PUBMED:11427895].
The resolution of the 3D structure of the SAND domain from Sp100b has revealed that it consists of a novel alpha/beta fold. The SAND domain adopts a compact fold consisting of a strongly twisted, five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet with four alpha-helices packing against one side of the beta-sheet. The opposite side of the beta-sheet is solvent exposed. The beta-sheet and alpha-helical parts of the structure form two distinct regions. Multiple hydrophobic residues pack between these regions to form a structural core. A conserved KDWK sequence motif is found within the alpha-helical, positively charged surface patch. The DNA binding surface has been mapped to the alpha-helical region encompassing the KDWK motif [PUBMED:11427895].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||DNA binding (GO:0003677)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
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We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
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You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Author:||Christensen J, Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||74|
|Number in full:||1176|
|Average length of the domain:||75.60 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||32 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||14.42 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||21|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There is 1 interaction for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the SAND domain has been found. There are 4 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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