Summary: Ku70/Ku80 N-terminal alpha/beta domain
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Ku (protein) Edit Wikipedia article
|Locus||Chr. 2 q35|
|Alt. symbols||Ku70, G22P1|
|Locus||Chr. 22 q11-q13|
|Ku70/Ku80 N-terminal alpha/beta domain|
crystal structure of the ku heterodimer
|Ku70/Ku80 beta-barrel domain|
crystal structure of the ku heterodimer bound to dna
|Ku70/Ku80 C-terminal arm|
crystal structure of the ku heterodimer bound to dna
|Ku C terminal domain like|
the 3d solution structure of the c-terminal region of ku86
Ku is a dimeric protein complex that binds to DNA double-strand break ends and is required for the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway of DNA repair. Ku is evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to humans. The ancestral bacterial Ku is a homodimer (two copies of the same protein bound to each other). Eukaryotic Ku is a heterodimer of two polypeptides, Ku70 (XRCC6) and Ku80 (XRCC5), so named because the molecular weight of the human Ku proteins is around 70 kDa and 80 kDa. The two Ku subunits form a basket-shaped structure that threads onto the DNA end. Once bound, Ku can slide down the DNA strand, allowing more Ku molecules to thread onto the end. In higher eukaryotes, Ku forms a complex with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to form the full DNA-dependent protein kinase, DNA-PK. Ku is thought to function as a molecular scaffold to which other proteins involved in NHEJ can bind, orienting the double-strand break for ligation.
The Ku70 and Ku80 proteins consist of three structural domains. The N-terminal domain is an alpha/beta domain. This domain only makes a small contribution to the dimer interface. The domain comprises a six stranded beta sheet of the Rossman fold. The central domain of Ku70 and Ku80 is a DNA-binding beta-barrel domain. Ku makes only a few contacts with the sugar-phosphate backbone, and none with the DNA bases, but it fits sterically to major and minor groove contours forming a ring that encircles duplex DNA, cradling two full turns of the DNA molecule. By forming a bridge between the broken DNA ends, Ku acts to structurally support and align the DNA ends, to protect them from degradation, and to prevent promiscuous binding to unbroken DNA. Ku effectively aligns the DNA, while still allowing access of polymerases, nucleases and ligases to the broken DNA ends to promote end joining. The C-terminal arm is an alpha helical region which embraces the central beta-barrel domain of the opposite subunit. In some cases a fourth domain is present at the C-terminus, which binds to DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit.
Abundance of Ku80 seems to be related to species longevity.
Mutant mice defective in Ku70, or Ku80, or double mutant mice deficient in both Ku70 and Ku80 exhibit early aging. The mean lifespans of the three mutant mouse strains were similar to each other, at about 37 weeks, compared to 108 weeks for the wild-type control. Six specific signs of aging were examined, and the three mutant mice were found to display the same aging signs as the control mice, but at a much earlier age. Cancer incidence was not increased in the mutant mice. These results suggest that Ku function is important for longevity assurance and that the NHEJ pathway of DNA repair (mediated by Ku) has a key role in repairing DNA double-strand breaks that would otherwise cause early aging. (Also see DNA damage theory of aging.)
Ku70 and Ku80 have also been experimentally characterized in plants, where they appear to play a similar role to that in other eukaryotes. In rice, suppression of either protein has been shown to promote homologous recombination (HR) This effect was exploited to improve gene targeting (GT) efficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the study, the frequency of HR-based GT using a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) was increased up to sixteen times in ku70 mutants This result has promising implications for genome editing across eukaryotes as DSB repair mechanisms are highly conserved. A substantial difference is that in plants, Ku is also involved in maintaining an alternate telomere morphology characterized by blunt-ends or short (≤ 3-nt) 3’ overhangs. This function is independent of the role of Ku in DSB repair, as removing the ability of the Ku complex to translocate along DNA has been shown to preserve blunt-ended telomeres while impeding DNA repair.
The name 'Ku' is derived from the surname of the Japanese patient in which it was discovered.
- doi:10.1038/35088000. PMID 11493912.; Walker JR, Corpina RA, Goldberg J (August 2001). "Structure of the Ku heterodimer bound to DNA and its implications for double-strand break repair". Nature. 412 (6847): 607–14.
- Doherty AJ, Jackson SP, Weller GR (July 2001). "Identification of bacterial homologues of the Ku DNA repair proteins". FEBS Lett. 500 (3): 186–8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)02589-3. PMID 11445083.
- Carter T, Vancurová I, Sun I, Lou W, DeLeon S (December 1990). "A DNA-activated protein kinase from HeLa cell nuclei". Mol. Cell. Biol. 10 (12): 6460–71. PMC . PMID 2247066.
- Sugihara T, Wadhwa R, Kaul SC, Mitsui Y (April 1999). "A novel testis-specific metallothionein-like protein, tesmin, is an early marker of male germ cell differentiation". Genomics. 57 (1): 130–6. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5756. PMID 10191092.
- Aravind L, Koonin EV (August 2001). "Prokaryotic homologs of the eukaryotic DNA-end-binding protein Ku, novel domains in the Ku protein and prediction of a prokaryotic double-strand break repair system". Genome Res. 11 (8): 1365–74. doi:10.1101/gr.181001. PMC . PMID 11483577.
