Summary: Hepatitis C virus NS3 protease
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Hepatitis C virus NS3 protease Provide feedback
Hepatitis C virus NS3 protein is a serine protease which has a trypsin-like fold. The non-structural (NS) protein NS3 is one of the NS proteins involved in replication of the HCV genome. NS2-3 proteinase, a zinc-dependent enzyme, performs a single proteolytic cut to release the N-terminus of NS3. The action of NS3 proteinase (NS3P), which resides in the N-terminal one-third of the NS3 protein, then yields all remaining non-structural proteins. The C-terminal two-thirds of the NS3 protein contain a helicase. The functional relationship between the proteinase and helicase domains is unknown. NS3 has a structural zinc-binding site and requires cofactor NS4A.
Yan Y, Li Y, Munshi S, Sardana V, Cole JL, Sardana M, Steinkuehler C, Tomei L, De Francesco R, Kuo LC, Chen Z; , Protein Sci 1998;7:837-847.: Complex of NS3 protease and NS4A peptide of BK strain hepatitis C virus: a 2.2 A resolution structure in a hexagonal crystal form. PUBMED:9568891 EPMC:9568891
Love RA, Parge HE, Wickersham JA, Hostomsky Z, Habuka N, Moomaw EW, Adachi T, Hostomska Z; , Cell 1996;87:331-342.: The crystal structure of hepatitis C virus NS3 proteinase reveals a trypsin-like fold and a structural zinc binding site. PUBMED:8861916 EPMC:8861916
Urbani A, Bianchi E, Narjes F, Tramontano A, De Francesco R, Steinkuhler C, Pessi A; , J Biol Chem 1997;272:9204-9209.: Substrate specificity of the hepatitis C virus serine protease NS3. PUBMED:9083052 EPMC:9083052
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR004109
In the MEROPS database peptidases and peptidase homologues are grouped into clans and families. Clans are groups of families for which there is evidence of common ancestry based on a common structural fold:
- Each clan is identified with two letters, the first representing the catalytic type of the families included in the clan (with the letter 'P' being used for a clan containing families of more than one of the catalytic types serine, threonine and cysteine). Some families cannot yet be assigned to clans, and when a formal assignment is required, such a family is described as belonging to clan A-, C-, M-, N-, S-, T- or U-, according to the catalytic type. Some clans are divided into subclans because there is evidence of a very ancient divergence within the clan, for example MA(E), the gluzincins, and MA(M), the metzincins.
- Peptidase families are grouped by their catalytic type, the first character representing the catalytic type: A, aspartic; C, cysteine; G, glutamic acid; M, metallo; N, asparagine; S, serine; T, threonine; and U, unknown. The serine, threonine and cysteine peptidases utilise the amino acid as a nucleophile and form an acyl intermediate - these peptidases can also readily act as transferases. In the case of aspartic, glutamic and metallopeptidases, the nucleophile is an activated water molecule. In the case of the asparagine endopeptidases, the nucleophile is asparagine and all are self-processing endopeptidases.
In many instances the structural protein fold that characterises the clan or family may have lost its catalytic activity, yet retain its function in protein recognition and binding.
Proteolytic enzymes that exploit serine in their catalytic activity are ubiquitous, being found in viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes [PUBMED:7845208]. They include a wide range of peptidase activity, including exopeptidase, endopeptidase, oligopeptidase and omega-peptidase activity. Many families of serine protease have been identified, these being grouped into clans on the basis of structural similarity and other functional evidence [PUBMED:7845208]. Structures are known for members of the clans and the structures indicate that some appear to be totally unrelated, suggesting different evolutionary origins for the serine peptidases [PUBMED:7845208].
Not withstanding their different evolutionary origins, there are similarities in the reaction mechanisms of several peptidases. Chymotrypsin, subtilisin and carboxypeptidase C have a catalytic triad of serine, aspartate and histidine in common: serine acts as a nucleophile, aspartate as an electrophile, and histidine as a base [PUBMED:7845208]. The geometric orientations of the catalytic residues are similar between families, despite different protein folds [PUBMED:7845208]. The linear arrangements of the catalytic residues commonly reflect clan relationships. For example the catalytic triad in the chymotrypsin clan (PA) is ordered HDS, but is ordered DHS in the subtilisin clan (SB) and SDH in the carboxypeptidase clan (SC) [PUBMED:7845208, PUBMED:8439290].
This signature identifies the Hepatitis C virus NS3 protein as a serine protease which belongs to MEROPS peptidase family S29 (hepacivirin family, clan PA(S)), which has a trypsin-like fold. The non-structural (NS) protein NS3 is one of the NS proteins involved in replication of the HCV genome. The NS2 proteinase (INTERPRO), a zinc-dependent enzyme, performs a single proteolytic cut to release the N terminus of NS3. The action of NS3 proteinase (NS3P), which resides in the N-terminal one-third of the NS3 protein, then yields all remaining non-structural proteins. The C-terminal two-thirds of the NS3 protein contain a helicase. The functional relationship between the proteinase and helicase domains is unknown. NS3 has a structural zinc-binding site and requires cofactor NS4. It has been suggested that the NS3 serine protease of hepatitus C is involved in cell transformation and that the ability to transform requires an active enzyme [PUBMED:11264729].
|Molecular function||serine-type peptidase activity (GO:0008236)|
|Biological process||transformation of host cell by virus (GO:0019087)|
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This clan contains a diverse set of peptidases with the trypsin fold.
The clan contains the following 24 members:DUF1986 DUF31 DUF316 Peptidase_C24 Peptidase_C3 Peptidase_C30 Peptidase_C37 Peptidase_C3G Peptidase_C4 Peptidase_C62 Peptidase_S29 Peptidase_S3 Peptidase_S30 Peptidase_S31 Peptidase_S32 Peptidase_S39 Peptidase_S46 Peptidase_S55 Peptidase_S6 Peptidase_S7 Peptidase_S76 Pico_P2A Trypsin Trypsin_2
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
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- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Structural domain|
|Author:||Griffiths-Jones SR, Knutson S|
|Number in seed:||9|
|Number in full:||8309|
|Average length of the domain:||144.80 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||87 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||19.64 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||10|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Peptidase_S29 domain has been found. There are 110 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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