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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Hexokinase". More...
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Hexokinase Edit Wikipedia article
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Gene Ontology||AmiGO / EGO|
|Locus||Chr. 10 q22|
|Locus||Chr. 2 p13|
|hexokinase 3 (white cell)|
|Locus||Chr. 5 q35.2|
crystal structure of human glucokinase
rat brain hexokinase type i complex with glucose and inhibitor glucose-6-phosphate
A hexokinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates hexoses (six-carbon sugars), forming hexose phosphate. In most organisms, glucose is the most important substrate of hexokinases, and glucose-6-phosphate the most important product. Hexokinase can transfer an inorganic phosphate group from ATP to a substrate.
Hexokinases should not be confused with glucokinase, which is a specific isoform of hexokinase. While other hexokinases are capable of phosphorylating several hexoses, glucokinase acts with a 50-fold lower substrate affinity and its only hexose substrate is glucose.
Genes that encode hexokinase have been discovered in every domain of life, and exist among a variety of species that range from bacteria, yeast, and plants to humans and other vertebrates. They are categorized as actin fold proteins, sharing a common ATP binding site core that is surrounded by more variable sequences which determine substrate affinities and other properties.
The intracellular reactions mediated by hexokinases can be typified as:
- Hexose-CH2OH + MgATP2−
3 + MgADP−
Consequences of hexose phosphorylation
Phosphorylation of a hexose such as glucose often limits it to a number of intracellular metabolic processes, such as glycolysis or glycogen synthesis. This is because phosphorylated hexoses are charged, and thus more difficult to transport out of a cell.
In patients with essential fructosuria, metabolism of fructose by hexokinase to fructose-6-phosphate is the primary method of metabolizing dietary fructose; this pathway is not significant in normal individuals.
Size of different isoforms
Most bacterial hexokinases are approximately 50 kD in size. Multicellular organisms such as plants and animals often have more than one hexokinase isoform. Most are about 100 kD in size and consist of two halves (N and C terminal), which share much sequence homology. This suggests an evolutionary origin by duplication and fusion of a 50kD ancestral hexokinase similar to those of bacteria.
Types of mammalian hexokinase
There are four important mammalian hexokinase isozymes (EC 184.108.40.206) that vary in subcellular locations and kinetics with respect to different substrates and conditions, and physiological function. They are designated hexokinases I, II, III, and IV or hexokinases A, B, C, and D.
Hexokinases I, II, and III
Hexokinases I, II, and III are referred to as "low-Km" isozymes because of a high affinity for glucose even at low concentrations (below 1 mM). Hexokinases I and II follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics at physiologic concentrations of substrates. All three are strongly inhibited by their product, glucose-6-phosphate. Molecular weights are around 100 kD. Each consists of two similar 50kD halves, but only in hexokinase II do both halves have functional active sites.
- Hexokinase I/A is found in all mammalian tissues, and is considered a "housekeeping enzyme," unaffected by most physiological, hormonal, and metabolic changes.
- Hexokinase II/B constitutes the principal regulated isoform in many cell types and is increased in many cancers. It is the hexokinase found in muscle and heart. Hexokinase II is also located in the mitochondria so it can have direct access to ATP.
- Hexokinase III/C is substrate-inhibited by glucose at physiologic concentrations. Little is known about the regulatory characteristics of this isoform.
Hexokinase IV ("glucokinase")
Mammalian hexokinase IV, also referred to as glucokinase, differs from other hexokinases in kinetics and functions.
The location of the phosphorylation on a subcellular level occurs when glucokinase translocates between the cytoplasm and nucleus of liver cells. Glucokinase can only phosphorylate glucose if the concentration of this substrate is high enough; its Km for glucose is 100 times higher than that of hexokinases I, II, and III.
Hexokinase IV is monomeric, about 50kD, displays positive cooperativity with glucose, and is not allosterically inhibited by its product, glucose-6-phosphate.