- Harris R, Esposito D, Sankar A, Maman JD, Hinks JA, Pearl LH, Driscoll PC (January 2004). "The 3D solution structure of the C-terminal region of Ku86 (Ku86CTR)". J. Mol. Biol. 335 (2): 573–82. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2003.10.047. PMID 14672664.
- Difilippantonio MJ, Zhu J, Chen HT, Meffre E, Nussenzweig MC, Max EE, Ried T, Nussenzweig A (March 2000). "DNA repair protein Ku80 suppresses chromosomal aberrations and malignant transformation". Nature. 404 (6777): 510–4. doi:10.1038/35006670. PMID 10761921.
- Ferguson DO, Sekiguchi JM, Chang S, Frank KM, Gao Y, DePinho RA, Alt FW (June 2000). "The nonhomologous end-joining pathway of DNA repair is required for genomic stability and the suppression of translocations". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (12): 6630–3. doi:10.1073/pnas.110152897. PMC . PMID 10823907.
- Boulton SJ, Jackson SP (March 1998). "Components of the Ku-dependent non-homologous end-joining pathway are involved in telomeric length maintenance and telomeric silencing". EMBO J. 17 (6): 1819–28. doi:10.1093/emboj/17.6.1819. PMC . PMID 9501103.
- Lorenzini A, Johnson FB, Oliver A, Tresini M, Smith JS, Hdeib M, Sell C, Cristofalo VJ, Stamato TD (Nov–Dec 2009). "Significant Correlation of Species Longevity with DNA Double Strand Break-Recognition but not with Telomere Length". Mech Ageing Dev. 130 (11–12): 784–92. doi:10.1016/j.mad.2009.10.004. PMC . PMID 19896964.
- Li H, Vogel H, Holcomb VB, Gu Y, Hasty P (2007). "Deletion of Ku70, Ku80, or both causes early aging without substantially increased cancer". Mol. Cell. Biol. 27 (23): 8205–14. doi:10.1128/MCB.00785-07. PMC . PMID 17875923.
- Bernstein H, Payne CM, Bernstein C, Garewal H, Dvorak K (2008). Cancer and aging as consequences of un-repaired DNA damage. In: New Research on DNA Damages (Editors: Honoka Kimura and Aoi Suzuki) Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, Chapter 1, pp. 1-47. open access, but read only https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=43247 ISBN 978-1604565812
- Nishizawa-Yokoi A, Nonaka S, Saika H, Kwon YI, Osakabe K, Toki S (December 2012). "Suppression of Ku70/80 or Lig4 leads to decreased stable transformation and enhanced homologous recombination in rice". The New Phytologist. 196 (4): 1048–59. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04350.x. PMC . PMID 23050791.
- Qi Y, Zhang Y, Zhang F, Baller JA, Cleland SC, Ryu Y, Starker CG, Voytas DF (March 2013). "Increasing frequencies of site-specific mutagenesis and gene targeting in Arabidopsis by manipulating DNA repair pathways". Genome Research. 23 (3): 547–54. doi:10.1101/gr.145557.112. PMC . PMID 23282329.
- Kazda A, Zellinger B, Rössler M, Derboven E, Kusenda B, Riha K (August 2012). "Chromosome end protection by blunt-ended telomeres". Genes & Development. 26 (15): 1703–13. doi:10.1101/gad.194944.112. PMC . PMID 22810623.
- Valuchova S, Fulnecek J, Prokop Z, Stolt-Bergner P, Janouskova E, Hofr C, Riha K (June 2017). "Protection of Arabidopsis Blunt-Ended Telomeres Is Mediated by a Physical Association with the Ku Heterodimer". The Plant Cell. 29 (6): 1533–1545. doi:10.1105/tpc.17.00064. PMC . PMID 28584163.
- Dynan, W.S. & Yoo, S. (1998) Nucleic Acids Research, 26 (7): 1551-1559. doi: 10.1093/nar/26.7.1551
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Ku70/Ku80 N-terminal alpha/beta domain Provide feedback
The Ku heterodimer (composed of Ku70 P12956 and Ku80 P13010) contributes to genomic integrity through its ability to bind DNA double-strand breaks and facilitate repair by the non-homologous end-joining pathway. This is the amino terminal alpha/beta domain. This domain only makes a small contribution to the dimer interface. The domain comprises a six stranded beta sheet of the Rossman fold .
Aravind L, Koonin EV; , Genome Res 2001;11:1365-1374.: Prokaryotic homologs of the eukaryotic DNA-end-binding protein Ku, novel domains in the Ku protein and prediction of a prokaryotic double-strand break repair system. PUBMED:11483577 EPMC:11483577
Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||VWA VWA_2|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR005161
The Ku heterodimer (composed of Ku70 SWISSPROT and Ku80 SWISSPROT) contributes to genomic integrity through its ability to bind DNA double-strand breaks and facilitate repair by the non-homologous end-joining pathway. This is the N-terminal alpha/beta domain. This domain only makes a small contribution to the dimer interface. The domain comprises a six stranded beta sheet of the Rossman fold [PUBMED:10191092].
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||13|
|Number in full:||1466|
|Average length of the domain:||207.00 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||17 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||30.49 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||14|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
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Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 4 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Ku_N domain has been found. There are 4 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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