Summary: FYVE zinc finger
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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "FYVE domain". More...
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FYVE domain Edit Wikipedia article
|FYVE zinc finger|
In molecular biology the FYVE zinc finger domain is named after the four cysteine-rich proteins: Fab 1 (yeast orthologue of PIKfyve), YOTB, Vac 1 (vesicle transport protein), and EEA1, in which it has been found. FYVE domains bind Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, in a way dependent on its metal ion coordination and basic amino acids. The FYVE domain inserts into cell membranes in a pH dependent manner. The FYVE domain has been connected to vacuolar protein sorting and endosome function.
The FYVE domain is composed of two small beta hairpins (or zinc knuckles) followed by an alpha helix. The FYVE finger binds two zinc ions. The FYVE finger has eight potential zinc coordinating cysteine positions and is characterized by having basic amino acids around the cysteines. Many members of this family also include two histidines in a sequence motif:
The following is a list of human proteins containing this domain:
- ANKFY1, EEA1 FGD1, FGD2, FGD3, FGD4, FGD5, FGD6, FYCO1, HGS MTMR3, MTMR4, PIKFYVE, PLEKHF1, PLEKHF2
- RUFY1, RUFY2, WDF3, WDFY1, WDFY2, WDFY3, ZFYVE1, ZFYVE16, ZFYVE19, ZFYVE20, ZFYVE21, ZFYVE26, ZFYVE27, ZFYVE28, ZFYVE9
- Dumas JJ, Merithew E, Sudharshan E, et al. (November 2001). "Multivalent endosome targeting by homodimeric EEA1". Mol. Cell 8 (5): 947–58. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(01)00385-9. PMID 11741531.
- Gaullier JM, Simonsen A, D'Arrigo A, Bremnes B, Stenmark H, Aasland R (July 1998). "FYVE fingers bind PtdIns(3)P". Nature 394 (6692): 432–3. doi:10.1038/28767. PMID 9697764.
- He J, Vora M, Haney RM, et al. (September 2009). "Membrane insertion of the FYVE domain is modulated by pH". Proteins 76 (4): 852–60. doi:10.1002/prot.22392. PMC 2909462. PMID 19296456.
- Leevers SJ, Vanhaesebroeck B, Waterfield MD (April 1999). "Signalling through phosphoinositide 3-kinases: the lipids take centre stage". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 11 (2): 219–25. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(99)80029-5. PMID 10209156.
- Misra S, Hurley JH (May 1999). "Crystal structure of a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-specific membrane-targeting motif, the FYVE domain of Vps27p". Cell 97 (5): 657–66. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80776-X. PMID 10367894.
- Stenmark H, Aasland R, Toh BH, D'Arrigo A (September 1996). "Endosomal localization of the autoantigen EEA1 is mediated by a zinc-binding FYVE finger". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (39): 24048–54. PMID 8798641.
- Stenmark H, Aasland R (December 1999). "FYVE-finger proteins--effectors of an inositol lipid". J. Cell. Sci. 112 (Pt 23): 4175–83. PMID 10564636.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
FYVE zinc finger Provide feedback
The FYVE zinc finger is named after four proteins that it has been found in: Fab1, YOTB/ZK632.12, Vac1, and EEA1. The FYVE finger has been shown to bind two Zn++ ions . The FYVE finger has eight potential zinc coordinating cysteine positions. Many members of this family also include two histidines in a motif R+HHC+XCG, where + represents a charged residue and X any residue. We have included members which do not conserve these histidine residues but are clearly related.
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000306
Zinc finger (Znf) domains are relatively small protein motifs which contain multiple finger-like protrusions that make tandem contacts with their target molecule. Some of these domains bind zinc, but many do not; instead binding other metals such as iron, or no metal at all. For example, some family members form salt bridges to stabilise the finger-like folds. They were first identified as a DNA-binding motif in transcription factor TFIIIA from Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog), however they are now recognised to bind DNA, RNA, protein and/or lipid substrates [PUBMED:10529348, PUBMED:15963892, PUBMED:15718139, PUBMED:17210253, PUBMED:12665246]. Their binding properties depend on the amino acid sequence of the finger domains and of the linker between fingers, as well as on the higher-order structures and the number of fingers. Znf domains are often found in clusters, where fingers can have different binding specificities. There are many superfamilies of Znf motifs, varying in both sequence and structure. They display considerable versatility in binding modes, even between members of the same class (e.g. some bind DNA, others protein), suggesting that Znf motifs are stable scaffolds that have evolved specialised functions. For example, Znf-containing proteins function in gene transcription, translation, mRNA trafficking, cytoskeleton organisation, epithelial development, cell adhesion, protein folding, chromatin remodelling and zinc sensing, to name but a few [PUBMED:11179890]. Zinc-binding motifs are stable structures, and they rarely undergo conformational changes upon binding their target.
The FYVE zinc finger is named after four proteins that it has been found in: Fab1, YOTB/ZK632.12, Vac1, and EEA1. The FYVE finger has been shown to bind two zinc ions [PUBMED:8798641]. The FYVE finger has eight potential zinc coordinating cysteine positions. Many members of this family also include two histidines in a motif R+HHC+XCG, where + represents a charged residue and X any residue. FYVE-type domains are divided into two known classes: FYVE domains that specifically bind to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate in lipid bilayers and FYVE-related domains of undetermined function [PUBMED:15576038]. Those that bind to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate are often found in proteins targeted to lipid membranes that are involved in regulating membrane traffic [PUBMED:11456498, PUBMED:11739631, PUBMED:11509568]. Most FYVE domains target proteins to endosomes by binding specifically to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate at the membrane surface. By contrast, the CARP2 FYVE-like domain is not optimized to bind to phosphoinositides or insert into lipid bilayers. FYVE domains are distinguished from other zinc fingers by three signature sequences: an N-terminal WxxD motif, a basic R(R/K)HHCR patch, and a C-terminal RVC motif.
More information about these proteins can be found at Protein of the Month: Zinc Fingers [PUBMED:].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||metal ion binding (GO:0046872)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
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Superfamily contains a number of zinc-fingers, of the FYVE/PHD type, which are found in several groups of proteins including myelin-associated oligodendrocytic basic proteins (MOBP) Rabphilins, melanophilins, exophilins and myosin-VIIA and Rab-interacting protein families.
The clan contains the following 9 members:FYVE FYVE_2 PHD PHD_2 RAG2_PHD zf-HC5HC2H zf-HC5HC2H_2 zf-PHD-like zf-piccolo
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
- Pfam viewer
- an HTML-based viewer that uses DAS to retrieve alignment fragments on request
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_655 (release 3.0)|
|Author:||Bateman A, Armstrong J|
|Number in seed:||174|
|Number in full:||4289|
|Average length of the domain:||71.10 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||32 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||8.02 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||16|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 2 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the FYVE domain has been found. There are 13 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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