Hexokinase IV is present in the liver, pancreas, hypothalamus, small intestine, and perhaps certain other neuroendocrine cells, and plays an important regulatory role in carbohydrate metabolism. In the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, it serves as a glucose sensor to control insulin release, and similarly controls glucagon release in the alpha cells. In hepatocytes of the liver, glucokinase responds to changes of ambient glucose levels by increasing or reducing glycogen synthesis.
Hexokinase in glycolysis
Glucose is unique in that it can be used to produce ATP by all cells in both the presence and absence of molecular oxygen (O2). The first step in glycolysis is the phosphorylation of glucose by hexokinase.
By catalyzing the phosphorylation of glucose to yield glucose 6-phosphate, hexokinases maintain the downhill concentration gradient that favors the facilitated transport of glucose into cells. This reaction also initiates all physiologically relevant pathways of glucose utilization, including glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. The addition of a charged phosphate group at the 6-position of hexoses also ensures 'trapping' of glucose and 2-deoxyhexose glucose analogs (e.g. 2-deoxyglucose, and 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose) within cells, as charged hexose phosphates cannot easily cross the cell membrane.
Association with mitochondria
Hexokinases I and II can associate physically to the outer surface of the external membrane of mitochondria through specific binding to a porin, or voltage dependent anion channel. This association confers hexokinase direct access to ATP generated by mitochondria, which is one of the two substrates of hexokinase. Mitochondrial hexokinase is highly elevated in rapidly growing malignant tumor cells, with levels up to 200 times higher than normal tissues. Mitochondrially bound hexokinase has been demonstrated to be the driving force for the extremely high glycolytic rates that take place aerobically in tumor cells (the so-called Warburg effect described by Otto Heinrich Warburg in 1930).
The potential transmembrane portions of a protein can be detected by hydropathy analysis. A hydropathy analysis uses an algorithm that quantifies the hydrophobic character at each position along the polypeptide chain. One of the accepted hydropathy scales is that of Kyte and Doolittle which relies on the generation of hydropathy plots. In these plots, the negative numbers represent hydrophilic regions and the positive numbers represent hydrophobic regions on the y-axis. A potential transmembrane domain is about 20 amino acids long on the x-axis.
A hydropathy analysis of hexokinase in yeast has been created by these standards. It appears as if hexokinase possesses a single potential transmembrane domain located around amino acid 400. Therefore, hexokinase is most likely not an integral membrane protein in yeast.
- doi:10.2210/pdb3o08/pdb.; Kuettner EB, Kettner K, Keim A, Svergun DI, Volke D (2010). "Crystal structure of dimeric KlHxk1 in crystal form I".
- Robey, RB; Hay, N (2006). "Mitochondrial hexokinases, novel mediators of the antiapoptotic effects of growth factors and Akt". Oncogene 25 (34): 4683–96. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209595. PMID 16892082.
- Bustamante E, Pedersen P (1977). "High aerobic glycolysis of rat hepatoma cells in culture: role of mitochondrial hexokinase". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74 (9): 3735–9. Bibcode:1977PNAS...74.3735B. doi:10.1073/pnas.74.9.3735. PMC 431708. PMID 198801.
- Bowen, R. A. Molecular Toolkit: Protein Hydrophobicity Plots. Colorado State University, 1998. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/molkit/index.html>
|Glycolysis Metabolic Pathway|
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Hexokinase Provide feedback
Hexokinase ( EC:220.127.116.11) contains two structurally similar domains represented by this family and PF00349. Some members of the family have two copies of each of these domains.
Bennett WS Jr, Steitz TA; , J Mol Biol 1980;140:211-230.: Structure of a complex between yeast hexokinase A and glucose. II. Detailed comparisons of conformation and active site configuration with the native hexokinase B monomer and dimer. PUBMED:7001032 EPMC:7001032
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR022673
Hexokinase is an important enzyme that catalyses the ATP-dependent conversion of aldo- and keto-hexose sugars to the hexose-6-phosphate (H6P). The enzyme can catalyse this reaction on glucose, fructose, sorbitol and glucosamine, and as such is the first step in a number of metabolic pathways [PUBMED:1783373]. The addition of a phosphate group to the sugar acts to trap it in a cell, since the negatively charged phosphate cannot easily traverse the plasma membrane.
