Summary: DnaB-like helicase C terminal domain
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DnaB helicase Edit Wikipedia article
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|Replicative DNA helicase|
|DnaB-like helicase N terminal domain|
nmr structure of the n-terminal domain of e. coli Dnab helicase
|DnaB-like helicase C terminal domain|
DnaB helicase is an enzyme in bacteria which opens the replication fork during DNA replication. Although the mechanism by which DnaB both couples ATP hydrolysis to translocation along DNA and denatures the duplex is unknown, a change in the quaternary structure of the protein involving dimerisation of the N-terminal domain has been observed and may occur during the enzymatic cycle. Initially when DnaB binds to dnaA, it is associated with dnaC, a negative regulator. After DnaC dissociates, DnaB binds dnaG.
In eukaryotes, helicase function is provided by the MCM (Minichromosome maintenance) complex.
The DnaB helicase is the product of the dnaB gene. The helicase enzyme that is produced is a hexamer in E. coli, as well as in many other bacteria. The energy for DnaB activity is provided by NTP hydrolysis. Mechanical energy moves the DnaB into the replication fork, physically splitting it in half.
E. coli dnaB
In E. coli, dnaB is a hexameric protein of six 471-residue subunits, which form a ring-shaped structure with threefold symmetry. During DNA replication, the lagging strand of DNA binds in the central channel of dnaB, and the second DNA strand is excluded. The binding of dNTPs causes a conformational change which allows the dnaB to translocate along the DNA, thus mechanically forcing the separation of the DNA strands.
Mechanism of initiation of replication
At least 10 different enzymes or proteins participate in the initiation phase of replication. They open the DNA helix at the origin and establish a prepriming complex for subsequent reactions. The crucial component in the initiation process is the DnaA protein, a member of the AAA+ ATPase protein family (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities). Many AAA+ ATPases, including DnaA, form oligomers and hydrolyze ATP relatively slowly. This ATP hydrolysis acts as a switch mediating interconversion of the protein between two states. In the case of DnaA, the ATP-bound form is active and the ADP-bound form is inactive.
Eight DnaA protein molecules, all in the ATP-bound state, assemble to form a helical complex encompassing the R and I sites in oriC. DnaA has a higher affinity for the R sites than I sites, and binds R sites equally well in its ATP or ADP-bound form. The I sites, which bind only the ATP-bound DnaA, allow discrimination between the active and inactive forms of DnaA. The tight right-handed wrapping of the DNA around this complex introduces an effective positive supercoil. The associated strain in the nearby DNA leads to denaturation in the A:T-rich 'DUE' (DNA Unwinding Element) region. The complex formed at the replication origin also includes several DNA-binding proteins- Hu, IHF and FIS that facilitate DNA bending.
The DnaC protein, another AAA+ ATPase, then loads the DnaB protein onto the separated DNA strands in the denatured region. A hexamer of DnaC, each subunit bound to ATP, forms a tight complex with the hexameric, ring-shaped DnaB helicase. This DnaC-DnaB interaction opens the DnaB ring, the process being aided by a further interaction between DnaB and DnaA. Two of the ring-shaped DnaB hexamers are loaded in the DUE, one onto each DNA strand. The ATP bound to DnaC is hydrolyzed, releasing the DnaC and leaving the DnaB bound to the DNA.
Loading of the DnaB helicase is the key step in replication initiation. As a replicative helicase, DnaB migrates along the single-stranded DNA in the 5'→3' direction, unwinding the DNA as it travels. The DnaB helicases loaded onto the two DNA strands thus travel in opposite directions, creating two potential replication forks. All other proteins at the replication fork are linked directly or indirectly to DnaB.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
DnaB-like helicase C terminal domain Provide feedback
The hexameric helicase DnaB unwinds the DNA duplex at the Escherichia coli chromosome replication fork. Although the mechanism by which DnaB both couples ATP hydrolysis to translocation along DNA and denatures the duplex is unknown, a change in the quaternary structure of the protein involving dimerisation of the N-terminal domain has been observed and may occur during the enzymatic cycle. This C-terminal domain contains an ATP-binding site and is therefore probably the site of ATP hydrolysis.
Internal database links
|SCOOP:||AAA AAA_11 AAA_14 AAA_16 AAA_17 AAA_18 AAA_19 AAA_22 AAA_24 AAA_25 AAA_29 AAA_30 AAA_31 AAA_33 AAA_5 ABC_tran ArsA_ATPase ATPase ATPase_2 CbiA CobU DUF2075 GvpD Intein_splicing IstB_IS21 KdpD LAGLIDADG_3 MEDS Mg_chelatase NACHT NTPase_1 ParA PAXNEB Rad51 RecA ResIII RuvB_N SRP54 T2SSE TIP49 TniB Zeta_toxin|
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||TniB TIP49 ATPase AAA_25|
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR007694
The hexameric helicase DnaB unwinds the DNA duplex at the Escherichia coli chromosome replication fork. Although the mechanism by which DnaB both couples ATP hydrolysis to translocation along DNA and denatures the duplex is unknown, a change in the quaternary structure of the protein involving dimerization of the N-terminal domain has been observed and may occur during the enzymatic cycle. This C-terminal domain contains an ATP-binding site and is therefore probably the site of ATP hydrolysis.
