Summary: Ubiquitin-like autophagy protein Apg12
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Ubiquitin-like autophagy protein Apg12 Provide feedback
In yeast, 15 Apg proteins coordinate the formation of autophagosomes. Autophagy is a bulk degradation process induced by starvation in eukaryotic cells . The Apg12 system is one of the ubiquitin-like protein conjugation systems conserved in eukaryotes. It was first discovered in yeast during systematic analyses of the apg mutants defective in autophagy. Covalent attachment of Apg12-Apg5 is essential for autophagy [2,3,4].
Suzuki K, Kirisako T, Kamada Y, Mizushima N, Noda T, Ohsumi Y; , EMBO J 2001;20:5971-5981.: The pre-autophagosomal structure organized by concerted functions of APG genes is essential for autophagosome formation. PUBMED:11689437 EPMC:11689437
Kuma A, Mizushima N, Ishihara N, Ohsumi Y; , J Biol Chem 2002;277:18619-18625.: Formation of the approximately 350-kDa Apg12-Apg5.Apg16 multimeric complex, mediated by Apg16 oligomerization, is essential for autophagy in yeast. PUBMED:11897782 EPMC:11897782
Mizushima N, Sugita H, Yoshimori T, Ohsumi Y; , J Biol Chem 1998;273:33889-33892.: A new protein conjugation system in human. The counterpart of the yeast Apg12p conjugation system essential for autophagy. PUBMED:9852036 EPMC:9852036
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR007242Macroautophagy is a bulk degradation process induced by starvation in eukaryotic cells. In yeast, 15 Apg proteins coordinate the formation of autophagosomes. The pre-autophagosomal structure contains at least five Apg proteins: Apg1p, Apg2p, Apg5p, Aut7p/Apg8p and Apg16p. It is found in the vacuole [PUBMED:11689437]. The C-terminal glycine of Apg12p is conjugated to a lysine residue of Apg5p via an isopeptide bond. During autophagy, cytoplasmic components are enclosed in autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes/vacuoles. Auotphagy protein 16 (Apg16) has been shown to be bind to Apg5 and is required for the function of the Apg12p-Apg5p conjugate [PUBMED:10406794]. Autophagy protein 5 (Apg5) is directly required for the import of aminopeptidase I via the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway [PUBMED:10712513]. This entry represents Apg12, which is covalently bound to Apg5 [PUBMED:9852036].
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|Cellular component||cytoplasm (GO:0005737)|
|Biological process||autophagic vacuole assembly (GO:0000045)|
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This family includes proteins that share the ubiquitin fold. It currently unites four SCOP superfamilies.
The clan contains the following 41 members:APG12 Atg8 Blt1 Caps_synth_GfcC CIDE-N Cobl DUF1315 DUF2407 DUF4430 DWNN FERM_N Lambda_tail_I Multi_ubiq NQRA_SLBB PB1 PI3K_rbd Plug Prok_Ub RA Rad60-SLD Rad60-SLD_2 Ras_bdg_2 RBD SLBB Telomere_Sde2 TGS ThiS ThiS-like TmoB TUG-UBL1 Ub-Mut7C Ub-RnfH ubiquitin Ubiquitin_2 Ubiquitin_3 UBX Ufm1 UN_NPL4 Urm1 YchF-GTPase_C YukD
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_9471 (release 7.3);|
|Author:||Wood V, Finn RD, Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||6|
|Number in full:||282|
|Average length of the domain:||83.60 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||40 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||53.46 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||8|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the APG12 domain has been found. There are 2 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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