Summary: Vomeronasal organ pheromone receptor family, V1R
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Vomeronasal receptor Edit Wikipedia article
|Vomeronasal receptor, type 1|
|GPCR, family 3, vomeronasal receptor, type 2|
Vomeronasal receptors are a class of olfactory receptors that putatively function as receptors for pheromones. Pheromones have evolved in all animal phyla, to signal sex and dominance status, and are responsible for stereotypical social and sexual behaviour among members of the same species. In mammals, these chemical signals are believed to be detected primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a chemosensory organ located at the base of the nasal septum.
The VNO is present in most amphibia, reptiles and non-primate mammals but is absent in birds, adult catarrhine monkeys and apes. An active role for the human VNO in the detection of pheromones is disputed; the VNO is clearly present in the fetus but appears to be atrophied or absent in adults. Three distinct families of vomeronasal receptors â€“ which putatively function as pheromone receptors â€“ have been identified in the vomeronasal organ (V1Rs, V2Rs and V3Rs). While all are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), they are distantly related to the receptors of the main olfactory system, highlighting their different role.
The V1 receptors share between 50 and 90% sequence identity but have little similarity to other families of G protein-coupled receptors. They appear to be distantly related to the mammalian T2R bitter taste receptors and the rhodopsin-like GPCRs. In rat, the family comprises 30â€“40 genes. These are expressed in the apical regions of the VNO, in neurons expressing Gi2. Coupling of the receptors to this protein mediates inositol trisphosphate signaling. A number of human V1 receptor homologues have also been found. The majority of these human sequences are pseudogenes, but an apparently functional receptor has been identified that is expressed in the human olfactory system.
The V2 receptors are members of GPCR family 3 and have close similarity to the extracellular calcium-sensing receptors. Rodents appear to have around 100 functional V2 receptors and many pseudogenes. These receptors are expressed in the basal regions of VNO, where they couple to G proteins to mediate inositol trisphosphate responses. Homologues have also been identified in fish, and the ligand specificity of one such receptor has been determined: a receptor from goldfish olfactory epithelium has been reported to bind basic amino acids, which are odorants for fish.
Human proteins containing this domain
- Pantages E, Dulac C (Dec 2000). "A novel family of candidate pheromone receptors in mammals". Neuron. 28 (3): 835â€“45. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)00157-4. PMID 11163270.
- Keverne EB (Oct 1999). "The vomeronasal organ". Science. 286 (5440): 716â€“20. doi:10.1126/science.286.5440.716. PMID 10531049.
- Josefsson LG (Nov 1999). "Evidence for kinship between diverse G-protein coupled receptors". Gene. 239 (2): 333â€“40. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(99)00392-3. PMID 10548735.
- Kouros-Mehr H, Pintchovski S, Melnyk J, Chen YJ, Friedman C, Trask B, Shizuya H (Nov 2001). "Identification of non-functional human VNO receptor genes provides evidence for vestigiality of the human VNO". Chemical Senses. 26 (9): 1167â€“74. doi:10.1093/chemse/26.9.1167. PMID 11705802.
- Giorgi D, Friedman C, Trask BJ, Rouquier S (Dec 2000). "Characterization of nonfunctional V1R-like pheromone receptor sequences in human". Genome Research. 10 (12): 1979â€“85. doi:10.1101/gr.10.12.1979. PMC 313059. PMID 11116092.
- Rodriguez I, Greer CA, Mok MY, Mombaerts P (Sep 2000). "A putative pheromone receptor gene expressed in human olfactory mucosa". Nature Genetics. 26 (1): 18â€“9. doi:10.1038/79124. PMID 10973240.
- Ryba, NJ; Tirindelli, R (August 1997). "A new multigene family of putative pheromone receptors". Neuron. 19 (2): 371â€“9. doi:10.1016/s0896-6273(00)80946-0. PMID 9292726.
- Pantages, E; Dulac, C (December 2000). "A novel family of candidate pheromone receptors in mammals". Neuron. 28 (3): 835â€“45. doi:10.1016/s0896-6273(00)00157-4. PMID 11163270.
- Keverne, EB (22 October 1999). "The vomeronasal organ". Science. 286 (5440): 716â€“20. doi:10.1126/science.286.5440.716. PMID 10531049.
- Naito, T; Saito, Y; Yamamoto, J; Nozaki, Y; Tomura, K; Hazama, M; Nakanishi, S; Brenner, S (28 April 1998). "Putative pheromone receptors related to the Ca2+-sensing receptor in Fugu". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95 (9): 5178â€“81. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.9.5178. PMC 20234. PMID 9560249.
- Speca, DJ; Lin, DM; Sorensen, PW; Isacoff, EY; Ngai, J; Dittman, AH (July 1999). "Functional identification of a goldfish odorant receptor". Neuron. 23 (3): 487â€“98. doi:10.1016/s0896-6273(00)80802-8. PMID 10433261.
