Summary: Bacterial extracellular solute-binding protein, family 7
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Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter Edit Wikipedia article
|DctP component of Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter|
|DctQ component of Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter|
Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters (TRAP transporters) are a large family of solute transporters found in bacteria and archaea, but not in eukaryotes, that appear to be specific for the uptake of organic acids or related molecules containing a carboxylate or sulfonate group. They are unique in that they utilize a substrate binding protein (SBP) in combination with a secondary transporter.
TRAP transporters were discovered in the laboratory of Prof. David J. Kelly at the University of Sheffield, UK. His group were working on the mechanism used by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus to take up certain dicarboxylic acids. They characterised a binding protein component (DctP) of a transporter that recognized these compounds, which they assumed would form part of a typical ABC transporter, but when they sequenced the genes surrounding dctP they found two other genes encoding integral membrane proteins, dctQ and dctM, but no genes encoding components of an ABC transporter. They further showed that uptake of the same dicarboxylates was independent of ATP and that uptake required an electrochemical ion gradient, making this a unique binding protein-dependent secondary transporter.
Since these early studies, it has become clear that TRAP transporters are present in many bacteria and archaea, with many bacterial having multiple TRAP transporters, some having over 20 different systems.
To date, most substrates for TRAP transporters contain a common feature which is that they are organic acids. This includes C4-dicarboxylates such as succinate, malate and fumarate, keto-acids such as pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate and the sugar acid, N-acetyl neuraminic acid (or sialic acid). Other substrates include the compatible solute ectoine and hydroxyectoine and pyroglutamate.
All known TRAP transporters contain 3 protein domains. These are the solute binding protein (the SBP), the small membrane protein domain and the large membrane protein domain. Following the nomenclature for the first characterized TRAP transporter, DctPQM, these subunits are usually named P, Q and M respectively. Around 10% of TRAP transporters have natural genetic fusions between the two membrane protein components, and in the one well studied example of this in the sialic acid specific TRAP transporter from Haemophilus influenzae the fused gene has been named siaQM. The large M subunit is predicted to have 12 transmembrane helices and the small Q subunit to have 4 transmembrane helices and the fused QM proteins are predicted to have 17 transmembrane helices.
By using an SBP, TRAP transporters share some similarity to ABC transporters in that the substrate for the transporter is initially recognized outside of the cytoplasmic membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, the SBP is usually free in the periplasm and expressed at relatively high levels compared to the membrane domains. In Gram positive bacteria and archaea, the SBP is tethered to the cytoplasmic membrane. In both types of systems the SBP binds to substrate, usually with low micromolar affinity, which causes a significant conformation change in the protein, akin to a Venus flytrap closing. The trapped subtrate is then delivered to the membrane domains of the transporter, where the electrochemical ion gradient is somehow exploited to open the SBP, extract the substrate and catalyse its movement across the membrane. For the SiaPQM TRAP transporter which has been studied in a fully reconstituted in vitro form, uptake uses a Na+
gradient and not proton gradient to drive uptake. The SiaPQM systems also exhibits unique properties for a secondary transporter in that it cannot catalyse bidirectional transport as the SBP imposes that movement is only in the direction of uptake into the cell.
Substrate binding protein (SBP)
Following the first structure of a TRAP SBP in 2005, there are now over 10 different structures available. They all have very similar overall structures, with two globular domains linked by a hinge. The substrate binding site is formed by both the domains which enclose the substrate. A highly conserved arginine residue in the TRAP SBPs forms a salt bridge with a carboxylate group on the substrate, which is important for substrate recognition.
There are currently no structures for the membrane domains of any TRAP transporter. It is not even known which subunit(s) made a direct interaction with the SBP subunit during the transport cycle.
- Forward J.A.; Behrendt M.C.; Wyborn N.R.; Cross R.; Kelly D.J. (1997). "TRAP transporters: a new family of periplasmic solute transport systems encoded by the dctPQM genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus and by homologs in diverse gram-negative bacteria". J. Bacteriol. 179 (17): 5482â€“5493. PMC 179420. PMID 9287004.
- Rabus R.; Jack D.L.; Kelly D.J.; Saier M.H. Jr. (1999). "TRAP transporters: an ancient family of extracytoplasmic solute-receptor-dependent secondary active transporters". Microbiology. 145 (12): 3431â€“3445. doi:10.1099/00221287-145-12-3431. PMID 10627041.
- Mulligan C.; Kelly D.J.; Thomas G.H. (2007). "Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters: application of a relational database for genome-wide analysis of transporter gene frequency and organization". J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 12 (3â€“4): 218â€“226. doi:10.1159/000099643. PMID 17587870.
- Mulligan C.; Fischer M.; Thomas G. (2010). "Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporters in bacteria and archaea". FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 35 (1): 68â€“86. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2010.00236.x. PMID 20584082.
- Thomas GH, Southworth T, LeÃ³n-Kempis MR, Leech A, Kelly DJ (2006). "Novel ligands for the extracellular solute receptors of two bacterial TRAP transporters". Microbiology. 152 (2): 187â€“198. doi:10.1099/mic.0.28334-0. PMID 16385129.
- Pernil R, Herrero A, Flores E (2010). "A TRAP transporter for pyruvate and other monocarboxylate 2-oxoacids in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120". J. Bacteriol. 192 (22): 6089â€“6092. doi:10.1128/JB.00982-10. PMC 2976462. PMID 20851902.
- Severi E, Randle G, Kivlin P, Whitfield K, Young R, Moxon R, Kelly D, Hood D, Thomas GH (2005). "Sialic acid transport in Haemophilus influenzae is essential for lipopolysaccharide sialylation and serum resistance and is dependent on a novel tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter". Mol. Microbiol. 58 (4): 1173â€“1185. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04901.x. PMID 16262798.
