Summary: DNA polymerase III beta subunit, C-terminal domain
Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "DNA clamp". More...
The Wikipedia text that you see displayed here is a download from Wikipedia. This means that the information we display is a copy of the information from the Wikipedia database. The button next to the article title ("Edit Wikipedia article") takes you to the edit page for the article directly within Wikipedia. You should be aware you are not editing our local copy of this information. Any changes that you make to the Wikipedia article will not be displayed here until we next download the article from Wikipedia. We currently download new content on a nightly basis.
Does Pfam agree with the content of the Wikipedia entry ?
Pfam has chosen to link families to Wikipedia articles. In some case we have created or edited these articles but in many other cases we have not made any direct contribution to the content of the article. The Wikipedia community does monitor edits to try to ensure that (a) the quality of article annotation increases, and (b) vandalism is very quickly dealt with. However, we would like to emphasise that Pfam does not curate the Wikipedia entries and we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information on the Wikipedia page.
Editing Wikipedia articles
Before you edit for the first time
Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopedia. Although anyone can edit or contribute to an article, Wikipedia has some strong editing guidelines and policies, which promote the Wikipedia standard of style and etiquette. Your edits and contributions are more likely to be accepted (and remain) if they are in accordance with this policy.
You should take a few minutes to view the following pages:
How your contribution will be recorded
Anyone can edit a Wikipedia entry. You can do this either as a new user or you can register with Wikipedia and log on. When you click on the "Edit Wikipedia article" button, your browser will direct you to the edit page for this entry in Wikipedia. If you are a registered user and currently logged in, your changes will be recorded under your Wikipedia user name. However, if you are not a registered user or are not logged on, your changes will be logged under your computer's IP address. This has two main implications. Firstly, as a registered Wikipedia user your edits are more likely seen as valuable contribution (although all edits are open to community scrutiny regardless). Secondly, if you edit under an IP address you may be sharing this IP address with other users. If your IP address has previously been blocked (due to being flagged as a source of 'vandalism') your edits will also be blocked. You can find more information on this and creating a user account at Wikipedia.
If you have problems editing a particular page, contact us at email@example.com and we will try to help.
The community annotation is a new facility of the Pfam web site. If you have problems editing or experience problems with these pages please contact us.
DNA clamp Edit Wikipedia article
A DNA clamp, also known as a sliding clamp, is a protein fold that serves as a processivity-promoting factor in DNA replication. As a critical component of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, the clamp protein binds DNA polymerase and prevents this enzyme from dissociating from the template DNA strand. The clamp-polymerase protein–protein interactions are stronger and more specific than the direct interactions between the polymerase and the template DNA strand; because one of the rate-limiting steps in the DNA synthesis reaction is the association of the polymerase with the DNA template, the presence of the sliding clamp dramatically increases the number of nucleotides that the polymerase can add to the growing strand per association event. The presence of the DNA clamp can increase the rate of DNA synthesis up to 1,000-fold compared with a nonprocessive polymerase.
The DNA clamp fold is an α+β protein that assembles into a multimeric structure that completely encircles the DNA double helix as the polymerase adds nucleotides to the growing strand. The DNA clamp assembles on the DNA at the replication fork and "slides" along the DNA with the advancing polymerase, aided by a layer of water molecules in the central pore of the clamp between the DNA and the protein surface. Because of the toroidal shape of the assembled multimer, the clamp cannot dissociate from the template strand without also dissociating into monomers.
The DNA clamp fold is found in bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes and some viruses. In bacteria, the sliding clamp is a homodimer composed of two identical beta subunits of DNA polymerase III and hence is referred to as the beta clamp. In archaea and eukaryotes, it is a trimer composed of three molecules of PCNA. The T4 bacteriophage also uses a sliding clamp, called gp45 that is a trimer similar in structure to PCNA but lacks sequence homology to either PCNA or the bacterial beta clamp.
|Kingdom||Sliding clamp protein||Multimer state||Associated polymerase|
|Bacteria||beta subunit of pol III||dimer||DNA polymerase III|
|Archaea||archaeal PCNA||trimer||pol ε|
|Eukaryote||PCNA||trimer||DNA polymerase delta|
|Virus||gp43 / gp45||trimer||RB69 Pol / T4 Pol|
|DNA polymerase III subunit beta|
|Chromosome||MG1655: 3.88 - 3.88 Mb|
The beta clamp is a specific DNA clamp and a subunit of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme found in bacteria. Two beta subunits are assembled around the DNA by the gamma subunit and ATP hydrolysis; this assembly is called the pre-initiation complex. After assembly around the DNA, the beta subunits' affinity for the gamma subunit is replaced by an affinity for the alpha and epsilon subunits, which together create the complete holoenzyme. DNA polymerase III is the primary enzyme complex involved in prokaryotic DNA replication.
