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4  structures 924  species 0  interactions 1631  sequences 40  architectures

Family: Peptidase_C39 (PF03412)

Summary: Peptidase C39 family

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Peptidase C39 family Provide feedback

Lantibiotic and non-lantibiotic bacteriocins are synthesised as precursor peptides containing N-terminal extensions (leader peptides) which are cleaved off during maturation. Most non-lantibiotics and also some lantibiotics have leader peptides of the so-called double-glycine type. These leader peptides share consensus sequences and also a common processing site with two conserved glycine residues in positions -1 and -2. The double- glycine-type leader peptides are unrelated to the N-terminal signal sequences which direct proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane via the sec pathway. Their processing sites are also different from typical signal peptidase cleavage sites, suggesting that a different processing enzyme is involved. Peptide bacteriocins are exported across the cytoplasmic membrane by a dedicated ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. The ABC transporter is the maturation protease and its proteolytic domain resides in the N-terminal part of the protein [1]. This peptidase domain is found in a wide range of ABC transporters, however the presumed catalytic cysteine and histidine are not conserved in all members of this family.

Literature references

  1. Rawlings ND, Barrett AJ; , Meth Enzymol 1995;248:183-228.: Evolutionary families of metallopeptidases. PUBMED:7674922 EPMC:7674922

  2. Havarstein LS, Diep DB, Nes IF; , Mol Microbiol 1995;16:229-240.: A family of bacteriocin ABC transporters carry out proteolytic processing of their substrates concomitant with export. PUBMED:7565085 EPMC:7565085


External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR005074

This group of sequences defined by this cysteine peptidase domain belong to the MEROPS peptidase family C39 (clan CA). It is found in a wide range of ABC transporters, which are maturation proteases for peptide bacteriocins, the proteolytic domain residing in the N-terminal region of the protein [PUBMED:7674922]. A number of the proteins are classified as non-peptidase homologues as they either have been found experimentally to be without peptidase activity, or lack amino acid residues that are believed to be essential for the catalytic activity.

Lantibiotic and non-lantibiotic bacteriocins are synthesised as precursor peptides containing N-terminal extensions (leader peptides) which are cleaved off during maturation. Most non-lantibiotics and also some lantibiotics have leader peptides of the so-called double-glycine type. These leader peptides share consensus sequences and also a common processing site with two conserved glycine residues in positions -1 and -2. The double- glycine-type leader peptides are unrelated to the N-terminal signal sequences which direct proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane via the sec pathway. Their processing sites are also different from typical signal peptidase cleavage sites, suggesting that a different processing enzyme is involved.

A cysteine peptidase is a proteolytic enzymes that hydrolyses a peptide bond using the thiol group of a cysteine residue as a nucleophile. Hydrolysis involves usually a catalytic triad consisting of the thiol group of the cysteine, the imidazolium ring of a histidine, and a third residue, usually asparagine or aspartic acid, to orientate and activate the imidazolium ring. In only one family of cysteine peptidases, is the role of the general base assigned to a residue other than a histidine: in peptidases from family C89 (acid ceramidase) an arginine is the general base. Cysteine peptidases can be grouped into fourteen different clans, with members of each clan possessing a tertiary fold unique to the clan. Four clans of cysteine peptidases share structural similarities with serine and threonine peptidases and asparagine lyases. From sequence similarities, cysteine peptidases can be clustered into over 80 different families [PUBMED:11517925]. Clans CF, CM, CN, CO, CP and PD contain only one family.

Cysteine peptidases are often active at acidic pH and are therefore confined to acidic environments, such as the animal lysosome or plant vacuole. Cysteine peptidases can be endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases, dipeptidyl-peptidases or omega-peptidases. They are inhibited by cysteine chelators such as iodoacetate, iodoacetic acid, N-ethylmaleimide or p-chloromercuribenzoate.

Clan CA includes proteins with a papain-like fold. There is a catalytic triad which occurs in the order: Cys/His/Asn (or Asp). A fourth residue, usually Gln, is important for stabilising the acyl intermediate that forms during catalysis, and this precedes the active site Cys. The fold consists of two subdomains with the active site between them. One subdomain consists of a bundle of helices, with the catalytic Cys at the end of one of them, and the other subdomain is a beta-barrel with the active site His and Asn (or Asp). There are over thirty families in the clan, and tertiary structures have been solved for members of most of these. Peptidases in clan CA are usually sensitive to the small molecule inhibitor E64, which is ineffective against peptidases from other clans of cysteine peptidases [PUBMED:7044372].

Clan CD includes proteins with a caspase-like fold. Proteins in the clan have an alpha/beta/alpha sandwich structure. There is a catalytic dyad which occurs in the order His/Cys. The active site His occurs in a His-Gly motif and the active site Cys occurs in an Ala-Cys motif; both motifs are preceded by a block of hydrophobic residues [PUBMED:9891971]. Specificity is predominantly directed towards residues that occupy the S1 binding pocket, so that caspases cleave aspartyl bonds, legumains cleave asparaginyl bonds, and gingipains cleave lysyl or arginyl bonds.

Clan CE includes proteins with an adenain-like fold. The fold consists of two subdomains with the active site between them. One domain is a bundle of helices, and the other a beta barrell. The subdomains are in the opposite order to those found in peptidases from clan CA, and this is reflected in the order of active site residues: His/Asn/Gln/Cys. This has prompted speculation that proteins in clans CA and CE are related, and that members of one clan are derived from a circular permutation of the structure of the other.

Clan CL includes proteins with a sortase B-like fold. Peptidases in the clan hydrolyse and transfer bacterial cell wall peptides. The fold shows a closed beta barrel decorated with helices with the active site at one end of the barrel [PUBMED:14725770]. The active site consists of a His/Cys catalytic dyad.

Cysteine peptidases with a chymotrypsin-like fold are included in clan PA, which also includes serine peptidases. Cysteine peptidases that are N-terminal nucleophile hydrolases are included in clan PB. Cysteine peptidases with a tertiary structure similar to that of the serine-type aspartyl dipeptidase are included in clan PC. Cysteine peptidases with an intein-like fold are included in clan PD, which also includes asparagine lyases.

Gene Ontology

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Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Alignments

We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...

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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

  Seed
(36)
Full
(1631)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(8037)
NCBI
(15794)
Meta
(256)
RP15
(368)
RP35
(1136)
RP55
(2223)
RP75
(3799)
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PP/heatmap 1 View               

1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

Key: ✓ available, x not generated, not available.

Format an alignment

  Seed
(36)
Full
(1631)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(8037)
NCBI
(15794)
Meta
(256)
RP15
(368)
RP35
(1136)
RP55
(2223)
RP75
(3799)
Alignment:
Format:
Order:
Sequence:
Gaps:
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We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

  Seed
(36)
Full
(1631)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(8037)
NCBI
(15794)
Meta
(256)
RP15
(368)
RP35
(1136)
RP55
(2223)
RP75
(3799)
Raw Stockholm Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  
Gzipped Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...

Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Bateman A
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Author: Bateman A
Number in seed: 36
Number in full: 1631
Average length of the domain: 128.40 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 22 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 20.05 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 17690987 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 21.4 21.4
Trusted cut-off 21.4 21.4
Noise cut-off 21.3 21.3
Model length: 133
Family (HMM) version: 13
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence

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Structures

For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Peptidase_C39 domain has been found. There are 4 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.

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