- Mulligan C.; Geertsma E.R.; Severi E.; Kelly D.J.; Poolman B.; Thomas G.H. (2009). "The substrate-binding protein imposes directionality on an electrochemical sodium gradient-driven TRAP transporter". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 106 (6): 1778â€“1783. doi:10.1073/pnas.0809979106. PMC 2644114. PMID 19179287.
- MÃ¼ller A.; Severi E.; Mulligan C.; Watts A.G.; Kelly D.J.; Wilson K.S.; Wilkinson A.J.; Thomas G.H. (2006). "Conservation of structure and mechanism in primary and secondary transporters exemplified by SiaP, a sialic acid binding virulence factor from Haemophilus influenzae" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 281 (31): 22212â€“22222. doi:10.1074/jbc.M603463200. PMID 16702222.
- Johnston J.W.; Coussens N.P.; Allen S.; Houtman J.C.; Turner K.H.; Zaleski A.; Ramaswamy S.; Gibson B.W.; Apicella M.A. (2008). "Characterization of the N-acetyl-5-neuraminic acid-binding site of the extracytoplasmic solute receptor (SiaP) of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae strain 2019". J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2): 855â€“865. doi:10.1074/jbc.M706603200. PMID 17947229.
- Gonin S.; Arnoux P.; Pierru B.; Lavergne J.; Alonso B.; Sabaty M.; Pignol D. (2007). "Crystal structures of an Extracytoplasmic Solute Receptor from a TRAP transporter in its open and closed forms reveal a helix-swapped dimer requiring a cation for alpha-keto acid binding". BMC Struct. Biol. 7: 11. doi:10.1186/1472-6807-7-11. PMC 1839085. PMID 17362499.
- Fischer M, Zhang QY, Hubbard RE, Thomas GH (2010). "Caught in a TRAP: substrate-binding proteins in secondary transport". Trends Microbiol. 18 (10): 471â€“478. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2010.06.009. PMID 20656493.
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Bacterial extracellular solute-binding protein, family 7 Provide feedback
This family of proteins is involved in binding extracellular solutes for transport across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. This family includes P37735 a C4-dicarboxylate-binding protein  and the sialic acid-binding protein SiaP. The structure of the SiaP receptor has revealed an overall topology similar to ATP binding cassette ESR (extracytoplasmic solute receptors) proteins . Upon binding of sialic acid, SiaP undergoes domain closure about a hinge region and kinking of an alpha-helix hinge component .
Shaw JG, Hamblin MJ, Kelly DJ; , Mol Microbiol 1991;5:3055-3062.: Purification, characterization and nucleotide sequence of the periplasmic C4-dicarboxylate-binding protein (DctP) from Rhodobacter capsulatus. PUBMED:1809844 EPMC:1809844
Muller A, Severi E, Mulligan C, Watts AG, Kelly DJ, Wilson KS, Wilkinson AJ, Thomas GH; , J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22212-22222.: Conservation of structure and mechanism in primary and secondary transporters exemplified by SiaP, a sialic acid binding virulence factor from Haemophilus influenzae. PUBMED:16702222 EPMC:16702222
Severi E, Randle G, Kivlin P, Whitfield K, Young R, Moxon R, Kelly D, Hood D, Thomas GH; , Mol Microbiol. 2005;58:1173-1185.: Sialic acid transport in Haemophilus influenzae is essential for lipopolysaccharide sialylation and serum resistance and is dependent on a novel tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter. PUBMED:16262798 EPMC:16262798
Internal database links
|SCOOP:||NMT1 NMT1_2 SBP_bac_3|
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||SBP_bac_3|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR018389
Substrate-binding proteins (SBPs) are extracytoplasmic proteins involved in substrate recognition for several different bacterial transporters. This entry represents the DctP family of the substrate-binding proteins. They are part of the DctP-TRAP (tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic) transporter. Proteins in this family include DctP from R. capsulatus, SiaP from Haemophilus influenzae [PUBMED:20584082], DctB from Bacillus subtilis [PUBMED:10708364] and TeaA from Halomonas elongata [PUBMED:18702523].
The tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporters are substrate-binding protein (SBP)-dependent secondary transporters found in prokaryotes. They consist of a substrate-binding protein (SBP) of the DctP or TAXI families and two integral membrane proteins that form the DctQ and DctM protein families [PUBMED:20584082].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Biological process||transmembrane transport (GO:0055085)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
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Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) consist of two large lobes that close around the bound ligand. This architecture is reiterated in transcriptional regulators, such as the lac repressors. In the process of evolution, genes encoding the PBPs have fused with genes for integral membrane proteins. Thus, diverse mammalian receptors contain extracellular ligand binding domains that are homologous to the PBPs; these include glutamate/glycine-gated ion channels such as the NMDA receptor, G protein-coupled receptors, including metabotropic glutamate, GABA-B, calcium sensing, and pheromone receptors, and atrial natriuretic peptide-guanylate cyclase receptors .
The clan contains the following 27 members:DctP DUF3834 HisG Lig_chan-Glu_bd Lipoprotein_8 Lipoprotein_9 LysR_substrate Mycoplasma_p37 NMT1 NMT1_2 NMT1_3 OpuAC PBP_like PBP_like_2 PDT Phosphonate-bd Porphobil_deam SBP_bac_1 SBP_bac_11 SBP_bac_3 SBP_bac_5 SBP_bac_6 SBP_bac_8 TctC Transferrin VitK2_biosynth YhfZ_C
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_808 (release 7.0)|
|Number in seed:||32|
|Number in full:||19141|
|Average length of the domain:||280.80 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||20 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||82.07 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 47079205 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||14|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
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There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
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Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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There is 1 interaction for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the DctP domain has been found. There are 194 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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