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0  structures 119  species 0  interactions 2493  sequences 33  architectures

Family: Mlo (PF03094)

Summary: Mlo family

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The Pfam group coordinates the annotation of Pfam families in Wikipedia, but we have not yet assigned a Wikipedia article to this family. If you think that a particular Wikipedia article provides good annotation, please let us know.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Mlo family Provide feedback

A family of plant integral membrane proteins, first discovered in barley. Mutants lacking wild-type Mlo proteins show broad spectrum resistance to the powdery mildew fungus, and dysregulated cell death control, with spontaneous cell death in response to developmental or abiotic stimuli. Thus wild-type Mlo proteins are thought to be inhibitors of cell death whose deficiency lowers the threshold required to trigger the cascade of events that result in plant cell death. Mlo proteins are localised in the plasma membrane and possess seven transmembrane regions; thus the Mlo family is the only major higher plant family to possess 7 transmembrane domains. It has been suggested that Mlo proteins function as G-protein coupled receptors in plants [1]; however the molecular and biological functions of Mlo proteins remain to be fully determined.

Literature references

  1. Devoto A, Piffanelli P, Nilsson I, Wallin E, Panstruga R, von Heijne G, Schulze-Lefert P; , J Biol Chem 1999;274:34993-35004.: Topology, subcellular localization, and sequence diversity of the Mlo family in plants. PUBMED:10574976 EPMC:10574976


This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR004326

The Mlo-related proteins are a family of plant integral membrane proteins, first discovered in barley. Mutants lacking wild-type Mlo proteins show broad spectrum resistance to the powdery mildew fungus, and dysregulated cell death control, with spontaneous cell death in response to developmental or abiotic stimuli. Thus wild-type Mlo proteins are thought to be inhibitors of cell death whose deficiency lowers the threshold required to trigger the cascade of events that result in plant cell death.

Mlo proteins are localized in the plasma membrane and possess seven transmembrane regions; thus the Mlo family is the only major higher plant family to possess 7 transmembrane domains. It has been suggested that Mlo proteins function as G-protein coupled receptors in plants [PUBMED:10574976]; however the molecular and biological functions of Mlo proteins is still unclear.

Gene Ontology

The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Alignments

We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...

View options

We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

  Seed
(40)
Full
(2493)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(3391)
NCBI
(4503)
Meta
(6)
RP15
(447)
RP35
(936)
RP55
(1139)
RP75
(1225)
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PP/heatmap 1 View               

1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

Key: ✓ available, x not generated, not available.

Format an alignment

  Seed
(40)
Full
(2493)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(3391)
NCBI
(4503)
Meta
(6)
RP15
(447)
RP35
(936)
RP55
(1139)
RP75
(1225)
Alignment:
Format:
Order:
Sequence:
Gaps:
Download/view:

Download options

We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

  Seed
(40)
Full
(2493)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(3391)
NCBI
(4503)
Meta
(6)
RP15
(447)
RP35
(936)
RP55
(1139)
RP75
(1225)
Raw Stockholm Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  
Gzipped Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...

Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Pfam-B_2483 (release 6.4)
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Sequence Ontology: SO:0100021
Author: Mifsud W
Number in seed: 40
Number in full: 2493
Average length of the domain: 321.90 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 33 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 83.71 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 19.6 19.6
Trusted cut-off 19.7 19.6
Noise cut-off 19.4 19.5
Model length: 479
Family (HMM) version: 15
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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Selections

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