DnaB helicase C-terminal domain. The hexameric helicase DnaB unwinds the DNA duplex at the chromosome replication fork. Although the mechanism by which DnaB both couples ATP hydrolysis to translocation along DNA and denatures the duplex is unknown, a change in the quaternary structure of the protein involving dimerization of the N-terminal domain has been observed and may occur during the enzymatic cycle. This C-terminal domain contains an ATP-binding site and is therefore probably the site of ATP hydrolysis [PUBMED:10049800],[PUBMED:10645945],[PUBMED:1569588].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||ATP binding (GO:0005524)|
|DNA helicase activity (GO:0003678)|
|Biological process||DNA replication (GO:0006260)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
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AAA family proteins often perform chaperone-like functions that assist in the assembly, operation, or disassembly of protein complexes .
The clan contains the following 217 members:6PF2K AAA AAA-ATPase_like AAA_10 AAA_11 AAA_12 AAA_13 AAA_14 AAA_15 AAA_16 AAA_17 AAA_18 AAA_19 AAA_2 AAA_21 AAA_22 AAA_23 AAA_24 AAA_25 AAA_26 AAA_27 AAA_28 AAA_29 AAA_3 AAA_30 AAA_31 AAA_32 AAA_33 AAA_34 AAA_35 AAA_5 AAA_6 AAA_7 AAA_8 AAA_9 AAA_PrkA ABC_ATPase ABC_tran ABC_tran_Xtn Adeno_IVa2 Adenylsucc_synt ADK AFG1_ATPase AIG1 APS_kinase Arf ArgK ArsA_ATPase ATP-synt_ab ATP_bind_1 ATP_bind_2 ATPase ATPase_2 Bac_DnaA BCA_ABC_TP_C Beta-Casp Cas_Csn2 Cas_St_Csn2 CbiA CBP_BcsQ CDC73_C CENP-M CFTR_R CLP1_P CMS1 CoaE CobA_CobO_BtuR CobU cobW CPT CSM2 CTP_synth_N Cytidylate_kin Cytidylate_kin2 DAP3 DEAD DEAD_2 DLIC DNA_pack_C DNA_pack_N DNA_pol3_delta DNA_pol3_delta2 DnaB_C dNK DUF1611 DUF1726 DUF2075 DUF2326 DUF2478 DUF257 DUF2791 DUF2813 DUF3584 DUF463 DUF815 DUF853 DUF87 DUF927 Dynamin_N Dynein_heavy ERCC3_RAD25_C Exonuc_V_gamma FeoB_N Fer4_NifH Flavi_DEAD FTHFS FtsK_SpoIIIE G-alpha Gal-3-0_sulfotr GBP GBP_C GTP_EFTU Gtr1_RagA Guanylate_kin GvpD HDA2-3 Helicase_C Helicase_C_2 Helicase_C_4 Helicase_RecD Herpes_Helicase Herpes_ori_bp Herpes_TK Hydin_ADK IIGP IPPT IPT IstB_IS21 KAP_NTPase KdpD Kinesin KTI12 LAP1C Lon_2 LpxK MCM MEDS Mg_chelatase Microtub_bd MipZ MMR_HSR1 MMR_HSR1_C MobB MukB MutS_V Myosin_head NACHT NB-ARC NOG1 NTPase_1 NTPase_P4 ORC3_N ParA Parvo_NS1 PAXNEB PduV-EutP PhoH PIF1 Podovirus_Gp16 Polyoma_lg_T_C Pox_A32 PPK2 PPV_E1_C PRK PSY3 Rad17 Rad51 Ras RecA ResIII RHD3 RHSP RNA12 RNA_helicase Roc RsgA_GTPase RuvB_N SbcCD_C SecA_DEAD Septin Sigma54_activ_2 Sigma54_activat SKI SMC_N SNF2_N Spore_IV_A SRP54 SRPRB SulA Sulfotransfer_1 Sulfotransfer_2 Sulfotransfer_3 Sulphotransf T2SSE T4SS-DNA_transf Terminase_1 Terminase_3 Terminase_6 Terminase_GpA Thymidylate_kin TIP49 TK TniB Torsin TraG-D_C tRNA_lig_kinase TrwB_AAD_bind TsaE UvrB UvrD-helicase UvrD_C UvrD_C_2 Viral_helicase1 VirC1 VirE Zeta_toxin Zot
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_1000 (release 2.1)|
|Author:||Bateman A, Eberhardt R|
|Number in seed:||551|
|Number in full:||5634|
|Average length of the domain:||252.30 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||41 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||55.01 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null --hand HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||14|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
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There are 4 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the DnaB_C domain has been found. There are 80 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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