The gamma complex of DNA polymerase III, composed of γδδ'χψ subunits, catalyzes ATP to chaperone two beta subunits to bind to DNA. Once bound to DNA, the beta subunits can freely slide along double stranded DNA. The beta subunits in turn bind the αε polymerase complex. The α subunit possesses DNA polymerase activity and the ε subunit is a 3’-5’ exonuclease.
The beta chain of bacterial DNA polymerase III is composed of three topologically equivalent domains (N-terminal, central, and C-terminal). Two beta chain molecules are tightly associated to form a closed ring encircling duplex DNA.
As a drug target
|proliferating cell nuclear antigen|
|Locus||Chr. 20 pter-p12|
The sliding clamp in eukaryotes is assembled from a specific subunit of DNA polymerase delta called the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The N-terminal and C-terminal domains of PCNA are topologically identical. Three PCNA molecules are tightly associated to form a closed ring encircling duplex DNA.
The sequence of PCNA is well conserved between plants and animals, indicating a strong selective pressure for structure conservation, and suggesting that this type of DNA replication mechanism is conserved throughout eukaryotes. Homologues of PCNA have also been identified in the archaea (Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota) and in Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) and in nuclear polyhedrosis viruses.
|DNA polymerase accessory protein 45|
|Chromosome||1: 0.03 - 0.03 Mb|
The viral gp45 sliding clamp subunit protein contains two domains. Each domain consists of two alpha helices and two beta sheets – the fold is duplicated and has internal pseudo two-fold symmetry. Three gp45 molecules are tightly associated to form a closed ring encircling duplex DNA.
Sliding clamps are loaded onto their associated DNA template strands by specialized proteins known as "sliding clamp loaders", which also disassemble the clamps after replication has completed. The binding sites for these initiator proteins overlap with the binding sites for the DNA polymerase, so the clamp cannot simultaneously associate with a clamp loader and with a polymerase. Thus the clamp will not be actively disassembled while the polymerase remains bound. DNA clamps also associate with other factors involved in DNA and genome homeostasis, such as nucleosome assembly factors, Okazaki fragment ligases, and DNA repair proteins. All of these proteins also share a binding site on the DNA clamp that overlaps with the clamp loader site, ensuring that the clamp will not be removed while any enzyme is still working on the DNA. The activity of the clamp loader requires ATP hydrolysis to "close" the clamp around the DNA.
- "Structural and biochemical studies of human proliferating cell nuclear antigen complexes provide a rationale for cyclin association and inhibitor design". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (6): 1871–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.0406540102. PMC 548533. PMID 15681588.; Kontopidis G, Wu SY, Zheleva DI, Taylor P, McInnes C, Lane DP, Fischer PM, Walkinshaw MD (February 2005).
- V. Mizrahi; R. N. Henrie; J. F. Marlier; K. A. Johnson; S. J. Benkovic (1985). "Rate-limiting steps in the DNA polymerase I reaction pathway". Biochemistry 24 (15): 4010–4018. doi:10.1021/bi00336a031.
- Bruck I, O'Donnell M (2001). "The ring-type polymerase sliding clamp family". Genome Biol. 2 (1): REVIEWS3001. doi:10.1186/gb-2001-2-1-reviews3001. PMC 150441. PMID 11178284.
- Matsumiya S, Ishino Y, Morikawa K (January 2001). "Crystal structure of an archaeal DNA sliding clamp: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from Pyrococcus furiosus". Protein Sci. 10 (1): 17–23. doi:10.1110/ps.36401. PMC 2249843. PMID 11266590.
- doi:10.1107/S0907444903009958. PMID 12832762.; Oakley AJ, Prosselkov P, Wijffels G, Beck JL, Wilce MC, Dixon NE (July 2003). "Flexibility revealed by the 1.85 Å crystal structure of the beta sliding-clamp subunit of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III". Acta Crystallogr. D 59 (Pt 7): 1192–9.
- Lewin, Benjamin (1997). Genes VI. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. pp. 484–7. ISBN 0-19-857779-6.
- Lehninger, Albert L (1975). Biochemistry: The Molecular Basis of Cell Structure and Function. New York: Worth Publishers. p. 894. ISBN 0-87901-047-9.
