Please note: this site relies heavily on the use of javascript. Without a javascript-enabled browser, this site will not function correctly. Please enable javascript and reload the page, or switch to a different browser.
4  structures 3532  species 0  interactions 5124  sequences 14  architectures

Family: Gly_kinase (PF02595)

Summary: Glycerate kinase family

Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.

This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Glycerate kinase". More...

Glycerate kinase Edit Wikipedia article

glycerate kinase
EC number2.7.1.31
CAS number9026-61-3
IntEnzIntEnz view
ExPASyNiceZyme view
MetaCycmetabolic pathway
PDB structuresRCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene OntologyAmiGO / QuickGO
Glycerate kinase

In enzymology, a glycerate kinase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

ATP + (R)-glycerate ADP + 3-phospho-(R)-glycerate
ATP + (R)-glycerate ADP + 2-phospho-(R)-glycerate

Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and (R)-glycerate, whereas its two products are ADP and either 3-phospho-(R)-glycerate or 2-phospho-(R)-glycerate.[1]

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing groups (phosphotransferases) with an alcohol group as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:(R)-glycerate 3-phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include glycerate kinase (phosphorylating), D-glycerate 3-kinase, D-glycerate kinase, glycerate-3-kinase, GK, D-glyceric acid kinase, and ATP:D-glycerate 2-phosphotransferase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: serine/glycine/threonine metabolism, glycerolipid metabolism, and glyoxylate-dicarboxylate metabolism.

This enzyme had been thought to produce 3-phosphoglycerate, but some glycerate kinases produce 2-phosphoglycerate instead.[1]

Structural studies

As of late 2007, 3 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1TO6, 1X3L, and 2B8N.


  1. ^ a b Bartsch, Oliver; Hagemann, Martin; Bauwe, Hermann (2008-09-03). "Only plant-type (GLYK) glycerate kinases produce d-glycerate 3-phosphate". FEBS Letters. 582 (20): 3025–3028. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2008.07.038. ISSN 0014-5793. PMID 18675808.
  • Doughty CC, Hayashi JA, Guenther HL (1966). "Purification and properties of D-glycerate 3-kinase from Escherichia coli". J. Biol. Chem. 241 (3): 568–72. PMID 5325263.
  • ICHIHARA A, GREENBERG DM (1957). "Studies on the purification and properties of D-glyceric acid kinase of liver". J. Biol. Chem. 225 (2): 949–58. PMID 13416296.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Glycerate kinase family Provide feedback

This is family of Glycerate kinases.

Literature references

  1. Cusa E, Obradors N, Baldoma L, Badia J, Aguilar J; , J Bacteriol 1999;181:7479-7484.: Genetic analysis of a chromosomal region containing genes required for assimilation of allantoin nitrogen and linked glyoxylate metabolism in Escherichia coli. PUBMED:10601204 EPMC:10601204

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR004381

This family includes glycerate kinase 2 ( EC ), which catalyses the phosphorylation of (R)-glycerate to 3-phospho-(R)-glycerate in the presence of ATP. There are two glycerate kinases in E. coli, known as GKI and GKII [ PUBMED:4887503 ] and GKII is encoded by glxK [ PUBMED:5325263 ].

Gene Ontology

The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

Loading domain graphics...


We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...

View options

We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

Representative proteomes UniProt
Jalview View  View  View  View  View  View  View 
HTML View             
PP/heatmap 1            

1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

Key: ✓ available, x not generated, not available.

Format an alignment

Representative proteomes UniProt

Download options

We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

Representative proteomes UniProt
Raw Stockholm Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  
Gzipped Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...


This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: COG1929
Previous IDs: DUF168;
Type: Family
Sequence Ontology: SO:0100021
Author: Mian N , Bateman A
Number in seed: 334
Number in full: 5124
Average length of the domain: 336.80 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 37 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 95.86 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 61295632 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 23.3 23.3
Trusted cut-off 23.5 23.4
Noise cut-off 23.1 23.0
Model length: 366
Family (HMM) version: 18
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

Sunburst controls


Weight segments by...

Change the size of the sunburst


Colour assignments

Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence


Align selected sequences to HMM

Generate a FASTA-format file

Clear selection

This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the adjacent tab. More...

Loading sunburst data...

Tree controls


The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...


Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.


For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Gly_kinase domain has been found. There are 4 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.

Loading structure mapping...

AlphaFold Structure Predictions