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5  structures 84  species 0  interactions 223  sequences 21  architectures

Family: WIF (PF02019)

Summary: WIF domain

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "WIFdomain". More...

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This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

WIF domain Provide feedback

The WIF domain is found in the RYK tyrosine kinase receptors P34925 and WIF the Wnt-inhibitory- factor. The domain is extracellular and contains two conserved cysteines that may form a disulphide bridge. This domain is Wnt binding in WIF, and it has been suggested that RYK may also bind to Wnt [1]. The WIF domain is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and it comprises nine beta-strands and two alpha-helices, with two of the beta-strands (6 and 9) interrupted by four and six residues of irregular secondary structure, respectively. Considering that the activity of Wnts depends on the presence of a palmitoylated cysteine residue in their amino-terminal polypeptide segment, Wnt proteins are lipid-modified and can act as stem cell growth factors, it is likely that the WIF domain recognises and binds to Wnts that have been activated by palmitoylation and that the recognition of palmitoylated Wnts by WIF-1 is effected by its WIF domain rather than by its EGF domains. A strong binding affinity for palmitoylated cysteine residues would further explain the remarkably high affinity of human WIF-1 not only for mammalian Wnts, but also for Wnts from Xenopus and Drosophila [2].

Literature references

  1. Patthy L; , Trends Biochem Sci 2000;25:12-13.: The WIF module. PUBMED:10637605 EPMC:10637605

  2. Liepinsh E, Banyai L, Patthy L, Otting G; , J Mol Biol. 2006;357:942-950.: NMR structure of the WIF domain of the human Wnt-inhibitory factor-1. PUBMED:16476441 EPMC:16476441


External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR003306

Wnt proteins constitute a large family of secreted molecules that are involved in intercellular signalling during development. The name derives from the first 2 members of the family to be discovered: int-1 (mouse) and wingless (Drosophila) [PUBMED:9891778]. It is now recognised that Wnt signalling controls many cell fate decisions in a variety of different organisms, including mammals [PUBMED:10508601]. Wnt signalling has been implicated in tumourigenesis, early mesodermal patterning of the embryo, morphogenesis of the brain and kidneys, regulation of mammary gland proliferation and Alzheimer's disease [PUBMED:10967351, PUBMED:9192851].

Wnt-mediated signalling is believed to proceed initially through binding to cell surface receptors of the frizzled family; the signal is subsequently transduced through several cytoplasmic components to B-catenin, which enters the nucleus and activates the transcription of several genes important in development [PUBMED:10733430]. Several non-canonical Wnt signalling pathways have also been elucidated that act independently of B-catenin. Canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling branches are highly interconnected, and cross-regulate each other [PUBMED:21536746].

Members of the Wnt gene family are defined by their sequence similarity to mouse Wnt-1 and Wingless in Drosophila. They encode proteins of ~350-400 residues in length, with orthologues identified in several, mostly vertebrate, species. Very little is known about the structure of Wnts as they are notoriously insoluble, but they share the following features characteristics of secretory proteins: a signal peptide, several potential N-glycosylation sites and 22 conserved cysteines [PUBMED:9891778] that are probably involved in disulphide bonds. The Wnt proteins seem to adhere to the plasma membrane of the secreting cells and are therefore likely to signal over only few cell diameters. Fifteen major Wnt gene families have been identified in vertebrates, with multiple subtypes within some classes.

This entry represents the WIF domain, and is found in the RYK tyrosine kinase receptors and WIF the Wnt-inhibitory-factor. The domain is extracellular and contains two conserved cysteines that may form a disulphide bridge. This domain is Wnt binding in WIF, and it has been suggested that RYK may also bind to Wnt [PUBMED:10637605].

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Alignments

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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

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Representative proteomes NCBI
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(30)
RP35
(41)
RP55
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RP75
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  Seed
(10)
Full
(223)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(241)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(30)
RP35
(41)
RP55
(95)
RP75
(144)
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We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

  Seed
(10)
Full
(223)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(241)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(30)
RP35
(41)
RP55
(95)
RP75
(144)
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Gzipped Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download    

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

External links

MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...

Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

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Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: [1]
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Author: Bateman A
Number in seed: 10
Number in full: 223
Average length of the domain: 122.70 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 35 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 26.76 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 25.0 25.0
Trusted cut-off 26.3 25.9
Noise cut-off 23.5 18.1
Model length: 132
Family (HMM) version: 13
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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Structures

For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the WIF domain has been found. There are 5 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.

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