The enzyme is widely distributed in eukaryotes. There are three isozymes of hexokinase in yeast (PI, PII and glucokinase): isozymes PI and PII phosphorylate both aldo- and keto-sugars; glucokinase is specific for aldo-hexoses. All three isozymes contain two domains [PUBMED:1783373]. Structural studies of yeast hexokinase reveal a well-defined catalytic pocket that binds ATP and hexose, allowing easy transfer of the phosphate from ATP to the sugar [PUBMED:10749890]. Vertebrates contain four hexokinase isozymes, designated I to IV, where types I to III contain a duplication of the two-domain yeast-type hexokinases. Both the N- and C-terminal halves bind hexose and H6P, though in types I an III only the C-terminal half supports catalysis, while both halves support catalysis in type II. The N-terminal half is the regulatory region. Type IV hexokinase is similar to the yeast enzyme in containing only the two domains, and is sometimes incorrectly referred to as glucokinase.
The different vertebrate isozymes differ in their catalysis, localisation and regulation, thereby contributing to the different patterns of glucose metabolism in different tissues [PUBMED:12756287]. Whereas types I to III can phosphorylate a variety of hexose sugars and are inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), type IV is specific for glucose and shows no G6P inhibition. Type I enzyme may have a catabolic function, producing H6P for energy production in glycolysis; it is bound to the mitochondrial membrane, which enables the coordination of glycolysis with the TCA cycle. Types II and III enzyme may have anabolic functions, providing H6P for glycogen or lipid synthesis. Type IV enzyme is found in the liver and pancreatic beta-cells, where it is controlled by insulin (activation) and glucagon (inhibition). In pancreatic beta-cells, type IV enzyme acts as a glucose sensor to modify insulin secretion. Mutations in type IV hexokinase have been associated with diabetes mellitus.
Hexokinase (EC), a fructose and glucose phosphorylating enzyme, contains two structurally similar domains represented by this family and . Some members of the family have two copies of each of these domains. This entry represents the more C-terminal domain.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||ATP binding (GO:0005524)|
|phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor (GO:0016773)|
|Biological process||carbohydrate metabolic process (GO:0005975)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
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The actin-like ATPase domain forms an alpha/beta canonical fold. The domain can be subdivided into 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B subdomains. Subdomains 1A and 1B share the same RNAseH-like fold (a five-stranded beta-sheet decorated by a number of alpha-helices). Domains 1A and 2A are conserved in all members of this superfamily, whereas domain 1B and 2B have a variable structure and are even missing from some homologues . Within the actin-like ATPase domain the ATP-binding site is highly conserved. The phosphate part of the ATP is bound in a cleft between subdomains 1A and 2A, whereas the adenosine moiety is bound to residues from domains 2A and 2B.
The clan contains the following 31 members:Acetate_kinase Actin Actin_micro BcrAD_BadFG Carbam_trans_N DDR DUF1464 DUF2229 EutA FGGY_C FGGY_N FtsA Fumble GDA1_CD39 Glucokinase Hexokinase_1 Hexokinase_2 HGD-D HSP70 Hydant_A_N Hydantoinase_A MreB_Mbl MutL Pan_kinase Peptidase_M22 PilM_2 Ppx-GppA ROK StbA T2SSL UPF0075
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
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You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Author:||Sonnhammer ELL, Finn RD, Griffiths-Jones SR|
|Number in seed:||464|
|Number in full:||2074|
|Average length of the domain:||228.50 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||33 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||49.85 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 11927849 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||13|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
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Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 3 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Hexokinase_2 domain has been found. There are 104 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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