- Stukenberg PT, Studwell-Vaughan PS, O'Donnell M (June 1991). "Mechanism of the sliding beta-clamp of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (17): 11328–34. PMID 2040637.
- Yin Z, Wang Y, Whittell LR, Jergic S, Liu M, Harry E, Dixon NE, Kelso MJ, Beck JL, Oakley AJ (2014). "DNA Replication Is the Target for the Antibacterial Effects of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs". Chemistry & Biology. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2014.02.009.
- doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81347-1. PMID 8861913.; Gulbis JM, Kelman Z, Hurwitz J, O'Donnell M, Kuriyan J (October 1996). "Structure of the C-terminal region of p21(WAF1/CIP1) complexed with human PCNA". Cell 87 (2): 297–306.
- Suzuka I, Hata S, Matsuoka M, Kosugi S, Hashimoto J (January 1991). "Highly conserved structure of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (DNA polymerase delta auxiliary protein) gene in plants". Eur. J. Biochem. 195 (2): 571–5. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991.tb15739.x. PMID 1671766.
- doi:10.1006/jmbi.1999.3511. PMID 10698628.; Moarefi I, Jeruzalmi D, Turner J, O'Donnell M, Kuriyan J (March 2000). "Crystal structure of the DNA polymerase processivity factor of T4 bacteriophage". J. Mol. Biol. 296 (5): 1215–23.
- Steitz TA, Shamoo Y (1999). "Building a replisome from interacting pieces: sliding clamp complexed to a peptide from DNA polymerase and a polymerase editing complex". Cell 99 (2): 155–166. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81647-5. PMID 10535734.
- Clamping down on pathogenic bacteria – how to shut down a key DNA polymerase complex. Quips at PDBe
- Watson JD, Baker TA, Bell SP, Gann A, Levine M, Losick R (2004). Molecular Biology of the Gene. San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 0-8053-4635-X.
- SCOP DNA clamp fold
- CATH box architecture
- clamp protein DnaN, E coli at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
DNA polymerase III beta subunit, C-terminal domain Provide feedback
A dimer of the beta subunit of DNA polymerase beta forms a ring which encircles duplex DNA. Each monomer contains three domains of identical topology and DNA clamp fold.
Kong XP, Onrust R, O'Donnell M, Kuriyan J; , Cell 1992;69:425-437.: Three-dimensional structure of the beta subunit of E. coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme: a sliding DNA clamp. PUBMED:1349852 EPMC:1349852
Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||DNA_pol3_beta|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR022635This entry describes the C-terminal domain of the beta chain of DNA polymerase III. This is a complex, multichain enzyme responsible for most of the replicative synthesis in bacteria. The beta chain is required for initiation of replication from an RNA primer, nucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) residues being added to the 5'-end of the growing DNA chain.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||DNA polymerase III complex (GO:0009360)|
|Molecular function||3'-5' exonuclease activity (GO:0008408)|
|DNA-directed DNA polymerase activity (GO:0003887)|
|DNA binding (GO:0003677)|
|Biological process||DNA replication (GO:0006260)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
Loading domain graphics...
Sliding DNA clamps are ring-shaped proteins that allow DNA polymerase to achieve high processivity during chromosome replication by tethering the polymerase catalytic subunit to DNA. All of the structures share a 12-fold symmetry around the ring consisting of a simple structural repeat, though there is structural divergence in some of the repeats. Bacterial beta-clamps contain six repeats per subunit with two subunits per ring while the eukaryotic and bacteriophage clamps contain four repeats per subunit with three subunits per ring. Pairs of these repeats form a domain, which has been termed the 'processivity fold'; thus the ring of the sliding clamp contains six domains and therefore is often described as having 6-fold symmetry. A structural representative of a fourth family of processivity fold proteins, namely the herpes simplex virus UL42 protein, is also available. UL42 does not form a ring-shaped clamp, however, but rather functions as a monomer and interacts with DNA quite differently than do sliding clamps; it has been suggested that UL42 resembles a primitive ancestor of sliding clamps .
The clan contains the following 10 members:DNA_pol3_beta DNA_pol3_beta_2 DNA_pol3_beta_3 DNA_PPF Herpes_UL42 Hus1 PCNA_C PCNA_N Rad1 Rad9
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_631 (release 2.1)|
|Author:||Bateman A, Griffiths-Jones SR|
|Number in seed:||12|
|Number in full:||2849|
|Average length of the domain:||121.30 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||25 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||32.80 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 17690987 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||13|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 7 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the DNA_pol3_beta_3 domain has been found. There are 145 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
Loading structure mapping...