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Vomeronasal organ pheromone receptor family, V1R Provide feedback
This family represents one of two known vomeronasal organ receptor families, the V1R family (after ).
Internal database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR004072
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a vast protein family that encompasses a wide range of functions, including various autocrine, paracrine and endocrine processes. They show considerable diversity at the sequence level, on the basis of which they can be separated into distinct groups [PUBMED:12679517]. The term clan can be used to describe the GPCRs, as they embrace a group of families for which there are indications of evolutionary relationship, but between which there is no statistically significant similarity in sequence [PUBMED:8170923]. The currently known clan members include rhodopsin-like GPCRs (Class A, GPCRA), secretin-like GPCRs (Class B, GPCRB), metabotropic glutamate receptor family (Class C, GPCRC), fungal mating pheromone receptors (Class D, GPCRD), cAMP receptors (Class E, GPCRE) and frizzled/smoothened (Class F, GPCRF) [PUBMED:8170923, PUBMED:8081729, PUBMED:15914470, PUBMED:18948278, PUBMED:16753280]. GPCRs are major drug targets, and are consequently the subject of considerable research interest. It has been reported that the repertoire of GPCRs for endogenous ligands consists of approximately 400 receptors in humans and mice [PUBMED:12679517]. Most GPCRs are identified on the basis of their DNA sequences, rather than the ligand they bind, those that are unmatched to known natural ligands are designated by as orphan GPCRs, or unclassified GPCRs [PUBMED:23020293].
The rhodopsin-like GPCRs (GPCRA) represent a widespread protein family that includes hormone, neurotransmitter and light receptors, all of which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. Although their activating ligands vary widely in structure and character, the amino acid sequences of the receptors are very similar and are believed to adopt a common structural framework comprising 7 transmembrane (TM) helices [PUBMED:2111655, PUBMED:2830256, PUBMED:8386361].
Pheromones have evolved in all animal phyla, to signal sex and dominance status, and are responsible for stereotypical social and sexual behaviour among members of the same species. In mammals, these chemical signals are believed to be detected primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a chemosensory organ located at the base of the nasal septum [PUBMED:11163270]. The VNO is present in most amphibia, reptiles and non-primate mammals but is absent in birds, adult catarrhine monkeys and apes [PUBMED:10531049]. An active role for the human VNO in the detection of pheromones is disputed; the VNO is clearly present in the foetus but appears to be atrophied or absent in adults. Three distinct families of putative pheromone receptors have been identified in the vomeronasal organ (V1Rs, V2Rs and V3Rs). All are G protein-coupled receptors but are only distantly related to the receptors of the main olfactory system, highlighting their different role [PUBMED:11163270].
The V1 receptors share between 50 and 90% sequence identity but have little similarity to other families of G protein-coupled receptors. They appear to be distantly related to the mammalian T2R bitter taste receptors and the rhodopsin-like GPCRs [PUBMED:10548735]. In rat, the family comprises 30-40 genes. These are expressed in the apical regions of the VNO, in neurons expressing Gi2. Coupling of the receptors to this protein mediates inositol trisphosphate signalling [PUBMED:11163270]. A number of human V1 receptor homologues have also been found. The majority of these human sequences are pseudogenes [PUBMED:11116092] but an apparently functional receptor has been identified that is expressed in the human olfactory system [PUBMED:10973240].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||integral component of membrane (GO:0016021)|
|Molecular function||pheromone receptor activity (GO:0016503)|
|Biological process||G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway (GO:0007186)|
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This clan contains various seven-transmembrane receptors and related proteins. A major member is Pfam:PF00001, members of which have been considered to be typical members of the rhodopsin superfamily. Many members of this clan are Caenorhabditis proteins, suggesting great expansion of the relevant families in these nematode worms.
The clan contains the following 45 members:7TM-7TMR_HD 7tm_1 7tm_2 7tm_3 7tm_4 7TM_GPCR_Sra 7TM_GPCR_Srab 7TM_GPCR_Srb 7TM_GPCR_Srbc 7TM_GPCR_Srd 7TM_GPCR_Srh 7TM_GPCR_Sri 7TM_GPCR_Srj 7TM_GPCR_Srsx 7TM_GPCR_Srt 7TM_GPCR_Sru 7TM_GPCR_Srv 7TM_GPCR_Srw 7TM_GPCR_Srx 7TM_GPCR_Srz 7TM_GPCR_Str 7TMR-DISM_7TM Bac_rhodopsin Ceramidase Dicty_CAR DUF1182 DUF3522 DUF621 Frizzled Git3 GpcrRhopsn4 GPR_Gpa2_C Heliorhodopsin HisKA_7TM HlyIII Lung_7-TM_R Ocular_alb Per1 Pombe_5TM Serpentine_r_xa SID-1_RNA_chan Sre Srg TAS2R V1R
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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|Seed source:||Pfam-B_3057 (release 6.6)|
|Number in seed:||2|
|Number in full:||2208|
|Average length of the domain:||246.30 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||31 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||83.96 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 47079205 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||15|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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